Based on research conducted in more than seventy countries over a forty-year span, Cultures and Organizations examines what drives people apart—when cooperation is so clearly in everyone’s interest. With major new contributions from Michael Minkov’s analysis of data from the World Values Survey, as well as an account of the evolution of cultures by Gert Jan Hofstede, this revised and expanded edition:Reveals the “moral circles” from which national societies are built and the unexamined rules by which people think, feel, and act Explores how national cultures differ in the areas of inequality, assertiveness versus modesty, and tolerance for ambiguity Explains how organizational cultures differ from national cultures—and how they can be managed Analyzes stereotyping, differences in language, cultural roots of the 2008 economic crisis, and other intercultural dynamics
Geert Hofstede begins with a general explanation of the masculinity dimension, and discusses how it illuminates broad features of different cultures. Parts Two, Three and Four apply the dimension more specifically to gender (and gender identity), sexuality (and sexual behaviour), and religion, probably the most influential variable of all.
The book closes with a syntesizing statement about cultural values as they are linked to sexulaity, gender and religion.
Culture’s Consequences was the first study took and in depth look at cultural differences using data. Taking advantage of the global span of his employer, IBM, Hofstede gathered survey data in 20 languages and across 70 countries to produce a unique study of national values.
He introduced an innovative framework for analyzing his data, identifying patterns he called “dimensions.” This allowed him to plot the values of different cultures to new levels of accuracy. Hofstede then identified dimensions in the cultures of organizations that were based not on values but on practices—practices that organizations could change to fit the values of their employees.