Note:- If any FM station not playing, Then problem from particular FM station. Try other FM station..
400+ Punch & Comedy Dialogues, Ringtones from Tamil Movie Stars and Comedians.
1 Govandamani Exclusive Comedy Dialogues
2.SANTHANAM comedy Dialogues
3.DHANUSH's Punch Dialogue
4.Karunas comedy Dialogues
5. Rajini Punch Dialogues
6. Kamal Punch Dialogues
7. Vijay Punch Dialogues
8. Kamal Hassan Punch Dialogues
9. Vivek comedy Dialogues
10. Vadivelu Comedy Dialogues
11. Surya Punch Dialogues
Version 1.5 New Entries
12. T.R (T Rajendar) Punch or Comedy Dialogues
13. M.R Radha Comedy Dialogues
14. Ajith Punch Dialogues
15. Sathyaraj Punch or Lollu Dialogues
16. Sasikumar Punch Dialogues
17. Karthick Punch Dialogues
"S" Enjoy ! All dialogues
Listen and set as Ringtones or Notification over 400+ Superhit Tamil Movie Punch Dialogues and Hilarious Comedy Dialogues by Kollywood stars like Rajini, Kamal, Vijay, Goundamani, Santhanam, Vadivelu, , Vijayakanth, Senthil, Vivek, Surya, Simbu, Vikram, Karunas,Dhanush ,T Rajendar, M.R Radha,Ajith,Sathyaraj, Sasikumar and Karthick all in one place.
Please don't forget to review the app on the Android Market, I'm sure you'll love it !
Listen to latest, hit, tamil songs on your favourite, tamil FM, radio.
110+ Radio stations to switch between and listen live.
♪♬ Included radio stations: ♬♪
✔ A9 Radio
✔ Arangam Radio
✔ Air Tamil Radio
✔ Deepam Radio
✔ Tharanga Radio
✔ and many more ...
(Request new stations, by sending us a e-mail!)
▷▶ Features: ◀◁
✔ [NEW] Now search & add songs to the radio app to listen.
✔ [NEW] Record Live Radios, to listen them even when you are offline.
✔ [NEW] Search from thousands of live radio station available on Internet.
✔ [NEW] Equalizer to control Volume, Bass & Presets.
✔ [NEW] Visualizer.
✔ Music stops on incoming call or incoming message.
✔ Sleep Timer, Pause Button, Mute Button.
✔ Cool & Easy User Interface.
✔ Light weighted, Notifications, Multitasking, Station Details, Exit Button, which shutdown the app.
✔ Send to Back Button, to run radio in background mode.
✔ My List, to manage your favourite radio stations & Add Custom radio stations.
READ_PHONE_STATE: Is only used to stop the play back if you get a call.
WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE: To store the recorded song on the phone disk.
Note: Online Radio uses Internet data for streaming Internet radios, so carrier data charges may apply(for GPRS, 3G). For best results, Connect your device to WiFi networks. This app is ad supported.
Facebook Tamil Photo Comment is a fun application which has more than 500 photo comments of Santhanam, Vadivelu , Goundamani ,General Category and other comedian..
Tips for using the app:
you can clear cache or disc and all file are directly downloaded from web.
you can pause download using menu option.
If you pasted image url in fb comment box .Some time preview is not available at the first time because of fb caching.So plz paste again, It will be ok.
(thankz : Universal Image Loader,Tamil Photo Comment page)
Tamil Movie Songs has a collection of New Tamil Movie Songs and Popular Tamil Movie Songs giving you an ultimate collection of Indian Tamil Songs in your pocket.
Get a rare collection of Kollywood Movie Songs from the Latest Movies Anjaan, Kaaviya Thalaivan, Kochadaiiyaan, Naan Sigappu Manithan, Yaan, Maan Karate and more Upcomings and Popular Movies Vaaranam Aayiram, Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa, Singam, Mankatha, Vishwaroopam and a lot more from the Music Composed by famous Music Directors A.R. Rahman, Shankar Ehsaan Loy, Harris Jayaraj, G.V. Prakash Kumar.
If you would ask question to yourself, From where would i get an Awesome Collection of Tamil Movie Songs?? You have come to the Right Place/ Right App.
Listen and Download the Songs from the Latest and Popular Tamil Movies. Just hit play button to play the song. Also you can share it on various social networks.
Download the FREE Tamil Movie Songs App and get immersed into a heart-warming music experience.
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In case of any issues, reach us on , send feedback: firstname.lastname@example.org
All content available on this application is legitimate and duly licensed by Sony Music Entertainment India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.
Listen to your favorite radio stations and talk shows now from anywhere in the world through your Android device.
With over 35 radio stations streaming from around the world, videos of Tamil YouTube news and entertainment channels, up-to-the minute news from leading newspapers, you have a one-stop entertainment App.
They are written by our best, most serious and experienced astrologers.
You can view your daily "Raasi Palan' upto 30 days without connecting to internet.
You also get a mini Tamil Calendar with
Tamil month and date
Good time of the day
Raavu kaalam and
“Tamil Astrology” gets you well-equipped for the day ahead.
For the Hindu, the underlying emphasis of life is on making spiritual progress, while also pursuing one's family and professional duties and goals. He is conscious that life is a precious, fleeting opportunity to advance, to bring about inner transformation, and he strives to remain ever conscious of this fact. For him work is worship, and his faith relates to every department of life.
'Tamil Devotional Songs Pro' helps Hindus to reach out, download and listen their favourite Tamil devotional songs on their mobiles and helps them in making spiritual advancement. Popular devotional songs of various Hindu Gods are available for easy downloads. Request can be made for other devotional songs and they will be made available for download based on user demand.
'Tamil Devotional Songs Pro' is built by a professional team and offers below PRO features all for FREE.
1. In-built music player. Play music in the background without affecting other tasks
2. Hindu God pictures, wallpapers
3. Popular Tamil Devotional Songs can be downloaded to local music library
4. Song download list will be update frequently to include all Gods, rituals and special days
5. Add songs to playlist, play them in loop, single or shuffled
6. Option to delete songs from local music library
7. Control music player from notifications
8. Songs suggestions based on Tamil/Hindu/National festivals, auspicious days and daily tithis, rituals etc.,
9. Devotional song reminder/notification for the Day
10. Devotional song alarm - coming soon
Songs available for download will include following popular ones:
1. Ganesha :
-- Vinaayagane vinay theerpavanae
-- Ganapathiye Varuvai Arulvaai
-- Mudakaraatha modhagam sadhavimukthi sadhagam
-- Alli tharum pillayaray
-- Ganapathi Stotram
-- Pillyar pillyar perumai
-- Velanukku moothavane
-- Vinyagar saranam
2. Muruga :
-- Kandha Shasti Kavasam
-- Kandha Guru Kavasam
-- Azhagendra sollukku muruga
-- Mannalum tiruchendurel mannaven
-- Neela mayil meethu
-- Oraru mugamum Eraru
-- Malaigalil siranth malai
-- Maruthamalai maamaninye murugayya
-- Andamaaye avaniyayi
-- Sri venkateshwara suprabadham
-- Vishnu Sahasranaamam
-- Thriumalai vasa vengada
-- Ezhumalai melirukkum thirumalai
-- Valampuri sange
-- Hara Hara Sivane
-- Nalam tharum sivapuranam
-- Om Ssivaya nama sivaya
-- Aadhisivan vanthan annamalayay
-- Annamalaye tharuvai avayam
-- Sri Hanuman Chalisa
-- Sri Lalitha Sarasranamam
-- Harivarasanam Viswamoganam
-- Achankovil arase
-- Annathana prabhuve
-- Swami saranam ayyappa saranam
-- Bagavan saranam
-- Pallikattu sabarimalaikku
-- Swamiye saranam ayyappa
-- Om kannimoola ganapathy
8. Shridi Sai Baba
-- Sai Baba Kakaad (morning) Aarti
-- Sai Baba Dhoop (evening) Aarti
-- Sai Baba Shej (night) Aarti
-- Om sai
-- Ulagam neeye
-- Om sri sai nathaya sonnale
-- Lakshmi sarasharanamam
-- Abirami anthathi
-- Thaaye karumari
-- Karpura nayagiye
-- Jaye jaye jaye devi
-- Kanaga thara stotram
+ many more user requested songs.
Promo: Tamil Devotional Songs for download and play with all PRO features for FREE
Meta: tamil, devotional, songs, hindu, download, mp3, music, audio, free, bakthi, paadal, indru, festivals, slogam, bajans, mantras, chants,
Disclaimer: No copyright infringement intended. Music contents belong to the respective Content Providers. Songs are provided for promotional purposes only and retrieved from search engine results. We do not own or host these contents. Please reach us on any objections!
Note: This app is an internet-radio player and not a radio station. This app does not host the streams being played and is not responsible for the content or language used in the streams. Content copyright is owned by the respective radio stations. If you notice any offensive, crude, improper or copyrighted content being played, please raise a DTW request with the app developer to have the offending stream or channel removed.
This is the first android app for large collection of Tamil funny pictures shares. You can reduce your stress using our app and you can share with your friends via Facebook or save images. We will update funny pictures daily. you can share your funny picture via our page or mail and we will add them in fresh category.
You can view pictures in seven categories.
★ Fresh (update daily)
★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
You can easily share on Facebook.
Save and share other Medias.
Downloading picture size is decided by bandwidth and phone memory.
Easy and fast access for large collection of Tamil funny pictures.
Controls download pictures and cache size.
FOR LATEST UPDATES AND PROMOTIONS
Like us on Facebook and share your funny pics- https://www.facebook.com/pages/Tamil-Funny-Pics/241021399420779?ref=hl
Send your funny pics - email@example.com
Don’t forget to share our app on Facebook.
★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
Mr Sergey Tarasevich (UIL)
All Facebook Tamil troll and Tamil funny page admin.
★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
You can play Video Songs films in your Android Mobile..!
It is very User Friendly Application to users.
*You can browse the Video Songs based on,
- New Songs
- Love Songs
- Old Songs
-This Application requires High Speed internet Connection (i.e.., 3G/WI-Fi) connections to Watch Video’s.
- We do not own or manage any of the videos listed and played by this app.
- All videos are publicly available from YouTube and are uploaded by other YouTube users.
- No copyrighted videos were ever uploaded by us and we will never upload such work.
Sooriyan FM Mobile application features:
· Listen to Sooriyan FM Live Stream
· Request Songs
· View Program Line Up
· Facebook Connect
Sooriyan FM is powered by Microimage mStudio Radio Automation platform. Sooriyan FM Mobile will offer richer interactive experience in the next product update when it’s integrated to Microimage’s mStudio Platform.
Sooriyan FM is a member of the Asia Broadcasting Corporation Private Limited which is a Rayynor Silva Holdings company.
Sun TV, Jaya TV, Raj TV, Kalaignar, Adithya, Puthiya Thalaimurai, Sun News, Vendhar, Peppers TV and much more famous tv shows and serials. Search videos even more new HQ programs and new HD shows as your wish!
Video images avoided for bandwidth and time consumption.
Note: If Required please update your default Youtube player application through Google Play Store.
Videos belongs to the respective Content Providers and the trademarks belongs to their respective owners.
It comes with an inbuilt Tamil typing feature so the user can type SMS in tamil and upload to us under your name.
You can receive new SMS/images automatically on daily basis. No need to update the app.
* 40+ Categories (Good Morning, Good Evening, Good Night, Friendship, Tamil, Philosophy, Love, Poem, Confidence, Sad, Social, Family, Jokes, Common, Birthday Wishes, Diwali Wishes, Religion, Christmas, Pongal, New year, Cinema comedy images and more)
* 10000+ messages/Images (growing up daily)
* Inbuilt Tamil typing keyboard with both Online and offline method.
* Login and Register feature
* 100% free application.
* Automatically update the new SMS/images daily
* Add messages/images to favourites list.
* Post messages/images on “Tamil SMS” app along with your name.
* Best user friendly UI
* Single click Forward, Share, Like, Favorite
* Latest, Popular and Favorite SMS quick access menus
Plus, you will learn about great writers like:-
1. Geoffrey Chaucer, 2. Edmund Spencer, 3. Francis Bacon, 4. Christopher Marlowe, 5. William Shakespeare, 6. Ben Johnson, 7. John Milton, 8. John Bunyan, 9. John Dryden, 10. Daniel Defoe, 11. Jonathan Swift, 12. Joseph Addison, 13. Alexander Pope, 14. Samuel Johnson, 15. Thomas Gray, 16. Oliver Goldsmith, 17. Edmund Burke, 18. William Cowper, 19. William Blake, 20. Robert Burns, 21. William Wordsworth, 22. Sir Walter Scott, 23. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 24. Robert Southway, 25. Jane Austen, 26. Charles Lamb, 27. George Gordon, Lord Byron, 28. Percy Bysshe Shelley, 29, John Keats, 30. Alfred Tennyson, 31. William Makepeace Thackeray, 32. Charles Dickens, 33. Robert Browning, 34. John Ruskin, 35. Mathew Arnold, 36. Thomas Hardy, 37, Abraham Stroker, 38. Robert Louis Stevenson, 39. George Bernard Shaw, 40. William Butler Yeats, 41. Rudyard Kipling, 42. H.G. Wells, 43. Walter de la Mare, 44. William Somerset Maugham, 45. John Masefield, 46. James Joyce, 47. Virginia Woolf, 48. T.S. Eliot, 49. Katherine Mansfield, 50. John Boynton Priestley
This app has been developed by iHues Media Ltd in an effort to bring Punjabi content on all mobile devices. We want to bring our language to level of recent changes in technologies. This app will include news in Punjabi from Punjab and other part of the world, news related to Sikhs, Khalsa and Sikhism. Also, we'll be bringing news from Bollywood and Punjabi movie world. We are planing to create more language apps related to Punjabi songs, Punjabi music, and Punjabi Literature. News from Gurdwara and other Gurbani Shabad Kirtan will also be featured in our next apps. Hope, our work will be appreciated by large Punjabi community all over the world. It will also bring young and new generation close to Punjab, Punjabi and Punjabiyat. Sat Sri Akaal.
Tongan is one of the many languages in the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages, along with Hawaiian, Maori, Samoan and Tahitian, for example. Together with Niuean, it forms the Tongic subgroup of Polynesian.
Tongan is unusual among Polynesian languages in that it has a so-called definitive accent. Like all Polynesian languages, Tongan has adapted the phonological system of proto-Polynesian.
Tongan has retained the original proto-Polynesian *h, but has merged it with the original *s as /h/. (The /s/ found in modern Tongan derives from *t before high front vowels). Most Polynesian languages have lost the original proto-Polynesian glottal stop /q/; however, it has been retained in Tongan and a few other languages including Rapa Nui.
In proto-Polynesian, *r and *l were distinct phonemes, but in most Polynesian languages they have merged, represented orthographically as r in most East Polynesian languages, and as l in most West Polynesian languages. However, the distinction can be reconstructed because Tongan kept the *l but lost the *r.
Sardar Ajit Singh Badh
Jasbir Singh Badh
Host of Awaaz-E-Punjab:
Prof. Gurvinder Singh Dhaliwal
Host of Punjabi-E-Zubane:
Surinderjit Singh Bains
News Reporter / Host of Desi Gaane Desi Gallan:
Host of Gurbani Vichar and Dilaan Di Sanjh:
Host of the Deep Kiran Show:
Host of Des Aur Pardes:
Kashmir S. Janda
Co-Host of Political Rung with Mike de Jong:
Host of Lok Sath:
Harjit Singh Gill
Host of Geetan Bhari Peetari:
Host of Sabrang:
Host of Bol Mitti Deya Baveya:
Dr. Raminder Pal S. Kang
Host of Shamadaan:
Dr. Jasbir Singh Romana
Business, Sports and Entertainment Reporter:
Diljeet Singh Brar
Host of Gurbani Vichaar and Sanje Dharkan:
Bhupinder Singh Dhami
Copyright © 2008-2012 AM 1550 Sher-E-Punjab Radio Broadcasting Services Inc. All rights reserved
Persian has ca. 110 million native speakers, holding official status respectively in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. For centuries Persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in Central Asia, South Asia, and Western Asia.
Persian has had a considerable influence (mainly in the lexicon) on neighboring languages, particularly the Turkic languages in Central Asia, Caucasus, and Anatolia, neighboring Iranian languages, as well as Armenian, and Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu. It has exerted less influence on Arabic, while borrowing much vocabulary from it.
In 1999 there were, according to Ethnologue, 358 million people speaking Spanish as a native language and a total of 417 million speakers worldwide. Currently these figures are up to 400 and 500 million people respectively. Mexico contains the largest population of Spanish speakers. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, and is used as an official language by the European Union and Mercosur.
Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of spoken Latin in central-northern Iberia around the ninth century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile (present northern Spain) into central and southern Iberia during the later Middle Ages. Early in its history, the Spanish vocabulary was enriched by its contact with Basque and Arabic, and the language continues to adopt foreign words from a variety of other languages, as well as developing new words. Spanish was taken most notably to the Americas as well as to Africa and Asia-Pacific with the expansion of the Spanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries, where it became the most important language for government and trade.
Due to its increasing presence in the demographics and popular culture of the United States, particularly in the fast-growing states of the Sun Belt, Spanish is the most popular second language learned by native speakers of American English. The increasing political stability and economies of many larger Hispanophone nations, the language's immense geographic extent in Latin America and Europe for tourism, and the growing popularity of warmer, more affordable, and culturally vibrant retirement destinations found in the Hispanic world have contributed significantly to the growth of learning Spanish as a foreign language across the globe.
Spanish is the third most commonly used language on the Internet after English and Mandarin. It is also the second most studied language and second language in international communication, after English, in the world.
The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand, currently uses the term español in its publications but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano.
Two etymologies for español have been suggested. The Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, and that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus, 'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed medieval Latin *hispaniōne, with the same meaning. The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (a language guide published by the Spanish Royal Academy) states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms, español and castellano, are regarded as synonymous and equally valid.
The name castellano is preferred in all of Spanish-speaking South America except Colombia. The term español is more commonly used to refer to the language as a whole when relating to a global context.
In mainland China, it is a lingua franca in Guangdong Province and some neighbouring areas, such as the eastern part of Guangxi Province. Outside mainland China, it is spoken by the majority population of Hong Kong and Macau in everyday life. It is also spoken by overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia (like Singapore and Christmas Island), the United States, Canada, Brazil, Peru, Cuba, Panama, Australia, and New Zealand, as well as parts of Europe, and is the most widely spoken non-Mandarin Sinitic language in the world.
Abrar-ul-Haq, Alam Lohar, Alfaaz, Aman Hayer, Amar Singh Chamkila, Amrinder Gill, Anamika, Anurag Malik, Anurag Malik
Apache Indian, Arif Lohar, Arvind Kumar, Asa Singh Mastana
Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi, Baba Sehgal, Babbu Mann, Bally Sagoo, Bhagwant Maan, Bikram Singh, Binde Shah, Channi Singh
Daler Mehndi, Didar Sandhu, Diljit Dosanjh, Dr Madan Gopal Singh, Foji Gill, Gippy Grewal, Gurdas Maan, Hadiqa Kiyani,
Hans Raj Hans, Harbhajan Maan, Harjit Harman, Harshdeep Kaur
H-Dhami, Honey Singh, Imran Khan, Jagjit Singh, Jasbir Jassi, Jaspal Bhatti, Jaspinder Narula, Jassi Sidhu, Jaswinder Brar, Jawad Ahmad, Jaz Dhami, Jazzy B, Kamal Heer
Kanth Kaler, Kiran Ahluwalia, Kuldeep Manak, Kulwinder Dhillon, Labh Janjua, Lal Chand Yamla Jatt, Lehmber Hussainpuri, Malkit Singh, Mallika Jyoti, Manmohan Waris, Mansoor Ali Malangi, Master Saleem, Mika Singh, Miss Pooja,
Mona Singh, Nachhatar Gill, Nirmal Sidhu, Noor Jehan, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Pammi Bai, Sarbjit Cheema, Sardool Sikander, Satinder Sartaj, Satinder Satti, Sazi Judge, Shamshad Begum, Shazia Manzoor, Shingara Singh, Soni Pabla, Sukhbir, Sukhwinder Singh, Sukshinder Shinda, Surinder Kaur
Surinder Shinda, Surj Sahota Surjit Bindrakhia Yudhvir Manak
The dialect serving as the basis for the main literary and standard language is Shtokavian, which is also the basis of standard Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin. In particular, Serbian is standardized around Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovinian subdialects of Shtokavian. The Torlakian dialect of Serbian is spoken in southeast Serbia, and is not standardized, as it represents transitional form to Macedonian and Bulgarian.
Serbo-Croatian is the only European language with active digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. The Bosnian and Serbian varieties use both alphabets while the Croatian variety uses only the Latin alphabet. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles. The Latin alphabet was designed by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1830.
Serbian Cyrillic: српски , Latin: srpski
The language originated in the Ashkenazi culture that developed from about the 10th century in the Rhineland and then spread to Central and Eastern Europe and eventually to other continents. In the earliest surviving references to it, the language is called לשון־אַשכּנז (loshn-ashknez = "language of Ashkenaz") and טײַטש (taytsh, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for the language otherwise spoken in the region of origin, now called Middle High German). In common usage, the language is called מאַמע־לשון (mame-loshn, literally "mother tongue"), distinguishing it from Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, which are collectively termed לשון־קודש (loshn-koydesh, "holy tongue"). The term "Yiddish" did not become the most frequently used designation in the literature of the language until the 18th century.
For a significant portion of its history, Yiddish was the primary spoken language of the Ashkenazi Jews and once spanned a broad dialect continuum from Western Yiddish to three major groups within Eastern Yiddish, namely Litvish, Poylish and Ukrainish. Eastern and Western Yiddish are most markedly distinguished by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin in the Eastern dialects. While Western Yiddish has few remaining speakers, Eastern dialects remain in wide use.
Yiddish is written and spoken in many Orthodox Jewish communities around the world, although there are also a number of Orthodox Jews who do not know Yiddish. It is a home language in most Hasidic communities, where it is the first language learned in childhood, used in schools and in many social settings. Yiddish is also the academic language of the study of the Talmud according to the tradition of the great Lithuanian Yeshivohs.
Yiddish is also used in the adjectival sense to designate attributes of Ashkenazic Jewish culture (for example, Yiddish cooking and Yiddish music).
The Ashkenazi culture that took root in 10th century Central Europe derived its name from Ashkenaz (Genesis 10:3), the medieval Hebrew name for the territory centred on what is now the westernmost part of Germany. Its geographic extent did not coincide with the German Christian principalities; Ashkenaz included Northern France. It also bordered on the area inhabited by the Sephardim, or Spanish Jews, which ranged into Southern France. Ashkenazi culture later spread into Eastern Europe.
The first language of European Jews may have been Aramaic, the vernacular of the Jews in Roman-era Palestine and ancient and early medieval Mesopotamia. The widespread use of Aramaic among the large non-Jewish Syrian trading population of the Roman provinces, including those in Europe, would have reinforced the use of Aramaic among Jews engaged in trade. In Roman times, many of the Jews living in Rome and Southern Italy appear to have been Greek-speakers, and this is reflected in some Ashkenazi personal names (e.g., Kalonymus). Much work needs to be done, though, to fully analyze the contributions of those languages to Yiddish.
Nothing is known about the vernacular of the earliest Jews in Germany, but several theories have been put forward. It is generally accepted that it was likely to have contained elements from other languages of the Near East and Europe, absorbed through dispersion. Since many settlers came via France and Italy, it is also likely that the Romance-based Jewish languages of those regions were represented. Traces remain in the contemporary Yiddish vocabulary: for example, בענטשן (bentshn, to bless), from the Latin benedicere; לייענען (leyenen, to read), from the Latin legere; and the personal names Anshl, cognate to Angel or Angelo; Bunim (probably from "bon homme").
(ייִדיש yidish or אידיש idish, literally "Jewish")