Organic elements,reaction and mechanism list and search function.
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes ,Aromatic compounds, Halogen derivatives, Alcohols, Phenols, Thiols, Ethers, Epoxides, Amines, Aldehydes and ketones, Carboxylic acids
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* 106 elements catagorized according to the following characteristics:
- solid / liquid / gas
- synthetically created
- non metals / alkali metals / alkali earth metals / transition metals / metalloids / halogens / noble gases / rear earth metals.
* tap each of the elements to view 22 of its basic properites:
- atomic number
- mass number
- atomic mass
- oxidation states
- electron configuration
- melting point
- boilong opint
- deltaH vaporization
- delta H fusion
- specific heat
- atomic volume
- atomic radius
- covalent radius
- thermal conductivity
- electrical conductivity
- ionization potential
- oxide type
* zoomable screen.
* no permissions required.
* great for students.
The first ("direct") geodetic problem is defined in the following manner: given a point (in terms of latitude and longitude) and a direction ("azimuth") and distance from that point to a second point, determine the location (in terms of latitude and longitude) of the second point.
The second ("inverse") problem is defined in the following manner: given two points (in terms of latitude and longitude), determine the direction ("azimuth") and length of a line (in our case, both a geodesic curve (a great circle) and a rhumb line) that connects them.
*To solve the first ("direct") geodetic problem, simply enter the origin point, fill direction and azimuth fields and press the Calculate button.
*To solve the second ("inverse") geodetic problem, simply enter the origin and destination points and press the Calculate button.
*In order to change the units in which the input or output fields are given, simply choose a different measurment unit and press the Calculate button.
*Geoid Altitude output field rtepresents the height of the local geoid (EGM96 = Earth Gravity Model 1996) above mean sea level at the origin and destination.
*Forward output field represents the azimuth from origin point to destination point.
*Backward output field represents the azimuth from destination point to origin point.
*Direct output field represents the length of a straight line ("geodesic curve" / "great circle") connecting the origin and destination point, along the reference ellipsoid.
*Rhumb output field represents the length of a rhumb line connecting the origin point to the destination point, along the "meridional earth spheroid model" (radius of 6367.445[km]).
*Latitude and Longitude output fields represent the location of the point located at a given azimuth and distance from the origin point (they are given in degrees with a decimal notation).
*Origin and Destination points location can be entered in two different notations:
> degrees decimal notation: choosing "decimal" would require the location input field to be entered in degrees in decimal notation, eg.: 32.156845 or -4.563542.
> degrees/minutes/seconds notation: choosing "d/m/s" would require the location input field to be entered in degrees/minutes/seconds notation, eg.: 32 50 6 or -14 29 50. notice that a space should be enter between the degrees, minutes and seconds.
*Longitude is given in the boundary of [-180.0, 180.0] degrees. Negative longitude represents the western hemisphere and positive longitude represents the eastern hemisphere.
*Latitude is given in the boundary of [-90.0, 90.0] degrees. Negative latitude represents the southern hemisphere and positive latitude represents the northern hemisphere.
*If the origin and destination points are the same, than the distance between them would be zero, and the azimuth between them would be NaN ("not a number").
*If the distance entered by the user is such that the reference ellipsoid would be encircled, than the calculator would take it into consideration.
*Output fields are labeled using indent font, to seperate them from input fiields.
*Geoid altitude is calculated using a bilinear interpolation performed upon a 0.25 degrees grid of point value in a "tide-free" system. The Geoid is given relative ot the WGS84 ellipsoid. Maximum error in Geoid altitude is one meter.
*Rhumb line distance is calculated using earth spheroid radius of 6367435[km]. Deviation from other calculators might originate from the usage of a different earth radius.
The only atmospheric calculator that allows the complete and
exact calculation of each of the "1976 standard atmosphere"
28 parameters as a function of each of the other parameters!
Tired of calculating pressure or gravitational acceleration solely out of altitude?
well, now you can enter the desired pressure or gravitational acceleration and get the the atmospheric parameters which correspond to the lowest geopotential altitude. This is done for the entire 7 layers of the atmosphere (altitudes up to 84km / 280kft)
The atmospheric calculator parameters include:
- geometric altitude
- geopotential altitude
- lapse rate
- temperature ratio
- molecular temperature
- kinetic temperature
- mean molecular weight ratio
- mean molecular weight
- pressure ratio
- density ratio
- gravitational acceleration ratio
- gravitational acceleration
- dynamic viscosity ratio
- dynamic viscosity
- kinematic viscosity ratio
- kinematic viscosity
- speed of sound ratio
- speed of sound
- pressure scale height
- number density
- mean air-particle speed
- mean collision frequency
- mean free path
- thermal conductivity ratio
- thermal conductivity coefficient
- mole volume
Each of these parameters is given in metric and english units.
* Extrapolation is allowed(!) and performed for geometric altitudes from zero down to -5km.
* results for geometric altitudes between 80km and 86km are corrected for mean molecular weight ration which is not 1. Note that many 1976 standard atmosphere tables are not corrected according to the mean molecular weight ratio, but they do mention that this correction should be done.
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