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中国是玉的国度。如果从兴隆洼文化出土的玉玦算起,中国制玉的历史已经延续了七八千年。从某种意义上说,玉是中国古代文化有别于其他地区古代文化的一个显著特点。世界上有三个地方以玉器的制作闻名,即中国、中美洲和新西兰,但以中国延续时间最长,分布地区最广。夏鼐先生主要根据妇好墓的出土玉器,把商代的玉器分为“礼玉”、武器和工具、装饰品三个类别。所谓“礼玉”,就是指璧、琮、圭、璋、璜和琥六种玉器。其中璜是装饰品,所谓琥,也并非礼仪中使用的瑞玉,而是虎形玉佩,一样是做装饰之用。至于武器,可分为五类,即(一)尖头端刃器,如矛、镞;(二)平头端刃器,如斧、锛、凿、铲;(三)斜直端刃小型器,如刻刀;(四)长条边刃器,如多孔刀类;(五)刀形端刃器,如所谓牙璋。装饰品更多,按照夏先生的观点,可以分为两类,一类是实用品,比如所谓柄形器和扳指;二类是艺术品,或为佩饰,或为陈列品,比如妇好墓出土众多的造型生动的各种动物形雕刻,但也不能排除它们具有辟邪等巫术意义的可能性。
此次在成都金沙遗址博物馆展出的夏商时期玉器,有几个显著的特点,第一,差不多都是历年来科学发掘出土的玉器;第二,除了狭义的中原(陶寺、二里头、花地嘴和妇好墓)地区,还将西北地区(新华和石峁)、黄河下游地区(苏埠屯和前掌大)和长江流域(大洋洲和三星堆)许多遗址的玉器放在了一起;第三,除了玉器,跟玉器密切相关的少数其他物品比如礼用石器、绿松石器、铜器等,也一并加以展示;第四,不同地区的玉器,也无非是上述三种玉器:即“礼玉”、武器和工具、装饰品。把不同地区、不同时代的玉器放在一起展示,可以更清楚地观察自新石器时代晚期以来愈益加速的各地区之间的文化互动关系。这种关系,在夏商时期达到了新的高峰。应该说,各地区玉器在类型、工艺和纹饰上的可比性,就是自新石器时代早期以来各地区持续不断交流互动的结果。中国古代文化的一个显著特点,在此得到充分的体现。
China is a land of jade. If unearthed jade ornaments from the date Xinglong depression culture, the history of Chinese jade has continued for seven or eight years. In a sense, jade is the ancient Chinese culture is different from other parts of the ancient culture of a distinctive feature. There are three places to make the world famous jade, namely China, Central America and New Zealand, but China 's longest, widest geographical distribution. Mr. Xia Nai mainly based unearthed jade tomb of Fu Hao, the Shang Dynasty jade into "Li Yu", weapons and tools, ornaments three categories. The so-called "Li Yu", meaning Choi, Cong, Guyana, Zhang, Huang and Hu six kinds of jade. Juan is where the decorations, the so-called Tiger, is not Ruiyu ritual use, but the tiger-shaped jade, as is done for decorative purposes. As arms, it can be divided into five categories, namely (a) the tip end of the blade, such as spears, arrowheads; (b) the butt end of the blade, such as ax, Ben, chisel, spade; (c) an oblique straight end edge Small as burin; (iv) elongated blade edge, such as a porous knives; (v) the end edge of the blade, such as a so-called dental Zhang. More decorations, according to Xia's point of view, can be divided into two categories, one is the real goods, such as so-called shaped handle and pull means; second category is a work of art, or as accessories, or as displays, such as Fu Hao tomb unearthed a large number of vivid style of a variety of animal-shaped sculptures, but can not rule out the possibility of evil spirits and so they have a sense of magic.
Jade Xia and Shang Dynasties The Jinsha Site Museum in Chengdu on display, there are several notable features, first, over the years, almost all scientific excavations unearthed jade; second, in addition to the Central Plains (Taosi, two inside narrow, flowers to mouth and tomb of Fu Hao) area, also northwest (Xinhua hilly and stone), jade many sites downstream of the Yellow River (Su Tuen port and forefoot large) and the Yangtze River (Oceania and Sanxingdui) put together; third, in addition to jade, jade is closely associated with a few other items such as gift with a stone, turquoise, bronze, etc., also show them together; fourth, jade different regions, are nothing more than the three jade: the "Li Yu", weapons and tools, decorations. The jade different regions, different times on the show together, can more clearly observe the cultural interaction between the regions since the late Neolithic increasingly accelerated. This relationship, in the Xia and Shang Dynasties reached a new peak. It should be said, jade regions comparable in type, process and ornamentation, is the region since the early Neolithic result of the continuing exchange interaction. An ancient Chinese culture distinctive feature, this is fully reflected.
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