Essay from the year 2006 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: keine, University of Bayreuth, course: Written and Spoken English, 4 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This essay will deal with discourse signals, with special focus on their function and meaning. It is important to understand that in the term “discourse signals” two other terms are included: “interaction signals” and “discourse markers”, which are explained later on in the text. Discourse signals as such, as the name already says, signal the structure of the discourse. They are usually used in order to make the interlocutor see one’s current relationship and attitude towards the state of the discourse. The signal therefore helps the listener expecting a certain utterance intention of the speaker. Hence the former can somehow foresee the intention of the latter. The following text will go into detail concerning function and meaning of discourse signals.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2005 im Fachbereich Anglistik - Linguistik, Note: 1,7, Universität Bayreuth, Veranstaltung: Proseminar Lexicography, 4 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Learner’s Dictionaries are only about half a century old. Back in the 1930’s a need for better language teaching tools developed. A.S. Hornby worked out the first major general-purpose dictionary of this kind in 1942, which was first called the Idiomatic and Syntactic Dictionary of English, later on in 1948 A Learner’s Dictionary of Current English and was at last published in 1952 as The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. The the was replaced from the third edition on by Oxford and the dictionary is now known as the OALD. In 1978 Longman developed a more innovative Learner’s Dictionary: the Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE). In contrast to the OALD the LDOCE only used a defining vocabulary of 2000 words that were listed at its back. Furthermore it explained more modern words for example current idioms, slang and colloquialisms. The only disadvantage of this dictionary was the “over-complex system of grammatical codes” (see Robert Allen 1996, p.41), which was improved in the second edition from 1987 and the third edition, published in 1995.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2,0, University of Bayreuth, language: English, abstract: Pygmalion is one of the most famous comedies of all times. Its mythological background is fascinating as the topic is still up to date. This is why it has influenced many artists to use the story for their works. Besides Ovid’s version in his Metamorphoses that very closely sticks to the original of Greek mythology and G. B. Shaw’s one that, although he changes the frame and the plot of Pygmalion, he still holds on to the idea of the original story, there is for example Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s melodrama Pygmalion (1770), Johann Wolfgang Goethe’s poem Pygmalion (1767) and Franz von Suppé’s operetta Die Schöne Galathee (1865). The mythological background, though, is not the only reason why the story of Pygmalion has attracted that many artists and is that popular. It is the diversity of its themes and actions. There is for example a love story, a criticism of society, many different characters that are interesting in each way, changes in individual personalities and so on. . . . In a way he also forms a woman after his ideas and taste. This point of shaping a woman is present in both, Ovid’s Metamorphoses and G. B. Shaw’s Pygmalion. However, the most important difference between them is the woman’s behaviour. While in mythology Galatea is only a passive character, in Shaw’s Pygmalion Eliza is active from the beginning on and influences the play’s stream and action. She takes her destiny into her own hands and one could speak of an emancipated woman. As emancipation was a major topic and drastically developed during the Victorian era, one could argue whether the description of women in literature actually reflects society’s attitude towards them in the era in which this literature was written. For this reason I will elaborate the role of women in Victorian society in general and in Pygmalion in specific. Furthermore I would like to compare the play Pygmalion, which was staged for the first time in 1913, to the musical My fair lady which was released in 1956. The difference in time promises a difference in the reception of the story and it is probable that the changes in society between 1913 and 1956 are reflected in those two versions.Especially the role of women changed in those years. Therefore the focus of my thesis will be these transforming ideas concerning women in the Victorian age and the 1950’s by means of Pygmalion and My fair lady.
Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2,0, University of Bayreuth, course: Heroins of Victorian Fiction, 12 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Every human being undergoes changes during his life-time. From childhood through adolescence until old age he or she is constantly in a learning process. One can never say that a person is absolutely mature and at the end of his or her maturing process but one can say that there are certain steps in life most people pass or go through. Also Jane Eyre betakes herself on the journey of life and in the novel the reader can watch the different steps she passes and accompanies her. On the one hand they can observe her behaviour objectively, her changes, her maturing process, her fears and challenges in a distant and objective way. They see how other people manage their life and are made aware of their changes without directly being a part of it. On the other hand the reader is able to identify with Jane Eyre and imagine how she must feel because, as I said before, every person changes during their life and experiences certain problems and challenges. Although those must not necessarily be exactly the same as Jane experiences, we can feel with her. There is just a certain amount of feelings a human being is able to feel and as we, together with Jane Eyre, Charlotte Brontë and many others, belong to the same species we feel similar for example about things like love. [...] I think it is exactly this point of identifying with the heroine that makes Jane Eyre such a popular novel and that also draw my attention to it. However, it is even more the specific topic of the genre Bildungsroman that caught my interest. The development of a character, no matter if in fiction or reality, is always interesting and inspiring. Jane is not afraid of changes and shows the intention to go on the journey to herself. She plays the “inner wheel” to change her life for the better. In my opinion this is something really important because you first have to understand yourself before you are able to understand other people.
Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,0, University of Bayreuth, course: Eurolinguistics, 20 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Unsere Hausarbeit für das Seminar Eurolinguistics bei Dr. Grzega schrieben wir über Höflichkeitsformen in Ungarn und England mit Fokus auf Begrüßungs- und Abschiedsformeln (Politeness strategies in Hungary and England with special focus on greetings and leave-taking terms). Interessant wurde dieses Thema für uns vor dem Sommersemester 2006, nach einem Urlaub in Ungarn, in dem wir der Vielfalt der Begrüßungs- und Höflichkeitsformen in dieser Sprache gewahr wurden und sie bewusst wahrnahmen. Als Studentinnen des Faches Anglistik ist es offensichtlich, dass die Englische Sprache Mittelpunkt unseres Interesses ist. So kamen wir auf die Idee, zunächst nur Begrüßungsformeln miteinander zu vergleichen, bis wir sahen, wie sehr dieses Thema eigentlich mit Höflichkeit verflochten ist. Um neben einem Theorieteil, in welchem wir uns in der Diskussion um Höflichkeitsformen auf andere wissenschaftliche Quellen beziehen, auch einen Praxisbezug in die Hausarbeit mit aufzunehmen, gab uns Dr. Grzega eine Vorlage eines Fragebogens, den er zuvor für andere Studienzwecke entworfen hatte; nach kleinen Änderungen verteilten wir diesen an 25 Engländer und 25 Ungarn im Alter von 14 bis 89 Jahren in einem recht ausgewogenen Verhältnis von 48% männlichen und 52% weiblichen Teilnehmern. Diese werteten wir getrennt voneinander aus, um sie später dann in der Seminararbeit miteinander zu vergleichen, um Übereinstimmungen, sowie auch Unterschiede feststellen zu können. Ungarn ist stark von seiner Geschichte und von Traditionen geprägt, und vor allem aus seiner Zeit der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie, was in einigen gängigen Begrüßungsformeln erkennbar wird. Das förmliche Siezen tritt ungewöhnlich häufig auf, auffallend vor allem in Familienkreisen gegenüber älteren Verwandten, die mit dem Vornamen, Tante/Onkel und Sie angesprochen werden. Der Vergleich zum Englischen ist hier natürlich schwierig, da das archaische thou nicht mehr gebräuchlich ist und durch das umfassende you ersetzt wurde. Im Allgemeinen ist es so, dass die Magyaren zu den contact cultures gehören und somit auch schnell die Nähe des Gesprächspartners suchen, sei es durch mehr Körperkontakt bei einer Unterhaltung oder der Begrüßung mit Küsschen, die in einer distance culture wie der der Briten nur bei sehr engem sozialen Kontakt üblich sind.
Essay from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2,3, University of Bayreuth, course: British Survey, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The Canterbury Tales take place in England of the 14th century. It is spring time and a group of 30 people from all social classes is gathering together in the Tabard Inn in Southwark near London to plan their pilgrimage to Becket’s tomb at Canterbury. To kill time during their journey a story-telling contest is created. Each pilgrim has to tell a story and the winner of the best story will get a free supper. The Canterbury Tales are structured as a frame narrative. The General Prologue mainly builds the frame where all the characters are introduced and the story-telling competition was invented. Its structure is very simple. After an introduction in lines 1-34, the narrator begins the series of portraits (lines 35-719). Afterwards the Host suggests the tale-telling contest which is then accepted by the pilgrims (lines 720-821). In the following the pilgrims gather and decide that the Knight should tell the first story. The frame in which the story is embedded has a long tradition. Boccaccio’s “Decamerone” was for example written in this style and Chaucer read it when visiting Italy. Originally Chaucer wanted each of the pilgrims to tell two stories on the way to Canterbury and two on the way back. This would have led to 120 single stories, but he never finished this enormous work. In fact there are only 23 tales, some of which are even incomplete.
Essay from the year 2005 in the subject American Studies - Linguistics, grade: keine, University of Bayreuth, course: English Advertising Texts , 0 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: There are three different means of communication which are used in ads: music, pictures and language. All of these modes can be further devided into sub-modes. The following text examines the effect of various combinations of modes in ads and of three sub-modes of language: song, speech and writing. It is important to mention the problem that analysts have with analysing ads. As pictures and music are the essence of many ads and do help creating a mood or pursuading, analysis has to take these modes into account. This is very difficult to handle because the mode of analysis is language and therefore different to the mode of most ads. Especially with television ads it is impossible to reproduce the sound, the moving pictures and the different combinations of speech on paper. Because of the importance of music and pictures in ads this text also considers their effect on language.