This guide presents the proper procedures for the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and installation of concrete poles. It outlines the information that a line designer should provide to the engineer who is designing the pole structure. It also suggests a suitable quality assurance program to ensure receipt of adequately designed and manufactured product. The guide addresses concrete poles that are spun or statically cast and that are prestressed, partially prestressed, or conventionally reinforced. This performance-oriented guide presents theories and methods that are generally recognized as good practice, but also allows for innovative and unique circumstances to be fully acceptable upon presentation of sufficient test data to demonstrate that proper performance can be achieved.
Design and Construction of Urban Stormwater Management Systems presents a comprehensive examination of the issues involved in engineering urban stormwater systems. This Manual?which updates relevant portions of Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers, MOP 37?reflects the many changes taking place in the field, such as the use of microcomputers and the need to control the quality of runoff as well as the quantity. Chapters are prepared by authors with experience and expertise in the particular subject area. The Manual aids the practicing engineer by presenting a brief summary of currently accepted procedures relating to the following areas:financial services; regulations;Ø surveys and investigations;Ø design concepts and master planning;Ø hydrology and water quality;Ø storm drainage hydraulics; andØ computer modeling.
This report investigates whether standards or guides are useful to hydraulic engineers and whether additional standards or guides should be prepared. The results of a questionnaire indicate that most hydraulic engineers are not familiar with the procedures used to develop standards or with existing national or international standards. However, responses to the questionnaire show that hydraulic engineers welcome guides or standards as long as some flexibility to use engineering judgment for site specific conditions is allowed.
The report recommends that guidelines or consensus standards be developed in the following areas:application of one-dimensional surface water computer programs of the HEC-2 type; prediction of scour at bridge piers; design of pump intakes and sumps; and calculations of friction and form losses in closed conduits.
Annotated lists of standards and guidelines produced in the United States and abroad are included.
The purpose of this guide is to provide examples related to the use of the
Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures (often referred to as ASCE 7). The guide is also pertinent to users
of the 2012 International Building Code (ICC, 2011 ) because the IBC refers
directly to ASCE 7.
Sections of ASCE 7 Pertinent to the Guide
Seismic Loads: Guide to the Seismic Load Provisions of ASCE 7-10 (the
Guide ) has examples pertinent to the following chapters of ASCE 7:
Chapter 1: General
Chapter 2: Combinations of Loads
Chapter 11: Seismic Design Criteria
Chapter 12: Seismic Design Requirements for Building Structures
Chapter 16: Seismic Response History Procedures
Chapter 20: Site Classifi cation Procedure for Seismic Design
Chapter 22: Seismic Ground Motion and Long Period Maps
Seismic material excluded from the Guide are Chapter 13 (Nonstructural
Components), Chapter 14 (Material-Specifi c Design and Detailing
Requirements), Chapter 15 (Nonbuilding structures), Chapter 17 (Seismic
Design Requirements for Seismically Isolated Structures), Chapter 18 (Seismic
Design Requirements for Structures with Damping Systems), Chapter 19
(Soil-Structure Interaction for Seismic Design), and Chapter 21 (Site-Specifi c
Procedures for Seismic Design).
The vast majority of the examples in the Guide relate to Chapters 1,
2, 11, 12, and 16 of ASCE 7, with buildings as the principal subject. The
materials on nonstructural components and on nonbuilding structures will
be expanded in a later edition of the Guide , or in a separate volume. The
materials presented for Chapter 16 relate to the selection and scaling of
ground motions for response history analysis and the use of linear response
Chapter 14 of ASCE 7 is not included because the Guide focuses principally
on seismic load analysis and not seismic design. The reader is referred
to the Reference section of the Guide for resources containing design examples.
The materials included in Chapters 17 through 19 are considered
“advanced topics” and may be included in a future volume of examples.
The principal purpose of the Guide is to illustrate the provisions of
ASCE 7 and not to provide background on the theoretical basis of the provisions.
Hence, theoretical discussion is kept to a minimum. However, explanations
are provided in a few instances. The reference section contains
several sources for understanding the theoretical basis of the ASCE 7 seismic
loading provisions. Specifi cally, the reader is referred to the expanded commentary
to the ASCE Seismic Provisions. Note that this commentary was
fi rst available in the third printing of ASCE 7. Additional useful documents
provided by FEMA (at no charge) are as follows:
FEMA P-749, “Earthquake Resistant Design Concepts” (FEMA,
FEMA P-750, “NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New
Buildings and Other Structures” (FEMA, 2009a ); and
FEMA P-751, “NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples”
(FEMA, 2012 ).
FEMA P-751 contains numerous detailed design examples that incorporate
many of the requirements of ASCE 7-05 and ASCE 7-10. These
examples are much more detailed than those provided in this Guide and
concentrate on the structural design aspects of earthquake engineering,
rather than just the loads and analysis side, which is the focus of the Guide .
The National Institute of Building Standards (NIST) provides another
excellent set of seismic analysis and design references. These “technical
briefs” cover various subjects, including diaphragm behavior, design of
moment frames, design of braced frames, and nonlinear structural analysis.
The briefs can be downloaded at no charge from www.nehrp-consultants
How to Use the Guide
The Guide is organized into a series of individual examples. With minor
exceptions, each example “stands alone” and does not depend on information
provided in other examples. This means that, in some cases, information
is provided in the beginning of the example that requires some substantial
calculations, but these calculations are not shown. For instance, in the
example on drift and P-delta effects (Example 19), the details for computing
the lateral forces used in the analysis are not provided, and insuffi cient
information is provided for the reader to back-calculate these forces.
However, reference is made to other examples in the Guide where similar
calculations (e.g., fi nding lateral forces) are presented. The reader should
always be able to follow and reproduce all new numbers (not part of the
given information) that are generated in the example.
Table and Figure Numbering
The examples presented in the Guide often refer to sections, equations,
tables, and fi gures in ASCE 7. All such items are referred to directly, without
specifi c reference to ASCE 7. For instance, a specifi c example might contain
the statement, “The response modifi cation factor R for the system is provided
by Table 12.2-1.”
References to sections, equations, tables, and fi gures that are unique to
the Guide are always preceded by the letter G and use bold text. For example,
the text may state that the distribution of forces along the height of the structure
are listed in Table G12-3 and illustrated in Fig. G12-5 . In this citation,
the number 12 is the example number, and the number after the dash is the
sequence number of the item (that is, third table or fi fth fi gure).
Notation and Defi nitions
The mathematical notation in the Guide follows directly the notation provided
in Chapter 11 of ASCE 7. However, as the Guide does not use all of
the symbols in ASCE 7, a separate list of symbols actually used in the Guide
is provided in a separate section titled “Symbols Unique to the Guide. ” This
list also provides defi nitions for new symbols that have been introduced in
the Guide .
All examples in the Guide are developed in the U.S. customary (English)
system, as follows (with the standard abbreviation in parentheses):
Length units: inches (in.) or feet (ft)
Force units: pounds (lb) or kips (k)
Time units: seconds (s).
All other units (e.g., mass) are formed as combinations of the aforementioned
units. A unit conversion table is provided.
Appendices and Frequently Asked Questions
In addition to the 22 individual examples, the Guide contains three appendices.
The fi rst appendix provides interpolation tables that simplify the
process of calculating some of the values (e.g., site coeffi cients F a and F v )
required by ASCE 7. The second and third appendices explain the use of
web-based utilities for determining ground motion parameters and for selection
of ground motion records for response history analysis.
The Guide also contains a special section titled “Frequently Asked
Questions,” where several common questions are listed, together with the
author ’ s answers. In some cases, this requires an interpretation of ASCE 7,
especially when the standard is ambiguous.
Users are requested to notify the author of any ambiguities or errors that
are found in this Guide . Suggestions for improvement or additions are welcomed
and will be included in future versions of the Guide .
The interpretations of ASCE 7 requirements and any and all other opinions
presented in this guide are those of the author and do not necessarily represent
the views of the ASCE 7 Standard Committee or the American Society
of Civil Engineers.
Piles differ from most other portions of a structure
in that with few exceptions they are not able to
be visually inspected after installation. Driven piles
are generally subjected to considerable stress during
installation. For both driven and drilled piles, the
potential for the pile shaft to sustain damage during
installation should be considered in the determination
of minimum dimensions and maximum design
stresses. Furthermore, consistently identifiable soil
strength parameters, coupled with consistent or uniform
bearing strata are generally not luxuries found
in foundation design.
This Standard provides a guideline for an engineering
approach to the design and subsequent
installation of pile foundations. The purpose is to
provide a rational basis for this process, taking into
account published model building codes and general
standards of practice. It is intended for use by professional
personnel of sufficient competency to
evaluate the essence and limitations of the provisions
contained herein and who will accept the
responsibility for the application of the material presented.
In general, the expertise required to properly
implement this Standard is seldom found in one
individual. A common design team includes both a
structural engineer and a geotechnical engineer, and
may in addition include a pile contractor to provide
construction expertise and cost estimates.
Communication among all members of the design
team and the client will aid in the successful implementation
of this Standard.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
acknowledges the work of the Pile Foundations
Standards Committee of the Codes and Standards
Activities Committee (CSAC). This group comprises
individuals from many backgrounds including: consulting
engineering, research, the construction industry,
design, and private practice.
These Standard Guidelines were prepared
through the consensus standards process by balloting
in compliance with procedures of ASCE's
Codes and Standards Activities Committee (CSAC).
Those individuals who serve on the Standards
Carroll L. Crowther, Chairman
James E. Barris
James C. Benton, Jr.
Thomas D. Dismuke
Michael F. Engestrom
C. Scott Fletcher
James S. Graham
Joseph C. Harden
Steven W. Hunt
Mohamad H. Hussein
Barry A. Johnson
Michael L. Jones
Robert G. Lukas
Daniel M. McGee
Cetin A. Okcuoglu
Robert F. Pierry, Jr.
Abdulreza A. Sadjadi
Jerry A. Steding
Fully updated to address the paradigm shift in the way stormwater is viewed and managed, Design of Urban Stormwater Controls focuses on consolidating technologies to foster a convergence between traditional stormwater controls and green infrastructure. This authoritative resource explains how systems of stormwater controls can be designed to meet multidisciplinary objectives, including flood control; stream channel protection; groundwater recharge; water quality improvement; protection of public safety, health, and welfare; and multipurpose public benefits.
Coverage includes:Urban stormwater management overview Effects of stormwater on receiving waters Performance goals for stormwater controls Unit processes and operations for stormwater control Selection criteria and design considerations Swales and strips Basins Filters and infiltrators Gross pollutant traps and mechanical operations Maintenance of stormwater controls Whole life cost of stormwater controls Performance assessment Analytical tools for simulation of stormwater controls