Om du inte kan slutföra någon nivå kan du hoppa över det och försöka slutföra den senare.
- Förbättra minne och mentala färdigheter.
- Designad för telefoner och tabletter.
- Trevlig användargränssnitt.
- Passform för alla åldrar.
- Mix plattor
- Detta kakel pusselspel innehåller 3x3, 4x4, 5x5, 6x6, 7x7 nivåer med bilder av söta kattungar.
- Lätt att flytta delar av bilden i alla riktningar tills hela bilden är monterad.
Detta program har inte bryter mot upphovsrätten och gör inte anspråk på den.
Om du känner att vi bryter mot din upphovsrätt kontakta oss direkt.
Vi erbjuder dig en ny pedagogiska spel för småbarn med Peppa Pig och roliga djur. Detta spel innehåller mycket Peppa vänner: Zoe Zebra, Pedro Pony, Danny Hund, Candy Katt, Rebecca Kanin och många andra tecken från den berömda tecknade.
Vår lärande spel anpassade för användning på tabletten, mobiltelefon och tv.
Peppa Pig vill spela fotograf, hjälpa henne i det här. Högst upp på skärmen, visar kameran de små roliga djur som behöver hitta och ta ett foto. Uppgiften för barnen att hitta denna lilla roliga djur och ta ett foto (pekskärm), med en sådan enkel uppgift lätt hantera även de minsta småbarn. Färgglada bilder med välkända karaktärer från den tecknade Peppa Pig, rolig musik och bra stämning kommer inte bli uttråkad av dina småbarn. Ditt barn kommer att göra sin egen bild, är han säker på att njuta! Under spelet, småbarn utvecklar en heltäckande lösning av enkla logiska uppdrag positivt påverkar utvecklingen av barnets minne, koncentration och uthållighet.
Ta foto - det är kul!
Detta barn spel är officiellt godkänd av Astley Baker Davies Limited, ägare av immateriella rättigheter Peppa Pig.
- Det här spelet innehåller Multi nivåer:
- 4 * 4
- 5 * 5
- 6 * 6
- 7 * 7
- 8 * 8
- Du kan flytta någon skiva att göra hela bilden.
- Enkel och intuitiv
- Förbättra tänkande förmågor
- Du kan spara bilderna efter montering pusslet i enheten.
- Vi alla kan njuta av det.
bara montera fotot och ha kul.
Educational puzzles for children trained memory, imagination, correct color perception. Small parts of the puzzle promote the development of hand movements, teach the child to build a logical chain. In addition, puzzles for children can help take too active a child for some time.
During the game, talk with your child, discuss his choice of praise for their achievements.
Collect puzzle with a toddler can be as young as 1 year. First, it should be simple puzzles (6 items), better balanced (eg, butterfly). As soon as the baby will cope with this task, ask the puzzle more difficult, for example, of the 12 items.
- 8 levels of complexity
- Kid Mode
- Relaxing music
- A large collection of pictures
- Puzzle from photo
- Puzzle from gallery
Game about cats - a world of mysterious creatures graceful, graciously allowed man to tame itself. Unlike dedicated and constantly kowtowed to the owner of the dog, doomed to leashes and muzzles, cat differ independence and unpredictability of nature. One is forced to have doubts, who also considered the supreme being and the real master - a man or a cat, for good reason it was revered in ancient Egypt.
Nowadays, cats, cats and kittens have become well-known cartoon characters. Cute kittens and cats anthropomorphic flooded social networking, and, of course, could not become parties to a number of fun and exciting games of various genres, among which you will discover certainly one that will have your taste.
* Detta gratis spel Android har översättning på Svenska. *
Bjud in dina vänner på Facebook för att tävla om den bästa tiden och förvandla detta till roliga spel för två spelare!
Lös detta skjutpussel spel så snabbt som möjligt och gör klart alla katteraser i denna katt pussel app till Android. Du kan spela pusselspel med olika typer av katter; som Perser, Bengal eller Siames. Eller så kan du spela spel med raskatter; med Ragdoll, Maine Coon eller Sphynx. Dessa är pussel med katter, pedagogiska och roliga kattbilder som hjälper dig att lära dig olika raser av katter.
Detta är det bästa spel Android gratis där du kan välja olika storlekar på pusselbitar att spela med, mindre bitar kommer att resultera i fler bitar och spel med hög svårighetsgrad. Spela katt pussel med stort antal pusselbitar om du vill utmana din hjärna!
Om du gillar att lösa logiska pussel och kärleks katter och kattungar, dessa är de rätta katt spel för dig! Spela pedagogiska spel för barn till testa dina kunskaper, hitta information om katter eller bara njuta roliga barnspel. Detta är kill- och tjejspel till Android; alla barn kommer att ha roligt när de spelar dessa lärande spel till Android!
De flesta barn lär sig oftast namnet på husdjur i deras direkta omgivning, som katt eller hund, i dessa gratis djurspel för barn kommer du också lära dig namnen på katt raser. Detta skjutpussel spel är ett logikspel; dessa logiskt tänkande pussel är perfekt hjärngympa för barn.
Ladda ner Katt Pussel Spel Gratis Android app, spela bästa barnpussel online idag på din Android mobiltelefon eller surfplatta!
Solve the jewel-block puzzle to get cute cats!
Raise the cats, feed them & pass your leisure time happily!
*** How to play ***
☆ Block Clearance
Arrange three or more same color blocks together to collect them.
If more blocks are put together at once, a special block will appear!
☆ Stage clearance
The condition to clear a stage varies! Look for the time limitation and the number of times you move !
The game stages becomes increasingly difficult.
☆ Get a cute Cat by clearing a stage !
Get a new cat and add to your house after you clear a stage.
☆ Pass time with your cats
You can raise your cats, you can feed them, touch them.
Also you can move your cat to different places.
Just pass your time as you wish with lots of cats!
☆ Events scheduled to be held !
The one after another going to add a new species of cat in the event !
Let's GET the cat which is available only here !
☆ Share with your friends! Facebook support !
It can be seen how far friend has advanced through Facebook.
Let get a nice gift by inviting friends to "CAT LIFE" !
☆ World ranking implementation !
Compete for the number of stars you get on the stage for StarRanking.
Let us compete with people from all over the world!
Katter pussel spel funktioner:
- Enorm samling av katter bilder
- Du kan välja hur många pussel plattor
- Kakel roteras med dubbelklick
- Framsteg sparas, kan du fortsätta att lösa pussel efter lite coffe break
- Efter att du löser eventuella katter pussel du kan ställa in bilden som bakgrundsbild
- Fungerar inte uppkopplad
- Stöder mobiler och surfplattor
- Dela med vänner funktion
- detaljerad statistik
För dem som är intresserade av katter erbjuder vi läsa några intressanta fakta nedan:
Om katter och hundar, det finns många intressanta fakta genom att läsa dem, kommer du att undra vad alla samma extraordinära djur de är. Intressanta fakta om katter kan vara relaterade till de fysiologiska egenskaperna hos rasen, med historien om deras utveckling, med kulturella traditioner vissa nationaliteter.
Bli inte förvånad över att en katt humörsvängningar, liksom du. Det faktum att de är mycket känsliga naturer och kan känna stämningen av ägaren.
Om katten är på händer och fötter ständigt går igenom ...
Du kan le eftersom din katt är bekväm i det här fallet, känner han den högsta graden av lycka, försöker uttrycka sina känslor.
Ständigt kommer med dem fångas död mus ...
Det finns många teorier till varför de gör så. Han vill bara göra dig en present som ett tecken på vänskap. Således vill rädda dig från hunger.
Varför katter whiskers? I denna fråga, forskare svarar helt enkelt: whiskers behöver röra och inte för skönhet. Typiskt är längden på whiskers inte är mer än 7 cm.
En annan legend om katter med avseende på deras utomordentliga livskraft, även om det är möjligt att husdjur kan bli sjuk. I detta fall kan en sjuk katt inte alltid klaga på det, så att ägaren måste-titta på din favorit. Om du ser några avvikelser i beteende, humör, andning, aptit, eller i ett tillstånd av hennes ögon, hår och näsa, bör du omedelbart kontakta din veterinär, snarare än att förlita sig på själv. Förresten, kan bli sjuka och "mänskligt" sjukdom - som magsår, pleurit, diabetes, neuros eller feta. Men det är ett rent "katt" sjukdomar - sjukdomar i ögat, ben och andra organ, och deras förekomst i varje fall inte får missa!
I världen fann högljudda katten. Han blev nyligen populär, och det är inte förvånande: det murchanie kunna kväva ens ljudet av motorn "Boeing-737", eftersom det låter i 92 dB (liknar "Volume" har att gå för landande flygplan)! På djurägarna klagar om det - Adams familj. Namesakes berömda lilla familjefilm hävdar att deras 12-åriga katt - Brittiska brummar så högt att de inte kan höra TV och kan inte prata i telefon. Forskarna har gjort en undersökning och fann: dessa "anklagelser" berättigat, eftersom Smokey spinna nästan fyra gånger högre än liknande ljud som avges.
24 olika bilder av kattungar och katter i 4 olika pussel typer
Om du barnen älskar katter och kattungar i detta är ett spel för dig
Besök http://www.weedoo.se Vi älskar att skapa roliga barn spel
Vi har massor av olika barn spel som: pussel, matchning spel, räkna spel, ABC spel och mer
Om du har några frågor om detta pussel eller någon annan av våra barn spel
låt oss veta!
se mer http://www.weedoo.se
Ha det så kul!
Spot gömmer katterna i alla bilderna innan du kan gå vidare till nästa katt pussel.
Katterna är ganska lätt att hitta på enkla nivåer men i de hårda nivåer, är de flesta katter fint kamouflerade med bakgrunden.
Du kan skicka in din tid till online resultattavlor och tävla mot spelare från hela världen.
Skarpa ögon är nödvändigt att hitta de gulliga katter. Det finns också en nedräkningstimer för ytterligare utmaning.
För att spela, välj bara en nivå, och peka på skärmen där du tror kitty gömmer. Det kommer att jama om den påträffas, annars en 10 sekunders straff utmäts för flera fel klick.
Du kan även nypa varje katt bilder för att zooma in eller ut för att se klarare. Kan du se katten i tid eller viljan kitty slå dig? Ladda den sötaste dolda föremål katt spelet nu!
Sweet Dreams contains 20 beautiful levels, full of dreamy scenes of animated artwork for you to choose from, with the ability to totally customize your jigsaw piece style and number of pieces - you'll never play the same puzzle twice!
Amazing endless customization options:
- Choose between 4, and a whopping 713 pieces
- Pick a cut style from 6 different choices, or have no tabs at all for an extra challenge!
- Take your pick from 9 different edge styles
- Square or curved pieces - it's your choice
- Choose your piece style and number of puzzle pieces
- Puzzles are brought to life by subtle animations
- 20 beautiful scenes
- Pinch to zoom and pan the puzzle area
- Stunning 3D effects
We love to hear from you so please leave a review or contact us if you have ideas or feedback!
This app is certified Actually Free(c) which means you get the full game experience and it has no paid in-app purchases. Learn more at http://actuallyfreegames.com
* 900+ levels.
* TIME TRIAL mode to play with your friends.
* vivid sound effects.
The history of this puzzle is quite interesting and similar puzzles were first printed by Sam Lloyd in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle (1897) and in a 1932 book titled "Puzzles and Curious Problems" by Henry Ernest Dudeney. More recently, this puzzle was popularized by Japanese puzzle game company Nikoli under the name Arukone.
★ Tjugo fantastiska djur bilder delas in i två fria förpackningar - fler landskaps pussel kommer snart!
★ Fem bilder, låsa upp ett nytt pussel bild varje dag.
★ Om du gillar en viss bild, kan du spara den i telefonen galleri.
★ Pussel mått - 9-100 pusselbitar.
★ Välj svårighetsgrad.
★ Upp till 200 olika kombinationer av pussel.
★ Varje pussel spel är annorlunda: diverse lappar formar varje gång.
★ Flytta bitar i grupper!
★ Spara alla pussel pågående - arbete med flera av dem samtidigt.
★ Använd pausknappen om du vill se hela bilden eller spara dina framsteg.
★ Nej in app köp - alla de vackra sticksågar är helt GRATIS!
Djur bilder ingår i denna Gulliga Katter Pussel spel:
* Katt pussel för barn
* Kattunge pussel
* Söt kitty pussel
* Persiska katt bilder
* Siamese kattungebilder
* Brittiska kort hår pott fria pussel
* Bengal kattfria bilder
* Ragdoll kattunge pussel för barn och ytterligare 12 djur sticksågar!
Kolla in alla de coola "djur pussel" som detta gratis djur spel för Android™ erbjuder och hitta de sötaste katt bilder! Försök att lösa alla pussel, kolla olika dimensioner och har mycket roligt att spela Gulliga Katter Pussel spel för barn och vuxna! Dessa sticksågar är fantastiska tid mördare men också stora pedagogiska spel. Detta djur pussel spel är perfekt för barn, eftersom det kommer att hjälpa dem att utveckla sina färdigheter observation och koncentration! Gå med i pusslet världen gratis och tycker om att spela dessa minnes spel med dina barn! Om du söker efter "pussel för vuxna 100 stycken", "barn pusselspel", "pussel för vuxna och barn" och "pedagogiska spel för grundskolan", prova det här roliga gratis spel och lösa några av de bästa kattsticksågar!
★ En utmärkt hjärngympa för barn och vuxna.
★ Förbättra din observation och kognitiva färdigheter.
★ Förbättra din förmåga att koncentrera sig.
Gulliga Katter Pussel är en samling av gratis djurbilder och kattbilder. Om du laddar ner denna fantastiska katt spel, får du några av de bästa verkliga pussel fria och jigty pussel för barn och vuxna! Förtjusande katter och kattungar på skärmen kommer att smälta ditt hjärta varje gång du börjar lösa en av denna söta kitty bilder och foton! Kolla in de bästa katt pussel för barn och vuxna och njuta av den underbara bilder av olika raser av kattungar!
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* Android är ett varumärke som tillhör Google Inc.
Cat Jigsaw Puzzles has many unique game features, game types and modes, as well as a huge selection of jigsaw puzzle themes, all those are designed to provide very enjoyable entertainment for all ages.
***** FEATURES *****
* Eight puzzle games challenge your brain.
* Three game modes suit for all age.
* Build-in beautiful, high-definition jigsaw puzzles.
* Over 150+ free online web albums.
* Turn your own photo to puzzle.
* Search and play any pictures from internet.
* Numerous options to customize the puzzle.
* Support shape distortion.
* More than 200+ shapes.
* Support puzzle rotation.
* Fun drift bottle puzzle.
* Save picture to your device.
* Set picture as wallpaper.
* Masters and Score leader board.
* You can play online or offline.
* You can play on your Android device, phone or tablet!
* Updates and small-sized game.
* All features are free, no purchases required.
***** MORE *****
Yo Jigsaw Puzzle for iPad:
Online web puzzle game for Pc/Mac:
Search "yodesoft" to get more games!
Please feel free to e-mail us with any bug reports, requests, or questions!
Born after an average of 63 days of gestation, puppies emerge in an amnion that is bitten off and eaten by the mother dog. Puppies begin to nurse almost immediately. If the litter exceeds six puppies, particularly if one or more are obvious runts, human intervention in hand-feeding the stronger puppies is necessary to ensure that the runts get proper nourishment and attention from the mother. As they reach one month of age, puppies are gradually weaned and begin to eat solid food. The mother may regurgitate partially digested food for the puppies or might let them eat some of her solid food. The mother dog usually refuses to nurse at this stage, though she might let them occasionally nurse for comfort.
At first, puppies spend the large majority of their time sleeping and the rest feeding. They instinctively pile together into a heap, and become distressed if separated from physical contact with their littermates, by even a short distance.
Puppies are born with a fully functional sense of smell but can't open their eyes. During their first two weeks, a puppy's senses all develop rapidly. During this stage the nose is the primary sense organ used by puppies to find their mother's teats, and to locate their litter-mates, if they become separated by a short distance. Puppies open their eyes about nine to eleven days following birth. At first, their retinas are poorly developed and their vision is poor. Puppies are not able to see as well as adult dogs. In addition, puppies' ears remain sealed until about thirteen to seventeen days after birth, after which they respond more actively to sounds. Between two to four weeks old, puppies usually begin to growl, bite, wag their tails, and bark.
Puppies develop very quickly during their first three months, particularly after their eyes and ears open and they are no longer completely dependent on their mother. Their coordination and strength improve, they spar with their litter-mates, and begin to explore the world outside the nest. They play wrestling, chase, dominance, and tug-of-war games.
Puppies are highly social animals and spend most of their waking hours interacting with either their mother or littermates. It is important that puppies are socialized with humans, particularly between the ages of eight and twelve weeks, so as to encourage healthy interaction and develop the puppy's social skills around people. Puppies ideally should be exposed to as wide a variety of friendly people as possible during this period. Dogs that do not receive adequate socialization during this sensitive period may display fearful behavior around humans or other dogs as adults. In small breeds, puppies are considered puppies up until around 1 year of age as opposed to large breeds that may be regarded as a puppies up until around 2 years old. 
Docking and declawing
The Yamaha corporate logo is composed of three tuning forks placed on top of each other in a triangular pattern.
In 2000, Toyota and Yamaha Corporation made a capital alliance in which Toyota paid Yamaha Corporation ¥10.5 billion for a 5 per cent share in Yamaha Motor Company, while Yamaha and Yamaha Motor each bought 500,000 shares of Toyota stock in return.
Yamaha Motor Company was founded by Torakusu Yamaha (in Japanese 山葉 寅楠 Yamaha Torakusu); 山葉 Yamaha means "mountain leaf".
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with strong, flexible bodies, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small game. They can see in near darkness. Like most mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans.
Despite being solitary hunters, cats are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (meowing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.
Cats have a rapid breeding rate. Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, and the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, with a population of up to 60 million of these animals in the United States alone, requiring population control.
Since cats were cult animals in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there, but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic.
A genetic study in 2007 revealed that domestic cats have descended from African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) c. 8000 BCE, in the Middle East. According to Scientific American cats are the most popular pet in the world, and are now found almost every place where people live.
The Chihuahua’s history is puzzling and there are many theories surrounding the origin of the breed. Both folklore and archeological finds show that the breed originated in Mexico. The most common and most likely theory is that Chihuahuas are descended from the Techichi, a companion dog favored by the Toltec civilization in Mexico. No records of the Techichi are available prior to the 9th century, although dog pots from Colima, Mexico, buried as part of the western Mexico shaft tomb tradition which date back to 300 B.C. are thought to depict Techichis. It is probable that earlier ancestors were present prior to the Mayans as dogs approximating the Chihuahua are found in materials from the Great Pyramid of Cholula, predating 1530 and in the ruins of Chichen Itza on the Yucatán Peninsula. In fact, wheeled dog toys representing both the "deer head" and "apple head" varieties of Chihuahua have been unearthed across Mesoamerica from Mexico to El Salvador. The earliest of these were found at Tres Zapotes in Veracruz, Mexico, which date to 100 A.D.  Dog effigy pots dating to around 1325 A.D. discovered in Georgia and Tennessee also appear to represent the Chihuahua It has been argued that these pots arrived with survivors from the Casas Grandes site in Chihuahua, Mexico, after it was attacked and destroyed around 1340 A.D. Pots unearthed at Casas Grandes include representations of the "deer head" variety of Chihuahua. Colonial records refer to small, nearly hairless dogs at the beginning of the 19th century, one of which claims 16th-century Conquistadores found them plentiful in the region later known as Chihuahua.
A progenitor of the breed was reputedly found in 1850 in old ruins near Casas Grandes in the Mexican state of Chihuahua from which the breed gets its name, although most artifacts relating to its existence are found around Mexico City. A pot featuring the "deer head" variety of Chihuahua has been unearthed at Casas Grandes which dates from 1100–1300 A.D. showing the long history of the breed at this site. The Chihuahua has remained consistently popular as a breed, particularly in America when the breed was first recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1904. Although it was once thought that the present day Chihuahua was much smaller than its ancestors, a change thought to be due to the introduction of miniaturized Chinese dogs, such as the Chinese crested dog, into South America by the Spanish, it is now known that this is not the case. A wheeled dog toy which has been dated to 100 A.D. from Tres Zapotes in Veracruz, Mexico, depicts a dog identical in appearance and size to the modern "apple head" Chihuahua, indirect evidence that the breed was in Mexico over 1400 years before the first Europeans arrived.
Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.
The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv) although it may vary between 0.5% (de-alcoholized) and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% abv and above in recent years.
Beer forms part of the culture of beer-drinking nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games such as bar billiards.
The first Willys MB Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle (SUV) brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second oldest 4-wheel-drive brand. The original Jeep vehicle that first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army and Allies during World War II, as well as the postwar period. Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been created in other nations.
Within the genus Canis, the gray wolf represents a more specialised and progressive form than its smaller cousins (the coyote and golden jackal), as demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to hunting large prey, its more gregarious nature and its highly advanced expressive behavior. It is a social animal, travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair's adult offspring. The gray wolf is typically an apex predator throughout its range, with only humans and tigers posing a serious threat to it. It feeds primarily on large ungulates, though it also eats smaller animals, livestock, carrion, and garbage.
The gray wolf is one of the world's most well researched animals, with probably more books written about it than any other wildlife species. It has a long history of association with humans, having been despised and hunted in most agricultural communities due to its attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected by some Native American tribes. It is the sole ancestor of the dog, which was first domesticated in the Middle East. Although the fear of wolves is prevalent in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked and killed people, mainly children, but this is unusual, as wolves are relatively few, live away from people, and have been taught to fear humans by hunters and shepherds. Hunting and trapping has reduced the species' range to about one third[clarify], though its still relatively widespread range and stable population means that the species is not threatened at a global level, and is therefore classified by the IUCN as Least Concern.
Motorcycles are one of the most affordable forms of motorised transport in many parts of the world and, for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles (including mopeds, motor scooters, motorised bicycles, and other powered two and three-wheelers) in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles per 1000 people. This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people.
Most of the motorcycles, 58%, are in the developing countries of Asia – Southern and Eastern Asia, and the Asia Pacific countries, excluding Japan – while 33% of the cars (195 million) are concentrated in the United States and Japan. In 2006, China had 54 million motorcycles in use and an annual production of 22 million units. As of 2002, India, with an estimated 37 million motorcycles/mopeds, was home to the largest number of motorised two wheelers in the world. China came a close second with 34 million motorcycles/mopeds.
MtDNA evidence shows an evolutionary split between the modern dog's lineage and the modern wolf's lineage around 100,000 years ago but, as of 2013, the oldest fossil specimens genetically linked to the modern dog's lineage date to approximately 33,000-36,000 years ago. Dogs' value to early human hunter-gatherers led to them quickly becoming ubiquitous across world cultures. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and military, companionship, and, more recently, aiding handicapped individuals. This impact on human society has given them the nickname "Man's Best Friend" in the Western world. In some cultures, dogs are also a source of meat. In 2001, there were estimated to be 400 million dogs in the world.
Most breeds of dogs are at most a few hundred years old, having been artificially selected for particular morphologies and behaviors by people for specific functional roles. Through this selective breeding, the dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds, and shows more behavioral and morphological variation than any other land mammal. For example, height measured to the withers ranges from 15.2 centimetres (6.0 in) in the Chihuahua to about 76 cm (30 in) in the Irish Wolfhound; color varies from white through grays (usually called "blue") to black, and browns from light (tan) to dark ("red" or "chocolate") in a wide variation of patterns; coats can be short or long, coarse-haired to wool-like, straight, curly, or smooth. It is common for most breeds to shed this coat.
The placid and unpretentious nature of the Persian confers a propensity for apartment living. It has been the most popular breed in the United States for many years but its popularity has seen a decline in Britain and France.
Special forces have played an important role throughout the history of warfare whenever the aim has been to achieve disruption by "hit and run" and sabotage, rather than more traditional conventional army combat. Other significant roles lay in reconnaissance, providing essential intelligence from close to or among the enemy, and increasingly in combating irregular forces, their infrastructure and activities.
Chinese strategist Jiang Ziya, in his Six Secret Teachings, describes recruiting talented and highly-motivated men for serving in specialized elite units with such functions as commanding heights and making rapid long-distance advances. Hamilcar Barca in Sicily (249 BC) had specialized troops trained to launch several offensives per day. In the late Roman or early Byzantine period, Roman fleets used small, fast camouflaged ships crewed by selected men for scouting and commando missions. Similarly, Muslim forces also had several naval special operations units, including one which used camouflaged ships to gather intelligence and launch raids, and another which consisted of soldiers who could pass for Crusaders who would use ruses to board enemy ships and then capture and destroy them. In Japan, Ninjas were used for reconnaissance, espionage and as frontline assault troops, bodyguards or fortress guards, or otherwise fought alongside more conventional soldiers. During the Napoleonic wars, rifle and sapper units were formed who held more specialised roles in reconnaissance and skirmishing and were not committed to the formal battle lines.
The British Indian Army deployed two special forces during their border wars the Corps of Guides formed in 1846 and the Gurka Scouts (a force that was formed in the 1890s and was first used as a detached unit during the 1897–1898 Tirah Campaign). For the British Army, it was during the Second Boer War (1899–1902) that the need for more specialised units became most apparent. Scouting units such as the Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment made up of exceptional woodsmen outfitted in ghillie suits and well practised in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, and military tactics filled this role. This unit was formed in 1900 by Lord Lovat and early on reported to an American, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts. After the war, Lovat's Scouts went on to formally become the British Army's first sniper unit. Additionally, the Bushveldt Carbineers, formed in 1901, can be seen as an early unconventional warfare unit.
During World War I the Anzac and Canadian divisions deployed amongst British forces in France quickly came to be regarded as the best shock troops in the Allied ranks due to their ferocity in battle and their unconventional warfare techniques, and were employed accordingly. The successes during trench raids, and kill or capture missions can be seen as early forerunners of special operations.
Modern cake, especially layer cakes, normally contain a combination of flour, sugar, eggs, and butter or oil, with some varieties also requiring liquid (typically milk or water) and leavening agents (such as yeast or baking powder). Flavorful ingredients like fruit purées, nuts, dried or candied fruit, or extracts are often added, and numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients are possible. Cakes are often filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders or candied fruit.
Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions, particularly weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays. There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some rich and elaborate, and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure; while at one time considerable labor went into cake making (particularly the whisking of egg foams), baking equipment and directions have been simplified so that even the most amateur cook may bake a cake.
A European innovation, castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes. These nobles built castles to control the area immediately surrounding them, and were both offensive and defensive structures; they provided a base from which raids could be launched as well as protection from enemies. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as centres of administration and symbols of power. Urban castles were used to control the local populace and important travel routes, and rural castles were often situated near features that were integral to life in the community, such as mills and fertile land.
Many castles were originally built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, and lacked features such as towers and arrowslits and relied on a central keep. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged. This led to the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis on flanking fire. Many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time to maximise the castle's firepower. These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, and inspiration from earlier defences such as Roman forts. Not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, and devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to impress and dominate their landscape.
Although gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the 14th century, it did not significantly affect castle building until the 15th century, when artillery became powerful enough to break through stone walls. While castles continued to be built well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live. As a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, and country houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century onwards, there was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of mock castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture, but they had no military purpose.
The style of racing, the distances and the type of events vary significantly by the country in which the race is occurring, and many countries offer different types of horse races. There are three major types of racing: flat racing, steeplechasing (racing over jumps), and harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. A major part of horse racing's economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a world-wide market worth around US$115 billion.
Various types of racing have given rise to horse breeds that excel in the specific disciplines of each sport. Breeds that may be used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian, Paint, and Appaloosa. Steeplechasing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. Harness racing is dominated by Standardbred horses in Australia, New Zealand and North America, but several other breeds, such as the Russian Trotter and Finnhorse, are seen in Europe.