The Quran (English pronunciation: /kɔrˈɑːn/[n 1] kor-ahn; Arabic: القرآن al-qurʾān, IPA: [qurˈʔaːn],[n 2] literally meaning "the recitation"), also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Al-Coran, Coran, Kuran, and Al-Qur'an, is the central religious text of Islam, the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله, Allah). It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language.
The Quran is composed of verses (Ayat) that make up 114 chapters (suras) of unequal length which are classified either as Meccan (المكية) or Medinan (المدينية) depending upon the place and time of their revelation. Muslims believe the Quran to be verbally revealed through angel Jibrīl (Gabriel) from God to Muhammad gradually over a period of approximately 23 years beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632 CE, the year of his death.
Shortly after Muhammad's death the Quran was compiled into a single book by order of the first Caliph Abu Bakr and at the suggestion of his future successor Umar. Hafsa, Muhammad's widow and Caliph Umar's daughter, was entrusted with that Quranic text after the second Caliph Umar died. When the third Caliph Uthman began noticing slight differences in pronunciation of the Qur'anic Arabic by those whose dialect was not that of the Quraish, he sought Hafsa's permission to use her text and commissioned a committee to produce a standard copy of the text of Qur'an to which added diacritical marks ensured correct pronunciation, and to be set as the standard dialect, the Quraish dialect, now known as Fus'ha (Modern Standard Arabic).
Five of these original Qur'ans (Mus'haf) were sent to the major Muslim cities of the era, with Uthman keeping one for his own use in Medina. Any variations to standardized text were invalidated and ordered to be destroyed, all other versions of the Qur'an copied by scribes subsequently were from this codex. This process of formalization is known as the "Uthmanic recension". The present form of the Quran text is accepted by most scholars as the original version compiled by Abu Bakr.
Muslims regard the Quran as the main miracle of Muhammad, the proof of his prophethood and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam, regarded in Islam as the first prophet, and continued with the Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham), the Tawrat (Torah or Pentateuch) of Moses, the Zabur (Tehillim or Book of Psalms) of David, and the Injil (Gospel) of Jesus.
The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in Jewish and Christian scriptures, summarizing some, dwelling at length on others and in some cases presenting alternative accounts and interpretations of events.
The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance, sometimes offering detailed accounts of specific historical events, and often emphasizing the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence.
The Internal Contamination Clinical Reference app is a reference tool to be used for educational and informational purposes only. The app provides information about internal contamination with a number of radionuclides and their medical countermeasure. The app estimates reference concentrations of radionuclides in urine using standard biokinetics models and assuming intakes equal to one Clinical Decision Guide (CDG) for each radionuclide based on hypothetical patient scenarios. The intended audience for the app is clinicians, health physicists, radiation safety officers, medical and public health laboratory scientists, or any other professional interested in internal contamination with radioactive materials and their medical therapy. Some basic understanding of concepts behind internal contamination and internal dosimetry are required to fully benefit from this application. The Internal Contamination Clinical Reference app features:
Reference information on a particular radionuclide or a medical countermeasure
Users can perform assessments based on hypothetical patient scenarios with each assessment projecting a reference concentration of radionuclides in urine based on user input
The assessment can be saved, edited and shared
For more information, please visit http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/ or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
This app was developed and produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) http://www.orau.gov/orise.htm through an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ORISE is managed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities under DOE contract number DE-AC05-06OR23100.