The animated videos helps in understanding and retaining the information better. This is an authentic and useful tool for the Doctor to explain to Patients, to patients to understand their condition and there by management of the disease and also to the care givers.
The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) series from Focus Medica are extremely useful reference sources designed to enhance the understanding and dispel misconceptions regarding common diseases and disorders. Each FAQ provides answers to the common questions that occur in the mind regarding the causes, treatment, and management of a health condition. Every title is accompanied by captivating and realistic animation videos providing an insight into mechanisms of action in the micro world of the human body and a collection of relevant images.
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A-a Gradient EquationA - a gradient = PAO2 - PaO2 Where:
PAO2 = alveolar PO2 (calculated from the alveolar gas equation)
PaO2 = arterial PO2 (measured in arterial blood)
The Alveolar Gas EquationPAO2 = PIO2 - PACO2/R
Where: PIO2 = FIO2 x (760 mmHg - 47mmHg) = inspired O2
- FIO2 = 21% at sea level atmospheric pressure = 0.21
- 760 mmHg = atmospheric pressure at sea level
- 47 mmHg = H2O pressure
PACO2 = arterial PCO2 measured in plasma
R = respiratory exchange ratio or respiratory quotient = 0.8 under normal conditions
Values and MeaningThe normal A-a gradient is < 10 mmHg, but can range from 5-20 mmHg in a normal individual. An increased A-a gradient suggests a diffusion defect, V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) defect, or right-to-left shunt.
Sodium is the major positively charged ion (cation) in the fluid outside of cells of the body. The chemical notation for sodium is Na. When combined with chloride (Cl), the resulting substance is table salt (NaCl).
The normal blood sodium level is 135 - 145 milliEquivalents/liter (mEq/L), or in international units, 135 - 145 millimoles/liter (mmol/L). Results may vary slightly among different laboratories.
[Na] - ([Cl] + [HCO3]) = [other anions] - [other cations] = "Anion Gap"
A serum osmolality test measures the amount of chemicals dissolved in the liquid part (serum) of the blood. Serum osmolality can be calculated by measuring the amounts of sodium, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the blood.