The #1 New York Times bestseller that has all America talking: as seen/heard on CBS This Morning, The Bill Simmons Podcast, and more.
 
“Urgent and important. . . an essential read for bosses, parents, coaches, and anyone who cares about improving performance.” —Daniel H. Pink
 
“So much crucial and revelatory information about performance, success, and education.” —Susan Cain, bestselling author of Quiet 
 
“As David Epstein shows us, cultivating range prepares us for the wickedly unanticipated… a well-supported and smoothly written case on behalf of breadth and late starts.” –Wall Street Journal

A powerful argument for how to succeed in any field: develop broad interests and skills while everyone around you is rushing to specialize. 

Plenty of experts argue that anyone who wants to develop a skill, play an instrument, or lead their field should start early, focus intensely, and rack up as many hours of deliberate practice as possible. If you dabble or delay, you’ll never catch up to the people who got a head start. But a closer look at research on the world’s top performers, from professional athletes to Nobel laureates, shows that early specialization is the exception, not the rule.    

David Epstein examined the world’s most successful athletes, artists, musicians, inventors, forecasters and scientists. He discovered that in most fields—especially those that are complex and unpredictable—generalists, not specialists, are primed to excel. Generalists often find their path late, and they juggle many interests rather than focusing on one. They’re also more creative, more agile, and able to make connections their more specialized peers can’t see.

Provocative, rigorous, and engrossing, Range makes a compelling case for actively cultivating inefficiency. Failing a test is the best way to learn. Frequent quitters end up with the most fulfilling careers. The most impactful inventors cross domains rather than deepening their knowledge in a single area. As experts silo themselves further while computers master more of the skills once reserved for highly focused humans, people who think broadly and embrace diverse experiences and perspectives will increasingly thrive.
The articles in this volume are inspired by the Minimalist Program first outlined in Chomsky’s MIT Fall term class lectures of 1991 and in his seminal paper “A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory”. The articles seek to develop further some key idea in the Minimalist Program, sometimes in ways deviating from the course taken by Chomsky.
The articles are preceded by a 40 page introduction into the minimalist framework. The introduction pays special attention to the question how the minimalist framework developed out of the Principles and Parameters (Government and Binding) framework. The introduction serves as a guide through the entire volume, presenting the issues to be discussed in the articles in detail, and offering a thematic overview over the volume as a whole.
Most of the articles in this volume are concerned with issues raised in Chomsky’s first two minimalist papers, namely “A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory” (1993, first distributed in 1992) and “Bare Phrase Structure” (1995a, first distributed 1994). In acknowledgment of this, each article starts out with a quote from Chomsky (1993, 1995a). This quote also serves to highlight the particular grammatical or theoretical issue that is primarily discussed in the relevant article.
Several articles relate issues raised in Chomsky’s first two minimalist papers to the basic ideas in Kayne’s book, The Antisymmetry of Syntax (1994, distributed in part in manuscript form in 1993). In many respects, therefore, these articles develop alternatives to ideas proposed in chapter 4, “Categories and Transformations,” of Chomsky’s most recent book, The Minimalist Program (1995b). Some of the articles contain references to chapter 4, and some comments on similarities and differences between ideas developed in these papers and in chapter 4 of Chomsky 1995b can also be found in the Introduction to this volume.
New york Time Bestseller
Préface de Pierre Callawaert, rédacteur en chef de L’Équipe.

La science explore les performances des athlètes hors du commun.

Au lycée, j’imaginais que les américains d’origine jamaïquaine qui faisaient le succès de notre équipe portaient une sorte de « gène de la vitesse » provenant de leur île minuscule... A l’université, en courant contre des Kenyans, je me demandais si les gènes de l’endurance pouvaient avoir voyagé avec eux depuis l’Afrique orientale. Au même moment, j’observais dans mon équipe qu’un groupe de coureurs qui s’entraînaient ensemble, l’un à côté de l’autre, dans la même foulée, jour après jour, produisait cinq coureurs aux performances totalement différentes. Comment cela était-il possible ?
Nous avons tous connu un athlète exceptionnel au lycée. Celui pour qui tout semblait facile. Il était capitaine ou défenseur; elle était leader de l’équipe de basket et douée au saut en hauteur. Etait-ce dû à leur nature ?
Ce débat est aussi vieux que l’histoire de la compétition sportive. Est-ce que des athlètes comme Usain Bolt, Michael Phelps ou Serena Williams dominent leur discipline en raison d’un patrimoine génétique extraordinaire? Ont-ils simplement dépassé les limites biologiques des gens normaux grâce à un entraînement acharné ?
La vérité est plus compliquée que cette simple dichotomie entre l’inné et l’acquis. Depuis la découverte de la séquence du génome humain il y a une dizaine d’années, les chercheurs ont lentement commencé à découvrir comment la relation entre la dotation biologique et l’entraînement d’un sportif de haut niveau affectent les performances sportives. Les scientifiques sportifs sont progressivement entrés dans l’ère moderne de la recherche génétique.

AUTEUR

Dans cette exploration controversée et passionnante du succès sportif, David Epstein, rédacteur en chef de Sport Illustrated, aborde le débat de l’inné et de l’acquis. Il décrit les résultats actuels de la science pour tenter de résoudre cette énigme. Il examine la fameuse « règle des
10.000 heures » pour découvrir si la pratique rigoureuse et intensive d’un sport dès le plus jeune âge est la seule réponse à la réussite sportive.

The #1 New York Times bestseller that has all America talking: as seen/heard on CBS This Morning, The Bill Simmons Podcast, and more.
 
“Urgent and important. . . an essential read for bosses, parents, coaches, and anyone who cares about improving performance.” —Daniel H. Pink
 
“So much crucial and revelatory information about performance, success, and education.” —Susan Cain, bestselling author of Quiet 
 
“As David Epstein shows us, cultivating range prepares us for the wickedly unanticipated… a well-supported and smoothly written case on behalf of breadth and late starts.” –Wall Street Journal

A powerful argument for how to succeed in any field: develop broad interests and skills while everyone around you is rushing to specialize. 

Plenty of experts argue that anyone who wants to develop a skill, play an instrument, or lead their field should start early, focus intensely, and rack up as many hours of deliberate practice as possible. If you dabble or delay, you’ll never catch up to the people who got a head start. But a closer look at research on the world’s top performers, from professional athletes to Nobel laureates, shows that early specialization is the exception, not the rule.    

David Epstein examined the world’s most successful athletes, artists, musicians, inventors, forecasters and scientists. He discovered that in most fields—especially those that are complex and unpredictable—generalists, not specialists, are primed to excel. Generalists often find their path late, and they juggle many interests rather than focusing on one. They’re also more creative, more agile, and able to make connections their more specialized peers can’t see.

Provocative, rigorous, and engrossing, Range makes a compelling case for actively cultivating inefficiency. Failing a test is the best way to learn. Frequent quitters end up with the most fulfilling careers. The most impactful inventors cross domains rather than deepening their knowledge in a single area. As experts silo themselves further while computers master more of the skills once reserved for highly focused humans, people who think broadly and embrace diverse experiences and perspectives will increasingly thrive.
In high school, I wondered whether the Jamaican Americans who made our track team so successful might carry some special speed gene from their tiny island. In college, I ran against Kenyans, and wondered whether endurance genes might have traveled with them from East Africa. At the same time, I began to notice that a training group on my team could consist of five men who run next to one another, stride for stride, day after day, and nonetheless turn out five entirely different runners. How could this be? We all knew a star athlete in high school. The one who made it look so easy. He was the starting quarterback and shortstop; she was the all-state point guard and high-jumper. Naturals. Or were they? The debate is as old as physical competition. Are stars like Usain Bolt, Michael Phelps, and Serena Williams genetic freaks put on Earth to dominate their respective sports? Or are they simply normal people who overcame their biological limits through sheer force of will and obsessive training? The truth is far messier than a simple dichotomy between nature and nurture. In the decade since the sequencing of the human genome, researchers have slowly begun to uncover how the relationship between biological endowments and a competitor's training environment affects athleticism. Sports scientists have gradually entered the era of modern genetic research. In this controversial and engaging exploration of athletic success, Sports Illustrated senior writer David Epstein tackles the great nature vs. nurture debate and traces how far science has come in solving this great riddle. He investigates the so-called 10,000-hour rule to uncover whether rigorous and consistent practice from a young age is the only route to athletic excellence. Along the way, Epstein dispels many of our perceptions about why top athletes excel. He shows why some skills that we assume are innate, like the bullet-fast reactions of a baseball or cricket batter, are not, and why other characteristics that we assume are entirely voluntary, like an athlete's will to train, might in fact have important genetic components. This subject necessarily involves digging deep into sensitive topics like race and gender. Epstein explores controversial questions such as: Are black athletes genetically predetermined to dominate both sprinting and distance running, and are their abilities influenced by Africa's geography? Are there genetic reasons to separate male and female athletes in competition? Should we test the genes of young children to determine if they are destined for stardom? Can genetic testing determine who is at risk of injury, brain damage, or even death on the field? Through on-the-ground reporting from below the equator and above the Arctic Circle, revealing conversations with leading scientists and Olympic champions, and interviews with athletes who have rare genetic mutations or physical traits, Epstein forces us to rethink the very nature of athleticism.
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