The origins of the archaeological museum in Poznan dates back to the nineteenth century. 23 September 1857 r. Department of Historical and Moral Poznan Society of Friends of Sciences passed a resolution to create a Museum of Polish and Slavic, which in 1882 changed its name to the Museum. Mielżyńskich. At the end of the nineteenth century this institution had the greatest archaeological collections among scientific institutions operating in the then Prussian state. In 1923. Archaeological museum collections combined with b. Provincial Museum in Poznań (since 1903. Kaiser-Friedrich Museum). It started a separate department Prehistoric created in 1919. Museum of Wielkopolska. In 1945 the independent Prehistoric Museum was established, renamed in 1949. At the Archaeological Museum. In 1967 the Museum received a new seat in the Górka Palace, reconstructed after the war. In 2007, the facility celebrated the 150th anniversary of its activity.
The two characters had a strong impact on the institution. The first was Professor. Joseph Kostrzewski, a longtime director, one of the initiators of the establishment of the University of Poznan, the discoverer of Biskupin and teacher of many respected archaeologists. The second was a professor. Lech Krzyżaniak, which made the museum a major world center for research afrykanistycznych.