The twenty-second Coral Gables conference "UNIFIED SYMMETRY: In the Small and In the Large" continued with the efforts to unify the small and the large. The information gathered with the Huble telescope has in part, in the absence of the SCC , provided a basis for the physicists to unify cosmology and elementary particle physics. The congressional cancellation of the biggest experimental project on the frontiers of physics should not be regarded as an insurmountable obstacle to progress in theoretical physics. The physicists' rise to prominence was mostly reached through their creation of the nuclear era. The post cold war era has somewhat reduced the political, military, and, in part, the social role of the physicist. Some in the administration and the Congress would like physicists to focus on the directly utilitarian aspects of science. Thus, some people do not realize that this regimentation of science would inhibit the creativity. The contributions of solid state physics research to the advancement of technology is the result of physics freely pursued independently of its applications. Modern Physics beginning with Newton's theory of gravity has enabled us to create the space age, to contribute to various technologies, and to impact on our technological modus vivendi.
The first part of the conference explores two major environmental concerns that arise from fuel use: (1) the prospect that the globe will become warmer as a result of emissions of carbon dioxide, and (2) the effect upon health of the fine particles emitted as combustion products. The conference focused on the fact that there was lack of data direct enough to enable us to predict an entirely satisfactory result, and that makes policy options particularly difficult. With regard to (1) above, in the second half of the 20th century there were major increases in anthropogenic C02 emissions, and it is generally agreed that these were responsible for an increase in C02 concentrations. But the relationship between global temperature and CO2 concentrations remains murky. The principal problem is that water vapor is a more important greenhouse gas than C02 and that the concentrations of water vapor vary widely in time and space. The approach to this problem is probably, but not certainly, a positive feedback effect: as temperature increases so does the water vapor leading to further temperature increases. Scientists associated with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tend to believe the general features of the models. Other scientists are often less convinced.
This conference proceedings explores issues surrounding the replacement of existing nuclear power plants when they reach the end of their useful life. Topics covered include: Nuclear competitiveness regarding politics and power plant evolution; social acceptance regarding communication, information, waste, and safety proliferation; and durability regarding resources and effects on the environment.
The 25'" Coral Gables Conference was the culmination of the series that was begun in 1964. The conferences evolved under the titles that in~lude: Symmetry Principles at High Energy; Fundamental Interactions; Orbis Scientiae; and, occasionally, Unified Symmetry in the Small and in the Large. There was a pause after the 2()1h meeting in 1983 which was dedicated to P. A. M. Dirac. The conferences were resumed in 1993. Some of the reminiscences involved the absence of great minds who attended these meetings in the past and who were no longer with us. The list includes, just to name a few: Julian Schwinger, Robert Oppenheimer, Lars Onsager, Robert Hofstater, Abdus Salam, Richard Feynman, Stanislov Ulam, P. A. M. Dirac, Lord C. P. Snow, Eugene P. Wigner, Vladimir K. Zworykin, and Dixie Lee Ray. Most of these people were among the architects of modern physics and had participated in many of the early Coral Gables Conferences. We miss them. These conferences have contributed to the progress in high energy physics and cosmology. This year, again, papers were presented on familiar topics, such as neutrino masses, age and total mass of the universe, on the nature of dark matter, and on supersymmetry. The latter has now become a perennial issue. Like the weather, we all talk about it, but, so far cannot do anything to affect it. Another favorite subject was so-called monopoles, which theoretically participate in phenomena like condensation, confinement of electric charge, confinement of monopoles themselves, etc.
The 1996 Conference focused on topics of environmentally attractive technologies for electricity production-renewables, natural gas, and nuclear energy. Recent technology developments were addressed which include creation of more efficient photovoltaic convert ers for electricity generation; the current and future role of natural gas in meeting global de mand for electric power generation; and the status of nuclear energy, its various applications, and the prospects for its future. The Conference agenda, in light of its global economic im pact, included comparative discussions of all the above alternative energy sources. The re gional choice of energy sources and their impact on the global economy and environment was reviewed. In addition to the above subjects, but strongly connected with the theme of global en ergy needs and security, the Conference program contained one session on new needs and di rections in higher education: new curricula to cover fundamental global issues on energy, resources, and environment.
Justbefore the preliminary programof Orbis Scientiae 1998 went to press the news in physics was suddenly dominated by the discovery that neutrinos are, after all, massive particles. This was predicted by some physicists including Dr. Behram Kusunoglu, who had apaper published on this subject in 1976 in the Physical Review. Massive neutrinos do not necessarily simplify the physics of elementary particles but they do give elementary particle physics a new direction. If the dark matter content ofthe universe turns out to consist ofneutrinos, the fact that they are massive should make an impact on cosmology. Some of the papers in this volume have attempted to provide answers to these questions. We have a long way to go before we find the real reasons for nature’s creation of neutrinos. Another neutrino-related event was the passing of their discoverer, Fredrick Reines: The trustees of the Global Foundation, members of the Orbis Scientiae 1998, dedicate this conference to Fredrick Reines of the University of California at Irvine. The late Professor Reines was a loyal and active member of these series of conferences on the frontiers of physics and cosmology since 1964. He also sewed as one of the trustees of the Global Foundation for the past three years. Professor Reines discovered the most elusive particle, the neutrino, in 1954. We are proud to say that we recognized the importance of this discovery by awarding him the J.
th The 29 International Conference was held as the first one of the millennium at its Fort Lauderdale venue. These conferences began, with High Energy Physics being the main topic, by introducing gradually cosmology into its programs. These proceedings of the 2000 conference reflect the variety of topics and ideas discussed. Our future conferences will be designed somewhat akin to the early Coral Gables Conferences where we shall seek some convergence of ideas. For this reason various committees have been formed from among the participating physicists. The committees and their memberships are listed in these proceedings. We further decided for the first time to include some graduate student participants in our future meetings for which also a committee has already been established. The topics will demonstrate a more activist structure of the Coral Gables Conferences, for example the duality of the gravitational forces and expansion of the universe will be discussed from this point of view since it conveys a convergence to the ideas of quintessence versus the ordinary theory, which are considered as the cause of the expansion of the universe. We further wish to announce that the future conferences will assume a collective organization where several committees as listed in these proceedings will have their input into the conference. We have now introduced new topics and ideas, which referred especially to the attractive and repulsive nature of the gravitational force. These proceedings of the conference contain a variety of topics and ideas.
Sponsored by the Global Foundation, Inc., these proceedings are derived from the International Conference on Orbis Scientiae II. Topics covered include: gravitational mass, neutrino mass, particle masses, cosmological masses, susy masses, and big bang creation of mass.
“International Energy Forum 1999” was held in Washington D.C. during November 5-6, 1999 in the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Crystal City. Once again the main topic was Nuclear Energy. Various papers presented contained pros and cons of Nuclear Energy for generating electricity. We were aiming to clarify the often discussed subject matter of the virtues of Nuclear Energy with regard to Global Warming as compared to using fossil fuels for the generation of electricity. The latter is also currently the only way to operate our means of transportation like automobiles, planes etc. Therefore emission into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases constitutes the main source of Global Warming, which is absent in the case of Nuclear Energy. These arguments are often put forward to promote the use of Nuclear Energy. However not all is well with the Nuclear Energy. There are the questions of the waste problem so far unsolved, safety of Nuclear Reactors is not guaranteed to the extent that they are inherently safe. If we aim to construct inherently safe reactors, then the economics of a Nuclear Reactor makes it unacceptable.