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If science has the equivalent of a Bloomsbury group, it is the five men born at the turn of the twentieth century in Budapest: Theodore von Kármán, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller. From Hungary to Germany to the United States, they remained friends and continued to work together and influence each other throughout their lives. As a result, their work was integral to some of the most important scientific and political developments of the twentieth century. István Hargittai tells the story of this remarkable group: Wigner won a Nobel Prize in theoretical physics; Szilard was the first to see that a chain reaction based on neutrons was possible, initiated the Manhattan Project, but left physics to try to restrict nuclear arms; von Neumann could solve difficult problems in his head and developed the modern computer for more complex problems; von Kármán became the first director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, providing the scientific basis for the U.S. Air Force; and Teller was the father of the hydrogen bomb, whose name is now synonymous with the controversial "Star Wars" initiative of the 1980s. Each was fiercely opinionated, politically active, and fought against all forms of totalitarianism. Hargittai, as a young Hungarian physical chemist, was able to get to know some of these great men in their later years, and the depth of information and human interest in The Martians of Science is the result of his personal relationships with the subjects, their families, and their contemporaries.
Moscow's Novodevichy Cemetery is the final resting place of some of Russia's most celebrated figures, from Khrushchev and Yeltsin to Anton Chekhov, Sergei Eisenstein, Nikolai Gogol, and Mikhail Bulgakov. Using this famed cemetery as symbolic starting point, Buried Glory profiles a dozen eminent Soviet scientists-nine of whom are buried at Novodevichy-men who illustrate both the glorious heights of Soviet research as well as the eclipse of science since the collapse of the USSR. Drawing on extensive archival research and his own personal memories, renowned chemist Istvan Hargittai bring these figures back to life, placing their remarkable scientific achievements against the tense political backdrop of the Cold War. Among the eminent scientists profiled here are Petr L. Kapitza, one of the most brilliant representatives of the great generation of Soviet physicists, a Nobel-Prize winner who risked his career-and his life-standing up for fellow scientists against Stalin. Yulii B. Khariton, who ran the highly secretive Soviet nuclear weapons laboratory, Arzamas-16, despite being Jewish and despite the fact that his father Boris had been sent to the labor camps. And Andrei D. Sakharov, the "father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb" and a brilliant fighter for human rights, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Along the way, Hargittai shines a light on the harrowing conditions under which these brilliant researchers excelled. Indeed, in the post-war period, Stalin's anti-Semitism and ongoing anti-science measures devastated biology, damaged chemistry, and nearly destroyed physics. The latter was saved only because Stalin realized that without physics and physicists there could be no nuclear weapons. The extraordinary scientific talent nurtured by the Soviet regime belongs almost entirely to the past. Buried Glory is both a fitting tribute to these great scientists and a fascinating account of scientific work behind the Iron Curtain.
Recently, the molecular structures of a relatively large number of sulphone compounds have been elucidated in the vapour phase by electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy. The main purpose of these studies is the determination of the sulphur bond configuration and the conformational properties. This leads to the observation and correlation of characteristic structural variations as various ligands are attached to the S02 group and as comparisons are made with related molecules. Today it may be said that the structure of sulphone molecules is relatively well studied, and it appeared necessary to systematize the accumulated experimental data after critical considerations. This is done in the first part of this monograph. The second part presents the observed characteristic structural variations. Attempts are made to interpret these variations by valence shell electron pair repulsions and-non-bonded interactions. Correlation relationships between geometric and vibrational parameters are also presented. It is the metrical aspects of the molecular structure which are primarily considered. Since they correlate with other aspects of the molecular structure, e.g. electronic, it is hoped that the experimental information on the molecular geometry provides stim ulus for further experimental, and, in particular, theoretical work on sulphones and related systems. IV It is attempted to cover all electron diffraction and micro wave spectroscopic investigations on sulphone molecules to date. Admittedly, however, relatively larger weight is given to the electron diffraction studies originating from the author's own laboratory.
A volume which includes entries on quasicrystals, icosahedral packing, other packing considerations, extended structures, data treatment and data mining is presented by luminaries from the crystallography community. Several of the contributions are from the schools of such trend-setting crystallographers as J. Desmond Bernal and Aleksandr I. Kitaigorodskii. Internationally renowned scientists contributed such as Tom L. Blundell, Johann Jacob Burckhardt, John L. Finney, Jenny P. Glusker, Nobel laureate Herbert A. Hauptman, the 2014 Ewald-Prize winner A. Janner, Aminoff-Prize winner Isabella Karle, Nobel laureate Jerome Karle, Buckley-Prize winner Alan L. Mackay, Ewald-Prize winner David Sayre, Vladimir Shevchenko, and J. Fraser Stoddart. A few frontier topics dominate the selected material. Pioneers of the direct methods describe the phase problem and how it was solved, including the mathematical approach and the utilization of experience with gas-phase electron diffraction. The reviews by Herbert Hauptman, Jerome and Isabella Karle, and David Sayre reach to the present day in assessing the possibilities of X-ray crystallography. Another focus topic is the investigation of systems that are outside the so-called classical system of crystals. They include quasicrystals, imperfect and very small crystals, supramolecular species, crystal structures without lattice, clusters, nanomaterials among others. Application of synchrotron and cryoprotection techniques, the free-electron laser flash technique and others are mentioned in addition to X-ray crystallography. The relationship between structural and materials properties are examined and uncovered. The broader topics of the so-called generalized crystallography include polymers, clusters, polydisperse chain assemblies, and giant icosahedral fullerenes. There are some key contributions related to the structural investigation of biological macromolecules.

We have been gratified by the warm reception of our book, by reviewers, colleagues, and students alike. Our interest in the subject matter of this book has not decreased since its first appearance; on the contrary. The first and second editions envelop eight other symmetry-related books in the creation of which we have participated: I. Hargittai (ed.), Symmetry: Unifying Human Understanding, Pergamon Press, New York, 1986. I. Hargittai and B. K. Vainshtein (eds.), Crystal Symmetries. Shubnikov Centennial Papers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1988. M. Hargittai and I. Hargittai, Fedezziikf6l a szimmetri6t! (Discover Sym- try, in Hungarian), Tank6nyvkiad6, Budapest, 1989. I. Hargittai (ed.), Symmetry 2: Unifying Human Understanding, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1989. I. Hargittai (ed.), Quasicrystals, Networks, and Molecules of Fivefold Sym- try, VCH, New York, 1990. I. Hargittai (ed.), Fivefold Symmetry, World Scientific, Singapore, 1992. I. Hargittai and C. A. Pickover (eds.), Spiral Symmetry, World Scientific, Singapore, 1992. I. Hargittai and M. Hargittai, Symmetry: A Unifying Concept, Shelter Publi- tions, Bolinas, California, 1994. We have also pursued our molecular structure research, and some books have appeared related to these activities: vi Preface to the Second Edition I. Hargittai and M. Hargittai (eds.), Stereochemical Applications of Gas-Phase Electron Diffraction, Parts A and B, VCH, New York, 1988. R. Gillespie and I. Hargittai, VSEPR Model of Molecular Geometry, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1991. A. Domenicano and I. Hargittai (eds.), Accurate Molecular Structures, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992.
Moscow's Novodevichy Cemetery is the final resting place of some of Russia's most celebrated figures, from Khrushchev and Yeltsin to Anton Chekhov, Sergei Eisenstein, Nikolai Gogol, and Mikhail Bulgakov. Using this famed cemetery as symbolic starting point, Buried Glory profiles a dozen eminent Soviet scientists-nine of whom are buried at Novodevichy-men who illustrate both the glorious heights of Soviet research as well as the eclipse of science since the collapse of the USSR. Drawing on extensive archival research and his own personal memories, renowned chemist Istvan Hargittai bring these figures back to life, placing their remarkable scientific achievements against the tense political backdrop of the Cold War. Among the eminent scientists profiled here are Petr L. Kapitza, one of the most brilliant representatives of the great generation of Soviet physicists, a Nobel-Prize winner who risked his career-and his life-standing up for fellow scientists against Stalin. Yulii B. Khariton, who ran the highly secretive Soviet nuclear weapons laboratory, Arzamas-16, despite being Jewish and despite the fact that his father Boris had been sent to the labor camps. And Andrei D. Sakharov, the "father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb" and a brilliant fighter for human rights, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Along the way, Hargittai shines a light on the harrowing conditions under which these brilliant researchers excelled. Indeed, in the post-war period, Stalin's anti-Semitism and ongoing anti-science measures devastated biology, damaged chemistry, and nearly destroyed physics. The latter was saved only because Stalin realized that without physics and physicists there could be no nuclear weapons. The extraordinary scientific talent nurtured by the Soviet regime belongs almost entirely to the past. Buried Glory is both a fitting tribute to these great scientists and a fascinating account of scientific work behind the Iron Curtain.
If science has the equivalent of a Bloomsbury group, it is the five men born at the turn of the twentieth century in Budapest: Theodore von Kármán, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller. From Hungary to Germany to the United States, they remained friends and continued to work together and influence each other throughout their lives. As a result, their work was integral to some of the most important scientific and political developments of the twentieth century. István Hargittai tells the story of this remarkable group: Wigner won a Nobel Prize in theoretical physics; Szilard was the first to see that a chain reaction based on neutrons was possible, initiated the Manhattan Project, but left physics to try to restrict nuclear arms; von Neumann could solve difficult problems in his head and developed the modern computer for more complex problems; von Kármán became the first director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, providing the scientific basis for the U.S. Air Force; and Teller was the father of the hydrogen bomb, whose name is now synonymous with the controversial "Star Wars" initiative of the 1980s. Each was fiercely opinionated, politically active, and fought against all forms of totalitarianism. Hargittai, as a young Hungarian physical chemist, was able to get to know some of these great men in their later years, and the depth of information and human interest in The Martians of Science is the result of his personal relationships with the subjects, their families, and their contemporaries.
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