Seminar paper from the year 2017 in the subject Business economics - Marketing, Corporate Communication, CRM, Market Research, Social Media, grade: 1,3, University of Applied Sciences Münster, language: English, abstract: In earlier days, creating innovation took mainly place behind closed doors in the R&D department of a company. However, over the course of time, globalisation opened doors to new technologies, to the global exchange of knowledge, increased the mobility of labour as well as the number of competitors in the market. The innovation environment has transformed and nowadays, ongoing innovation is a critical factor for companies to survive in the extremely competitive business environment. When hearing innovation, many people directly think about the outcome after a creative session within a company. However, reality is slightly different and innovation appears not simply in a sudden moment and actually requires sometimes more than one party to come to a new idea. Adding more complexity to this issue, many companies struggle to afford these innovation activities on their own. Consequently, many companies make use of collaborations in form of open innovation to cope with the high pressure for ongoing innovation. Vitasek (2015) concludes that innovation and collaboration is no longer an “either-or” approach and already converged into a stabile construct over the past years. Some journals even state that ‘sharing ideas and processes side by side within the same facility is often no longer an option’ (Harvard Business Review Analytic Services, 2011). Especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) with lower Research and Development (R&D) budget and less capacity for new innovations do struggle with increased complexity which is even more intense in the business-to-business (B2B) sector. SMEs must consider to reposition themselves to make strategic use of open innovation as an essential method for their survival. In this context the question arises what are opportunities and risks of open innovation for SMEs in the B2B sector and which open innovation model enhances the innovative power in SMEs most efficiently? This research question will be solved throughout the paper: First, some literature will be reviewed to create background knowledge of the constructs. Second, opportunities and risks of different open innovation mechanisms will be weighed and finally, the most efficient one(s) will be concluded.
Master's Thesis from the year 2012 in the subject Economy - Transport Economics, grade: 80%, , course: Politics, Global Issues, Sustainability, Traffic Management, language: English, abstract: The prefeasibility study at hand proposes to integrate driverless vehicles in commercial carsharing schemes in Germany. It finds indications that carsharing has the potential to become a significant mode of transport because it responds to social and business change. On the other hand, the study shows that it is the human component in traffic causing the majority of accidents, which is why driverless vehicles are expected to reduce traffic accidents and improve road safety. By making use of the business management tools SWOT analysis and an ad hoc STEPLED analysis, the study conducts a micro-environmental and macro-environmental analysis of the German carmakers BMW and Daimler in regard to the proposed concept. The main finding is that the technology is generally expected to be marketable within the next two decades, if not much earlier. It can be expected that customers will accept driverless vehicle technologies and that many new target groups could be reached by the realisation of the concept. Carmakers should benefit from this potential and might be able to offset possible losses in their core business. The analysis does also show, however, that the current legislation poses several obstacles and might, if unchanged, delay the introduction of driverless vehicle technologies. It is recommended for carmakers to become active and start a public debate similar to the one in the United States. Moreover, it is recommended to collaborate closely with other mobility providers in order to avoid lobbying against the idea.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Business economics - Business Ethics, Corporate Ethics, grade: 1,7, The FOM University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, language: English, abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an important and much discussed topic of the 21st century, both in academic research and public media. Corporate leaders increasingly realize that their responsibilities are not limited to shareholders, but extend to the communities in which their companies operate. Exercising this responsibility, particularly concerning social and environmental issues, has consequently become more crucial to many companies. However, this has brought new reporting challenges because the successes of CSR are often difficult to quantify. Companies have to account for the social and environmental consequences of their activities. CSR has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country because many organizations rank companies on the performance of their CSR and these rankings attract considerable publicity. An example of the rising influence of social issues on economic performance is the consumer boycott of Nike products in the early 1990s after the New York Times and other media outlets reported abusive labor practices at some of its Indonesian suppliers. This behavior of consumers demonstrates how intense economic consequences of social issues could be, even if those corporations actually have had little impact on the problem at hand.
Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,0, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, language: English, abstract: 1. Introduction As with every text in literature, a single consistent reading is never possible. However, Nathaniel Hawthorne’s 1844 story “Rappaccini’s Daughter” has caused quite a sensation about its topicality, and many attempts to reconcile different critical approaches have been thwarted. Whereas, still today, some critics see religion, in particular the Fall of Man, as the story’s major issue, others oppose with their ideas about stereotypical womanhood or Hawthorne’s supposedly harsh criticism of science. Till the present day, as Fogle states, an “accurate definition of its elements is next to impossible” (92). The question of whether these so radically contradicting analyses of the story root in Hawthorne’s use of allegory is justified. As with every allegory, it needs a deeper examination to encode the story’s secondary meaning in order to understand the different layers of the text. With this, it seems quite obvious that contradicting readings arise. I argue though that it is not predominantly Hawthorne’s use of allegory which causes such an amount of different viewpoints; instead, these differences mainly root in the skilful use of deviating narrative perspectives which lead the reader to confusion about the meaning of “Rappaccini’s Daughter”. By taking into account the interaction between the author, the narrator, Giovanni, and the reader, I furthermore argue that Hawthorne entraps the latter to make the same errors as Giovanni and the narrator make within the story: Reading nature symbolically and committing the “sin of synecdoche” by substituting, “in moral and rhetorical terms,” the part as a symbol of the whole (Haviland 280). Doing this, then, “steal[s] away the human warmth” and denies access to “the proper point of view” (Hawthorne 1313). The analysis of the different narrative perspectives is crucial as it demonstrates how “Rappaccini’s Daughter” calls into question the ideas of the Transcendentalists, in particular of Emerson, who presented a philosophical concept to his contemporary reader which claimed to allow a total perspective on the world. This reader-oriented approach proves how the narrative structure of the text works to ironically deconstruct Emerson’s doctrine by pointing out that spirit and nature have nothing to do with one another; instead, reading nature...
Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,0, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, language: English, abstract: Hardly any other story has provoked as many different readings as Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw. The novella causes an extremely strong impact on its reader, dividing its interpreters in various camps: “If the ghosts of The Turn of the Screw are not real, certainly the controversy over them is.”1 As Parkinson states, the history of the text’s criticism is strongly dominated by the apparitionists/non-apparitionists, or ghost/non-ghost readers,2 but even though critics have ambitiously tried to unite these different approaches, a final fusion could not be found. This effect is caused by the text’s ambiguity, James’s distinctive erotic stylistic, but also by the trick the author plays on his audience, since, while interpreting, the reader is simultaneously forced to participate in the story and thus in the scandal of the story itself. As Felman puts it, the reader cannot stay innocent.3 My approach is therefore not to find the ultimate solution why one reading must be considered superior to another one (since there is none), but rather to maintain this duality and to concentrate on the overall function of the text. By placing it within the historical context in which it was written and, thereby, focusing strongly on the aspects of sexuality in nineteenth-century American society, especially on the famous Oscar Wilde trials taking place shortly before James published his novella, I try to capture why the text causes so many different readings, how the seduction of the interpreter works, and, eventually, what this impossibility of an overall reading actually means, considering the historical context James was to witness. The question I am eager to answer is on what is said about the very act of decoding ambiguity, about the process of interpretation, which can literally be found in the story itself. “Wilde Times”: Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America James's fiction “anatomizes the key structures of sexuality per se.”4 Consequently, it is inevitable to take into consideration the crucial notions of sexuality and sexual identities accumulating in nineteenth-century American society before setting out to explore James’s novella. First of all is it noteworthy to refer to the fact that, as Halperin correctly states, “we live in the prominence of heterosexuality and homosexuality as central, organizing categories of thoughts, behavior, and erotic subjectivity,” whereas “human beings in the past might have had radically different...
Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject English - Literature, Works, grade: 2,0, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, language: English, abstract: Introduction Under the aspect of portraying eighteenth-century contracts, this paper is to examine connections and interrelations of Susanna Centlivre’s comedies The Busy Body (1709) and A Bold Stroke for a Wife (1718). Centlivre (1669-1723), author of nineteen plays, several poems, and love letters (Lock 13), was “the only playwright, male or female, with four plays among the most popular repertoire offerings of the eighteenth century” (Anderson 25) and with that one of the most successful female playwrights ever after. Her comedies mentioned above, have enjoyed long-termed continuance in theatre and reflect her attitude towards the institution of marriage and the connoted contractual opportunities and restrictions for the persons concerned. The intention of this paper is to engender historical marriage laws and widespread ideas, to take a reference to the social critic William Hogarth’s etching and engraving The Marriage Contract (1745), and to point out how and to what extend Centlivre’s comedies mirror her personal but also prevalent opinions in that period of time. It is striking all through reading The Busy Body that, with the help of rhetorical skills, masquerade, and contracts, her protagonist Miranda converts her ambiguous legal status into a much better legal economic security, whereas in A Bold Stroke for a Wife, Centlivre chiefly mirrors her actual frustration, when it comes to common-law marriage reforms. The thesis of this paper is that the playwright consistently had a negative view on the institution of marriage but temporarily a rather positive view on British liberalism and contractual developments, which she eventually lost though towards the end of her life. As an “ardent Whig and a supporter of the House of Hanover” (Finberg xix), her optimism to loosen the boundaries of male dominance becomes obvious in the presentation of her active character Miranda, who is not introduced as victim but as vicious heroine, driving successfully towards her own goal of victory. It seems though that nine years later, Centlivre’s future prospect had changed. Though both plays still reflect her opinion that women definitely deserve to control their own destinies, her last big stage success, A Bold Stroke for a Wife, indicates a rather disappointed tone, more precisely, it reveals her resignation on women’s contract possibilities, manifested by the play’s passive and ineffectual protagonist Anne, who can do little to free herself from...
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2017 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,7, University of Göttingen, language: English, abstract: The present paper compares the representations of “discourse particles” in the German and English language. In the first part of this study Zimmermann ́s definition of the German “discourse particles” is outlined and complemented with results from studies by Thurmair (1989), Bublitz (1978), Waltereit (2001) and others that also worked on German discourse particles and put in contrast to concepts of words carrying discourse function in the English language. The study thereby focuses on the prototypical group of words that assume discourse function in the two languages, German modal particles and English discourse markers and illustrates its findings with two of their most prototypical representatives, German wohl and English actually. Both groups are compared in terminology, categorisation and in their morphological, semantic, pragmatic, and syntactic features. Switching from synchronic to diachronic perspective, the study also traces their historical development and it is shown, how these functions developed. In course of this study, it is briefly referred to less prototypical ways of expressing discourse function and it is detected, that there are German particles, that seem to resemble English discourse markers and vice versa. Furthermore, it is touched upon the semantic‐pragmatic dispute on how to detect their meaning and it is referred to their role out of a sociolinguistic perspective. Comparing the German and the English concept of “discourse particles”, the study is interested in prototypical behaviour and therefore chooses the most common approaches and terminology. Later on in the study, in chapter 2.3.3, it also takes into account less common uses.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2015 im Fachbereich Germanistik - Sonstiges, Note: 1,3, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf (Germanistik), Veranstaltung: Begriffsgeschichten, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: In dieser Hausarbeit zum Thema ‚Begriffsgeschichte‘ wird die Geschichte des Begriffs ‚Rasse‘ untersucht. Anhand des ‚Rasse‘-Begriffs kann sehr gut dargestellt werden wie neutrale Begriffe durch ihren wissenschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Gebrauch zu „Kampfvokabeln“ umfunktioniert werden können. In seiner Verwendungsweise wird der Begriff von einfachen Varietäten-Beschreibungen über (natur-)wissenschaftliche Klassifizierungen und Hierarchisierungen bis zur vermeintlichen Legitimation des Völkermords an circa sechs Millionen Menschen weitergereicht. Wie das geschehen konnte möchte ich versuchen nachzuvollziehen und darzustellen. Innerhalb meiner Begriffsanalyse werde ich die Ursprünge sowie die Veränderungen und den ‚Untergang‘ des Begriffs chronologisch aufzeigen und mich auf zeitgenössische ‚Rassen‘-Theoretiker, Naturwissenschaftler – und solche, die es gerne sein wollten –, Anthropologen, Geisteswissenschaftler u.a. beziehen, denn nahezu jeder, der was auf sich hielt, hatte zu dieser Thematik etwas zu sagen. Möchte man sich mit dem Begriff ‚Rasse‘ beschäftigen, so muss man sich gleichwohl mit Konzepten der ‚Versklavung‘, ‚Kolonialisierung‘ oder ‚Diskriminierung‘ sowie den realhistorischen Ereignissen des ‚Holocaust‘ und der Apartheid‘ sowie ‚Rassentrennung‘ auseinandersetzen, denn gemeinsam ist diesen, und den damit einhergehenden Handlungsweisen, ein rassisches Denken: die Annahme superiorer und inferiorer ‚Menschenrassen‘. Auch wenn diese Denkweise den Ursprung des ‚Rasse‘-Begriffs nicht widerspiegelt, ist sie dennoch jene, welche sich im Laufe der Geschichte des Begriffs gefestigt hat. Beginnen werde ich diese Arbeit mit einer Definition und Erläuterung dessen, was man unter einer Begriffsgeschichte versteht. Danach werde ich die Begriffsgeschichte von ‚Rasse‘ darstellen und analysieren um zuletzt ein kritisches Fazit zu ziehen, welches sich mit der Fragestellung auseinandersetzt, ob der ‚Rasse‘-Begriff – definitionsgemäß – als geschichtlicher Grundbegriff, im Sinne der sprachwissenschaftlichen Kriterien des Seminars, zu bezeichnen ist.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2015 im Fachbereich Soziologie - Arbeit, Beruf, Ausbildung, Organisation, Note: 1,0, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf (Sozialwissenschaften), Veranstaltung: Personalmanagement im demografischen Wandel, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: In der folgenden Hausarbeit habe ich mich mit der Thematik des alter(n)sgerechten Arbeitens sowie der alter(n)sgerechten Arbeitsgestaltung beschäftigt. Gerade in der heutigen Zeit ist sowohl alters-, vor allem aber alternsgerechte Arbeit sowie Arbeitsgestaltung ein unumgänglicher (Erfolgs-)Faktor jeder Personalpolitik und Unternehmenskultur. Leider ist dies vielen Unternehmen bis dato nur theoretisch bewusst, so dass trotz den bereits einige Jahrzehnte andauernden demografischen Entwicklungen in Deutschland, die besonders eine schrumpfende und alternde Gesellschaft zur Folge haben, alter(n)sgerechte Arbeit und Arbeitsgestaltung noch lange nicht in jeder Unternehmensphilosophie angekommen sind. Dies muss sich schnell ändern, denn nicht nur die Bevölkerungsstruktur, sondern insbesondere die Struktur des Erwerbspersonenpotenzials wird sich im Laufe der nächsten Jahre und Jahrzehnte weiter gravierend ändern, so dass immer mehr Menschen gezwungen sein werden, länger und gesund in ihrem Beruf zu verweilen. Eben deshalb ist es notwendig, nicht nur reaktive altersgerechte Maßnahmen zu ergreifen, sondern vielmehr präventive und demografiefeste – sprich alternsgerechte – Maßnahmen über den gesamten Erwerbsverlauf anzubieten und zu fördern. Beginnen werde ich meine Hausarbeit, für die ich mich, um die Aktualität zu gewährleisten, ausschließlich mit Literatur beschäftigt habe, die nicht älter als zehn Jahre ist, mit einer Erläuterung und Grundlagenbeschreibung der demografischen Entwicklungen in Deutschland, welche ich durch die Beschreibung der daraus resultierenden Konsequenzen und Herausforderungen für Branchen und Unternehmen ergänzen werde. Anschließend werde ich alternsgerechte von altersgerechter Arbeit sowie Arbeitsgestaltung unterscheiden und definieren. Daraufhin werde ich auf tatsächliche sowie angenommene Schwächen und Stärken älterer Arbeitnehmer eingehen und diese erläutern. Abschließend werde ich einige ausgewählte Handlungsfelder und –instrumente zur Bewältigung eines immer weiter alternden sowie älteren Erwerbpersonenpotenzials vorstellen, wobei ich mich auf folgende Themengebiete beschränke: Unternehmenskultur und Einstellungspolitik, Gesundheitsmanagement und betriebliche Gesundheitsförderung, Personaleinsatzplanung, Arbeitszeitgestaltung, Weiterbildung, Qualifizierung und Personalentwicklung sowie Arbeitsgestaltung und –organisation.
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