anytime, anywhere on your android phone. Get the latest news of your city and country, national
news, international news, entertainment news, sports news on your android.
What we offer
News in punjabi
Latest breaking news
City wise News, country news, sports news, entertainment news, political news etc
Video coverage of latest events in punjab and India
Also Explore Music Reviews, Movie Reviews and Celebrity Interviews.
Share and comment on whatever you feel interesting and let your friends know about it on
facebook, twitter, google plus, mail etc
jagbani Website :- http://www.jagbani.com/
-Get breaking news alerts and follow stories as they shape up.
-Sync your brain with all the updates in the Tech/ Gadget world.
-keep yourself entertained with the latest gossip of all the celebrities from Hollywood and Bollywood.
-Browse photo galleries
-Get regular business updates.
- Watch Videos news movie reviews on the Go.
Have questions or feedback about Punjab Kesari App? Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. We value our readers and always prioritize their feedback. Help us improve!
Punjabi Tribune is its National Daily in Punjabi.
Now read Punjabi Tribune e-papers in punjabi (powered by readwhere) on your android mobile & tablet which automatically gets refreshed daily.
Top features include:
* New issues get automatically refreshed when published
* Pinch zoom-in & zoom-out feature
* Page by page navigation
* Automatically saves pages to read offline
AajTak app provides latest Hindi news, breaking news from India and World about current affairs, sports, business entertainment, bollywood, hollywood and much more. Be it video content, photo gallery or Live TV, this application has it all. Download to experience!
Aaj Tak is India's No.1 Hindi news television channel run by TV Today Network, covering India with insight, courage and plenty of local flavour.
For more information visit our website at http://punjabiakhbar.com
AJITJ ALANDHAR TV
AJJ DI AWAZ
DAILY PEHREDAR E PAPER
DAILY PRESS PUBLIC
DAILY PUNJAB TIMES
DAY & NIGNT NEWS
DES PARDES TIMES
DES PARDES WEEKLY
DESH PUNJAB TIMES
'INDO US TRUCKING
INDOCAN ADIAN TIMES
NZ PUNJABI NEWS
PANJAB EXPRESS USA
PUNJAB MAIL ONLINE
PUNJAB MAIL USA
PUNJAB POST DAILY
PUNJAB STAR NEWS
PUNJAB TIMES USA
PUNJABI DAILY ONLINE
PUNJABI NEWS ONLINE
PUNJABI PRESS USA
ROZANA DESH PUNJAB
SHANE PUNJAB USA
SKY HAWK TIMES
THE PUNJABI STAR- VANCOUVER
THE TIMES OF PUNJAB
Punjab Info Line
The Times of Punjab
• User can get LIVE news of the state from various channels.
• News can be read by one touch.
• Live news flash display on main screen.
• User can read both State and National news of India.
• User can add their own choice of newspapers.
• User can save the news highlights in favorites to read offline.
• User has complete control on settings.
• User can share the news on their Facebook timeline or Google plus or in any other social media services.
• No additional permission is required to use this application.
• Easy to TOGGLE between Punjabi News and Punjabi Live news.
• Internet outage icon display.
• And many more other exciting features..
Paper titles are in Punjabi and English language for a complete native newspaper reading experience.
Important Note: This application is compatible only with the devices that supports Punjabi and English font.
This application has Google Analytics, which helps us to improve the application further. By downloading this app, you are agreeing to allow the app to collect usage information.
Your comments, suggestions and concerns are welcome.
Also get 1) INDIA English News : https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.trackthebird.onlineenglishindia
2) INDIA Hindi News : https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.trackthebird.hindinews
Under Categories tab, there are various sub categories like Bank Jobs, Teaching , Railways, Police, Sports, Defence, UPSC, IIT, Public Sector, PSC and Weekly Employment News.
Under Profession tab, the sub headings include Technicians, Supervisor, Scientists, Administration and Management, Nurses, Clerk, Computer Operator, Doctor, Professor, Manager, Research, Data Entry Operator, Finance/Accounts, etc.
Under Qualification tab, the sub headings include Graduates, Post Graduates, Diploma Holders and Technicians/Engineers.
And last is the Location tab which gives user the option of searching for job according to desired location. It covers almost all the major states of India.
The job alerts will be displayed as soon as any new job alerts are available on SarkariNaukriUpdates.com
Why use it:
1. free government job alerts
2. once registered ,no need to enter email-id again
3. easy to use navigation
4. works smoothly on all android devices
5. Fast opening app even with 2G internet connections.
So just go for it. You are just a click away from experiencing a new, easy and improved way of job searching.
This is the BEST APP in the category, Punjabi Newspapers;
Punjabi Newspaper app contains list of Punjabi web sites related to news and also included popular Punjabi newspapers.
Ajit: Ajit (Daily Ajit) is the a Punjabi language daily newspaper, published from Jalandhar, India.The newspaper is run by Sadhu Singh Hamdard trust.
Ajj Di Awaz: This newspaper is published from Jalandhar, India.It covers news and issues from different parts of Indian Punjab,India and world.
Azad Soach: This daily newspaper is published from Patiala, India.It covers news and issues from different regions of Indian Punjab,India.
Charhdikala: This leading online news portal is published from Punjab, India.
Daily Punjab Times: This newspaper is published by PT Live Private Limited under Editorship of s.Baljit Singh Brar from Jalandhar, Punjab.
Deshvideshtimes : This Punjabi newspaper is published in India and Canada.
Indo Times: First Punjabi Newspaper Published from Australia and New Zealand. S. Taswinder Singh is the Editor-in-Chief of this Newspaper.
Jagbani: This Punjabi newspaper is published by Hindsamachar group of Jalandhar India.
Jammu Prbhat: The only Punjabi newspaper in Dogri dailect of Punjabi.This Punjabi newspaper publishes news from various cities of Jammu and Kashmir, India and world.
Janjagriti:This daily Punjabi newspaper is published from Ludhiana India.
Khulisoch:This weekly Punjabi newspaper is published from India.
Nawan Zamana: This newspaper is published from Jalandhar, India.It covers news from different parts of Indian Punjab,India and world.
Punjab Infoline: This news paper is published from Ludhiana, India.
Punjab Post: The weekly Punjabi Newspaper was launched in 2009. It is published from Calgary, distributed all over Alberta, Saskatoon.
Punjabi Jagran: This newspaper is published by Jagran group in India.It covers news from different parts of Indian Punjab,India and world.
Punjabi Tribune: This Punjabi newspaper is published by The tribune group of Chandigarh India.S. Dayal Singh Majithia is founder of this newspaper.
Rozana Spokesman: This newspaper was founded by S. Hukum Singh ex-speaker of Indian parliament in 1951 as a weekly magazine and it was graduated as daily newspaper in 2005.
Shaheed-e-Azam:This newspaper was started on 1983 from Patiala.
If you notice issue with any site link, or would like to add any new sites in Punjabi Newspaper App, please email me.
If it sounds good you should get it! This free app we present here contains almost all the leading e paper in Punjab. If you go through this app you can see that it is simple to access.
Here is the list of newspaper we present before you
Aashiana – A Leading Punjabi newspaper from Patiala, Punjab (India)
Ajit – As the name suggests it is indeed an invincible newspaper in Punjab
Ajj Di Awaz – Another big shot in newspaper business.
Charhdikala – published from Patiala Punjab
Doaba Headlines- One of the leading newspaper from Nakodar, Punjab
Jag Bani – This newspaper that’s published by the legendary Punjab Kesari Group. Has around 3.1 lakh in circulation.
Khulisoch – A bold and informative newspaper
Nawan Zamana – Owned by Arjan Singh Gargaj Foundation. One of the biggest newspaper.
Punjabi Jagran - Punjabi Jagran has publishing centers in Amritsar, Bathinda, Ludhiana, Patiala and Jalandhar
Punjab Times – A limited newspaper mostly circulated in Jalandhar
Punjabi Tribune – Started as a weekly and now is one of the prominent daily in Punjab.
the True Guru, and act accordingly. ( Guru Granth Sahib Ji - 951).
In this app you will find the Sikh Stories related to Sikh Gurus.
If you want to submit Sikh Stories email us at email@example.com
Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa
Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh
★ Must Have App - Live Mint ★
★ World Class app from Indian App Developer - Next Big What ★
★ Winner GSMA Mobile Award for Best Mobile Publishing Product ★
★ Winner mBillionth Award for News & Journalism ★
Join over 50 million people in India who love and use NewsHunt to read News, eBooks and Magazines in 12 languages. NewsHunt brings together largest collection of regional language news & ebooks from the world.
• Read News from National & Regional Newspapers, Websites & other News sources
• Support for 11 Indian languages, even if your phone doesn't support the language & font. Latest news available in Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi, Oriya & Urdu
• Get Local News from over 600 Indian districts & towns, plus Cricket scores, weather, horoscopes, stock updates & classifieds
• Opt in to get Alerts & Notifications of Breaking News even when you’re not using the app
• Set text size and background color to suit your preference
• Home screen widget that shows latest news stories from recently read Newspapers.
• Share News over SMS, Whatsapp, Email, Facebook or any other app you have installed
• Features hundreds of fully licensed partners including The Indian Express, Rajasthan Patrika, Prabhat Khabar, Mathrubhumi, lokmat, Malayala Manorama, Dinakaran, Dinamalar, Eenadu, Sakshi, Ananda Bazaar Patrika, Deccan Herald, Sakaal, Divya Bhaskar, Jagbani, India Today, BBC (Hindi), Siasat & more
BOOK STORE/READER FEATURES
• Browse, download and read the largest collection of regional language eBooks. Read authors including Surendra Mohan Pathak, Chetan Bhagat, Rajesh Kumar, Sudha Murthy, Kannadhasan, and Deepak Chopra as well as international best selling authors.
• Choose from thousands of free ebooks such as The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes to Alice in Wonderland
• Easily shop for ebooks, including new releases in every category including New York Times® best sellers.
• Read mobile optimized magazines & magazine singles(single articles) from leading magazines like Saras Salil, Caravan, Stardust, Champak, Savvy, Grihshobha & Manohar Kahaniyan.
• Pay using your mobile phone in addition to your credit/debit cards - Buy eBook using your mobile operator. Available for Indian customers only.
• Customize Your Reading—Choose your preferred font size, and background color to read your books.
To report any issues with usage or just to share feedback and tell us how we can improve, write to firstname.lastname@example.org
Distributed through local community retail outlets, the Punjab Guardian reaches both homes and businesses maintaining a high readership volume. Our advertisers acknowledge the difference it makes to promote their business in the Punjab Guardian. Frequent and regular advertising will put you in the spotlight over 100,000 readers every week. Contact us today to place your business in the focal point of the community!
Plus, you will learn about great writers like:-
1. Geoffrey Chaucer, 2. Edmund Spencer, 3. Francis Bacon, 4. Christopher Marlowe, 5. William Shakespeare, 6. Ben Johnson, 7. John Milton, 8. John Bunyan, 9. John Dryden, 10. Daniel Defoe, 11. Jonathan Swift, 12. Joseph Addison, 13. Alexander Pope, 14. Samuel Johnson, 15. Thomas Gray, 16. Oliver Goldsmith, 17. Edmund Burke, 18. William Cowper, 19. William Blake, 20. Robert Burns, 21. William Wordsworth, 22. Sir Walter Scott, 23. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 24. Robert Southway, 25. Jane Austen, 26. Charles Lamb, 27. George Gordon, Lord Byron, 28. Percy Bysshe Shelley, 29, John Keats, 30. Alfred Tennyson, 31. William Makepeace Thackeray, 32. Charles Dickens, 33. Robert Browning, 34. John Ruskin, 35. Mathew Arnold, 36. Thomas Hardy, 37, Abraham Stroker, 38. Robert Louis Stevenson, 39. George Bernard Shaw, 40. William Butler Yeats, 41. Rudyard Kipling, 42. H.G. Wells, 43. Walter de la Mare, 44. William Somerset Maugham, 45. John Masefield, 46. James Joyce, 47. Virginia Woolf, 48. T.S. Eliot, 49. Katherine Mansfield, 50. John Boynton Priestley
Persian has ca. 110 million native speakers, holding official status respectively in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. For centuries Persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in Central Asia, South Asia, and Western Asia.
Persian has had a considerable influence (mainly in the lexicon) on neighboring languages, particularly the Turkic languages in Central Asia, Caucasus, and Anatolia, neighboring Iranian languages, as well as Armenian, and Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu. It has exerted less influence on Arabic, while borrowing much vocabulary from it.
In 1999 there were, according to Ethnologue, 358 million people speaking Spanish as a native language and a total of 417 million speakers worldwide. Currently these figures are up to 400 and 500 million people respectively. Mexico contains the largest population of Spanish speakers. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, and is used as an official language by the European Union and Mercosur.
Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of spoken Latin in central-northern Iberia around the ninth century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile (present northern Spain) into central and southern Iberia during the later Middle Ages. Early in its history, the Spanish vocabulary was enriched by its contact with Basque and Arabic, and the language continues to adopt foreign words from a variety of other languages, as well as developing new words. Spanish was taken most notably to the Americas as well as to Africa and Asia-Pacific with the expansion of the Spanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries, where it became the most important language for government and trade.
Due to its increasing presence in the demographics and popular culture of the United States, particularly in the fast-growing states of the Sun Belt, Spanish is the most popular second language learned by native speakers of American English. The increasing political stability and economies of many larger Hispanophone nations, the language's immense geographic extent in Latin America and Europe for tourism, and the growing popularity of warmer, more affordable, and culturally vibrant retirement destinations found in the Hispanic world have contributed significantly to the growth of learning Spanish as a foreign language across the globe.
Spanish is the third most commonly used language on the Internet after English and Mandarin. It is also the second most studied language and second language in international communication, after English, in the world.
The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand, currently uses the term español in its publications but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano.
Two etymologies for español have been suggested. The Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, and that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus, 'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed medieval Latin *hispaniōne, with the same meaning. The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (a language guide published by the Spanish Royal Academy) states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms, español and castellano, are regarded as synonymous and equally valid.
The name castellano is preferred in all of Spanish-speaking South America except Colombia. The term español is more commonly used to refer to the language as a whole when relating to a global context.
Sardar Ajit Singh Badh
Jasbir Singh Badh
Host of Awaaz-E-Punjab:
Prof. Gurvinder Singh Dhaliwal
Host of Punjabi-E-Zubane:
Surinderjit Singh Bains
News Reporter / Host of Desi Gaane Desi Gallan:
Host of Gurbani Vichar and Dilaan Di Sanjh:
Host of the Deep Kiran Show:
Host of Des Aur Pardes:
Kashmir S. Janda
Co-Host of Political Rung with Mike de Jong:
Host of Lok Sath:
Harjit Singh Gill
Host of Geetan Bhari Peetari:
Host of Sabrang:
Host of Bol Mitti Deya Baveya:
Dr. Raminder Pal S. Kang
Host of Shamadaan:
Dr. Jasbir Singh Romana
Business, Sports and Entertainment Reporter:
Diljeet Singh Brar
Host of Gurbani Vichaar and Sanje Dharkan:
Bhupinder Singh Dhami
Copyright © 2008-2012 AM 1550 Sher-E-Punjab Radio Broadcasting Services Inc. All rights reserved
At EkNoor, you can listen to Punjabi Songs, read Religious Books, get to know about the Historical Events of Punjab. There is a section where you can get some information about Sikh Gurus. Apart from all this, we also provide you the links to the websites of the most popular Punjabi Newspapers. The Apna Virsa section takes us back to our culture. We have tried to take you through a journey to the roots of Punjab. Although the Punjabi Culture is beyond our scope, this section gives you an insight into the practices of the old punjab. At EkNoor, you can get good information about Folk Songs of Punjab, Folk Dances of Punjab such as Bhangra or Giddha , Phulkari, Traditional Ornaments, Traditional Toys and Games of Punjab , Traditional Punjabi Musical Instuments , Punjabi Literature, Arts and Crafts, Fairs & Festivals of Punjab.
Although the branches of the EkNoor Tree are in Canada, but its roots are very much in Punjab. The main reason of the existance of EkNoor is to make the Punjabi Community living outside India aware about their background, culture, traditions and beliefs. Dil Apna Punjabi, an online radio, is also an attempt through which people of Canada, especially Toronto, are brought close to their culture. You can also visit our sister site Lokesewa.com. We strongly request all the people to propagate & encourage the use of our sweet Punjabi language at home so that our coming generation knows its roots.
A latest offering from the EkNoor entertainment for the punjabi's all over the world - RADIO EKNOOR, a radio meant for religious audience. Now you can listen to gurbani any time on this dedicated radio channel. It is a small effort from our side to serve the people.
Do you want anything else in this website? Please let us know. Do you have a writer in you? We can help you by giving you a platform to showcase your talent. We would like to have suggestions of our esteemed readers to further expand our EkNoor.
If possible, please help us financially and contribute in our efforts to serve you better.
Abrar-ul-Haq, Alam Lohar, Alfaaz, Aman Hayer, Amar Singh Chamkila, Amrinder Gill, Anamika, Anurag Malik, Anurag Malik
Apache Indian, Arif Lohar, Arvind Kumar, Asa Singh Mastana
Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi, Baba Sehgal, Babbu Mann, Bally Sagoo, Bhagwant Maan, Bikram Singh, Binde Shah, Channi Singh
Daler Mehndi, Didar Sandhu, Diljit Dosanjh, Dr Madan Gopal Singh, Foji Gill, Gippy Grewal, Gurdas Maan, Hadiqa Kiyani,
Hans Raj Hans, Harbhajan Maan, Harjit Harman, Harshdeep Kaur
H-Dhami, Honey Singh, Imran Khan, Jagjit Singh, Jasbir Jassi, Jaspal Bhatti, Jaspinder Narula, Jassi Sidhu, Jaswinder Brar, Jawad Ahmad, Jaz Dhami, Jazzy B, Kamal Heer
Kanth Kaler, Kiran Ahluwalia, Kuldeep Manak, Kulwinder Dhillon, Labh Janjua, Lal Chand Yamla Jatt, Lehmber Hussainpuri, Malkit Singh, Mallika Jyoti, Manmohan Waris, Mansoor Ali Malangi, Master Saleem, Mika Singh, Miss Pooja,
Mona Singh, Nachhatar Gill, Nirmal Sidhu, Noor Jehan, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Pammi Bai, Sarbjit Cheema, Sardool Sikander, Satinder Sartaj, Satinder Satti, Sazi Judge, Shamshad Begum, Shazia Manzoor, Shingara Singh, Soni Pabla, Sukhbir, Sukhwinder Singh, Sukshinder Shinda, Surinder Kaur
Surinder Shinda, Surj Sahota Surjit Bindrakhia Yudhvir Manak
For various reasons, including Territorial legislation establishing English as the official language in schools, the number of native speakers of Hawaiian gradually decreased during the period from the 1830s to the 1950s. Hawaiian was essentially displaced by English on six of the seven inhabited islands. As of 2001, native speakers of Hawaiian amount to under 0.1% of the statewide population. Linguists are worried about the fate of this and other endangered languages.
Since there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing languages from dialects, scholars and other interested parties often disagree about the linguistic, historical and social status of Scots. Although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects do exist, these often render contradictory results. Focused broad Scots is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with Scottish Standard English at the other. Consequently, Scots is often regarded as one of the ancient varieties of English, but with its own distinct dialects. Alternatively, Scots is sometimes treated as a distinct Germanic language, in the way Norwegian is closely linked to, yet distinct from, Danish.
A 2010 Scottish Government study of "public attitudes towards the Scots language" found that 64% of respondents (around 1,000 individuals being a representative sample of Scotland's adult population) "don't really think of Scots as a language", but it also found that "the most frequent speakers are least likely to agree that it is not a language (58%) and those never speaking Scots most likely to do so (72%)". In the 2011 Scottish census, a question on Scots language ability was featured.
Irish was the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought their Gaelic speech with them to other countries, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where it gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe. It began to decline under English and British rule after the seventeenth century. The nineteenth century saw a dramatic decrease in the number of speakers especially after the Great Famine of 1845–1852 (where Ireland lost 20–25% of its population either to emigration or death). Irish-speaking areas were especially hard hit. By the end of British rule, the language was spoken by less than 15% of the national population. Since then, Irish speakers have been in the minority except in areas collectively known as the Gaeltacht. Ongoing efforts have been made to preserve, promote and revive the language, particularly the Gaelic Revival.
Amandeep was voluntarily running first and only weekly Punjabi program in rural region of Coffs Harbour (NSW), famous as Woolgoolga, the village of first Punjabi/Indian settlement in Australia. The program was a huge success in distributing information, entertainment and running community programs.
Since year 2000 Australia is experiencing a huge migration boom from Indian subcontinent especially from Punjab. The streets of big cities like Melbourne and Sydney never seen a big number of Indian youth ever before. For the large population of Indians in foreign land there was a need of community based radio channel. Amandeep tried his best to convert this need into an opportunity to serve the community and mother tongue . He started working on this bigger goal.
There was 3 stage plan to start 24 hour broadcasting in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. There were number of limitations at first stage. The biggest was lack of spectrum availability in major city for specific language broadcasting(and it still is). After lot of research, side band of FM channel was chosen which is more commonly known as 'chip radio' in Canada and subscription model was chosen. Teams were formed which took various responsibilities such as studio building, instrumentation, quality control, advisory, etc. Program structure and content was discussed and planned. The first 24 hour test broadcast covering Sydney was conducted on 3rd July 2006. The official live launch was on 29th September, 2006. Programs improved day by day and more concepts were launched.
Harman Radio was the channel which exclusively targeted Indian audiences for 24 hours a day 7 days a week. Having studio and corporate office in Sydney, studios in Melbourne and Muktsar (Punjab), we broadcasted all across Sydney and Melbourne in Punjabi and Hindi. We also feel proud for being the first ever to live broadcast of Sports, Cultural and Religious activities of Indian origin in Australia. Being pioneers within the industry, we also contributed to the Indian community businesses by promoting their products and services on our Radio.
Day at Harman Radio would start with Gurbani at 4 am with Asa Di Vaar, followed by morning Gurbani, Shabad Kirtan and Katha till 8 am. 8.00 to 9.00am was Bhajan followed by the morning program which includes live news from Australia and India, Traffic, Weather, requests, etc. During day, theme based programs such as "Apni Saanjh" based on northern India's History, Literature and Poetry, "Heer Majajan" based on Punjabi Boliyan, "Matinee Masala" based on Bollywood Commentaries and Stories, etc were very popular.
Time from 3.00 to 5:00pm was set for afternoon programs with different themes everyday. At five, the live news bulletin was much anticipated by the listeners. 5:30 to 7:00pm was the most listened time slot in which we had evening Gurbani program which included Rehras Shabads, Dharmik Geet, Viakhia, Hukamnama Sahib and Religious announcements. Following Live news were evening Programs which included "Mix it Up" for youth, Bollywood mix, Deson Pardes, Patari, etc. Talk back programs such as "Baatan te Bhujartaan", Current affairs during weekdays, Fulwari on Sunday morning, Gupp Shupp, etc. "Khed Tarag" sports program were designed to give voice to community and were very successful.
Repeat programs from weekdays were also played during the weekends.
People joined in for their presentations. Harman radio provide a platform for Local Australian Punjabi youth to show their talent and capability as presenters, newsreader and in technical support. Extensive training was provided by experienced presenters of Harman radio to new presenters willing to contribute for community and our language.
The roots of the language can be traced to Central Asia, with the first known written records dating back nearly 1,300 years. To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman script was replaced with a Latin alphabet. Concurrently, the newly founded Turkish Language Association initiated a drive to reform and standardize the language.
The distinctive characteristics of Turkish are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination. The basic word order of Turkish is subject–object–verb. Turkish has no noun classes or grammatical gender. Turkish has a strong T-V distinction and usage of honorifics. Turkish uses second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, age, courtesy or familiarity toward the addressee. The plural second-person pronoun and verb forms are used referring to a single person out of respect. On occasion, double plural second-person "sizler" may be used to refer to a much-respected person.
Türkçe, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish
Turkish is a member of the Oghuz group of languages, a subgroup of the Turkic languages. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and the other Oghuz languages, including Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz Turkish. The Turkic family comprises some 30 living languages spoken across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia. Some linguists believe the Turkic languages to be a part of a larger Altaic language family. About 40% of all speakers of Turkic languages are native Turkish speakers. The characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family and the Altaic languages.
The earliest known Turkic inscriptions are the two monumental Orkhon inscriptions found in modern Mongolia. Erected in honour of the prince Kul Tigin and his brother Emperor Bilge Khan, and dating back to some time between 732 and 735, they constitute another important early record. After the discovery and excavation of these monuments and associated stone slabs by Russian archaeologists in the wider area surrounding the Orkhon Valley between 1889 and 1893, it became established that the language on the inscriptions was the Old Turkic language written using the Orkhon script, which has also been referred to as "Turkic runes" or "runiform" due to a superficial similarity to the Germanic runic alphabets.
With the Turkic expansion during Early Middle Ages (c. 6th–11th centuries), peoples speaking Turkic languages spread across Central Asia, covering a vast geographical region stretching from Siberia to Europe and the Mediterranean. The Seljuqs of the Oghuz Turks, in particular, brought their language, Oghuz Turkic—the direct ancestor of today's Turkish language—into Anatolia during the 11th century. Also during the 11th century, an early linguist of the Turkic languages, Mahmud al-Kashgari from the Kara-Khanid Khanate, published the first comprehensive Turkic language dictionary and map of the geographical distribution of Turkic speakers in the Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Ottoman Turkish: Divânü Lügati't-Türk).
Tongan is one of the many languages in the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages, along with Hawaiian, Maori, Samoan and Tahitian, for example. Together with Niuean, it forms the Tongic subgroup of Polynesian.
Tongan is unusual among Polynesian languages in that it has a so-called definitive accent. Like all Polynesian languages, Tongan has adapted the phonological system of proto-Polynesian.
Tongan has retained the original proto-Polynesian *h, but has merged it with the original *s as /h/. (The /s/ found in modern Tongan derives from *t before high front vowels). Most Polynesian languages have lost the original proto-Polynesian glottal stop /q/; however, it has been retained in Tongan and a few other languages including Rapa Nui.
In proto-Polynesian, *r and *l were distinct phonemes, but in most Polynesian languages they have merged, represented orthographically as r in most East Polynesian languages, and as l in most West Polynesian languages. However, the distinction can be reconstructed because Tongan kept the *l but lost the *r.
Kiswahili, known in Swahili itself as Kiswahili
Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes once called Portuguese "the sweet language" and Spanish playwright Lope de Vega referred to it as "sweet", while the Brazilian writer Olavo Bilac poetically described it as a última flor do Lácio, inculta e bela (the last flower of Latium, uncultured and beautiful). Portuguese is also termed "the language of Camões", after one of Portugal's greatest literary figures, Luís Vaz de Camões.
In March 2006, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, an interactive museum about the Portuguese language, was founded in São Paulo, Brazil, the city with the greatest number of Portuguese-language speakers in the world.
With a total of 236 million speakers, Portuguese is the 6th most spoken language in the world, the 3rd most spoken language in the western hemisphere, and the most spoken language in the southern hemisphere.
português or língua portuguesa