The research field includes crucial new areas of study:
• an improvement in the management of freshwater resources through the use of residual geothermal water;
• a review of the technologies available in the field of geothermal water treatment for its (re)use for energetic purposes and freshwater production, and
• the development of balneotherapy.
The book is aimed at professionals, academics and decision makers worldwide, water sector representatives and administrators, business enterprises specializing in renewable energy management and water treatment, working in the areas of geothermal energy usage, water resources, water supply and energy planning. This book has the potential to become a standard text used by educational institutions and research & development establishments involved in the geothermal water management.
This book will serve as a synoptic compendium of the fundamentals of fluid, solute and heat transport, applicable to all types of subsurface systems, ranging from shallow aquifers down to deep geothermal reservoirs.
The book will prove to be a useful textbook to senior undergraduate and graduate students, postgraduates, professional geologists and geophysicists, engineers, mathematicians and others working in the vital areas of groundwater and geothermal resources.
One of the major objectives of the world’s scientists, farmers, decisions makers and industrialists is to overcome the present dependence on fossil fuels in the agro-food sector. This dependency increases the volatility of food prices and affects economic access to sustenance.
This book provides a critical review of recent developments in solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture and the agro-food sector such as processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking.
The 6th International Congress As2016 was held June 19-23, 2016 in Stockholm, Sweden and was entitled Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability.
The Congress addressed the broader context of arsenic research along the following themes:
Theme 1: Arsenic in Environmental Matrices and Interactions (Air, Water, Soil and Biological Matrices)
Theme 2: Arsenic in Food Chain
Theme 3: Arsenic and Health
Theme 4: Clean Water Technology for Control of Arsenic
Theme 5: Societal issues, Policy Studies, Mitigation and Management
Long term exposure to low-to-medium levels of arsenic via contaminated food and drinking water can have a serious impact on human health and globally, more than 100 million people are at risk. Since the end of the 20th century, arsenic in drinking water (mainly groundwater) has emerged as a global health concern. In the past decade, the presence of arsenic in plant foods – especially rice – has gained increasing attention. In the Nordic countries in particular, the use of water-soluble inorganic arsenic chemicals (e.g. chromated copper arsenate, CCA) as wood preservatives and the mining of sulfidic ores have been flagged as health concern. The issue has been accentuated by discoveries of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, primarily in the private wells, in parts of the Fennoscandian Shield and in sedimentary formations, with potentially detrimental effects on public health. Sweden has been at the forefront of research on the health effects of arsenic, technological solutions for arsenic removal, and sustainable mitigation measures for developing countries. Hosting this Congress in Sweden was also relevant because historically Sweden has been one of the leading producer of As2O3 and its emission from the smelting industries in northern Sweden and has successfully implemented actions to reduce the industrial emissions of arsenic as well as minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic in since 1977. The Congress has gathered professionals involved in different segments of interdisciplinary research in an open forum, and strengthened relations between academia, industry, research laboratories, government agencies and the private sector to share an optimal atmosphere for exchange of knowledge, discoveries and discussions about the problem of arsenic in the environment and catalyze the knowledge generation and innovations at a policy context to achieve the goals for post 2015 Sustainable Development.
This book provides an overview on possible cost-efficient techniques and application opportunities for different scales and shows why the implementation of these technologies faces numerous technological, economic and policy barriers and provides suggestions how they can be overcome. It serves as a synoptic compendium of the fundamentals of freshwater production using renewable energies, applicable to all types of water, ranging from brackish to marine water and also including industrial and communal residual water. The book is aimed at professionals, academics and decision makers worldwide, working in the areas of water resources, water supply,land planning, energy planning, greenhouse gases emission mitigation and rural development.
The session topics comprised:
1. Geology and hydrogeology of arsenic;
2. Medical and health issues of arsenic;
3. Remediation and policy;
4. Analytical methods for arsenic; and
5. Special topics on "Risk assessment of arsenic from mining", "Geomicrobiology of arsenic", "Geothermal arsenic", "Rice arsenic and health perspectives", "Sustainable mitigation of arsenic: from field trials to policy implications", and "Biogeochemical processes of high arsenic groundwater in inland basins"
Hosting this congress in Australia was welcome and valued by the local scientific communities. Australia is a mineral rich country where mining has generated significant economic benefit to its people. Unfortunately historical mining for base metals, gold and arsenic had led to environmental contamination of arsenic. Locally produced arsenical compounds were widely used as pesticides and in timber preservation. It is known that there are several thousands of cattle- and sheep-dip sites contaminated with arsenic in Australia. However, commonly observed symptoms of chronic arsenic poisonings such as those found in endemic-blackfoot areas are seemingly absent from these types of environmental contamination due to good quality of potable water supply. Does this fall in the classic argument of "the dose makes the poison"? This congress theme of "understanding the geological and medical interface of arsenic" will advance our knowledge in minimising the risk posted by this so-called number one prioritised contaminant – arsenic.
1. Geology + hydrogeology of arsenic;
2. Ecological effects: Arsenic in soils, plants and food chain;
3. Marine + terrestrial biota;
4. Health effects on humans: Epidemiology + biomarkers;
5. Toxicological effects;
6. Assessment and remediation;
7. Analytical methods.
Hosting this congress in Taiwan was especially relevant, because the endemic Blackfoot Disease, related to the arsenic uptake from drinking water supplied by artesian wells, was discovered here half a century ago. Since then Taiwan has become an important region specializing in arsenic research. This volume presents the extended abstracts of the congress and will give the latest state of the art knowledge based on current research performed by the global scientific community.
This book will improve the knowledge and understanding of the occurrence and genesis of arsenic-rich groundwaters in Taiwan. It deals with constraints on the mobility of arsenic in groundwater, its uptake from soil and water by plants, arsenic-propagation through the food chain, human health impacts, and arsenic-removal technologies. Taiwan case experiences are described in this book and can be applied worldwide.
This book is a state-of-the-art overview of research on arsenic in Taiwan and is designed to:create interest in regions within Taiwan that are affected by the presence of arseniferous aquifers; draw attention from the international scientific community; increase awareness among researchers, administrators, policy makers, and company executives; improve the international cooperation on arsenic problems worldwide.