Philosophy is the science of the science and therefore the analysis of the assumptions underlying empirical inquiry. Given that these assumptions cannot possibly be examined or even identified on the basis of empirical data, it follows that philosophy is a non-empirical discipline. And given that our linguistic and cultural practices cannot possibly be examined or even identified except on the basis of empirical data, it follows that philosophical questions are not linguistic questions and do not otherwise concern our conventions or our cultural practices. This entails that philosophical truths are not tautologous or otherwise trivial. It also entails that empiricism is false and, therefore, that Platonism is correct. Given a clear understanding of why Platonism is correct and of what this implies, a number of shibboleths of contemporary analytic philosophy are speedily demolished and are no less speedily replaced with independently corroborated and intuitively plausible alternatives. New answers are given to age-old questions concerning scientific explanation, causal and logical dependence, linguistic meaning, personal identity, the structure of the psyche, and the nature of personal responsibility. Existing answers to these question are thoroughly considered and duly extended, modified, or replaced. Every technical term is defined; every philosophy-specific concept is explained; and the positions defended are consistent with commonsense, so far as their being consistent with the relevant data allows them to be. Therefore, this book is intelligible to philosophically minded laymen. At the same time, it is appropriate for advanced scholars, given that it defends original viewpoints and given also that, even though it discusses old viewpoints, it does so in new ways. Because it is clearly written, it is intelligible to neophytes; but it is not an introductory text and it is not a textbook. There are two appendices: the first, a thorough exposition of the rudiments of formal logic, along with the conceptual underpinnings of that discipline; the second, a definition and analytic discussion of each technical term that occurs in the text.
Table of Contents

Three Short Philosophy Papers on Human Freedom

The Paradox of Religions Institutions

Different Perspectives on Religious Belief: O’Reilly v. Dawkins. v. James v. Clifford

Schopenhauer on Suicide

Schopenhauer’s Fractal Conception of Reality

Theodore Roszak’s Views on Bicameral Consciousness

Philosophy Exam Questions and Answers

Locke, Aristotle and Kant on Virtue

Logic Lecture for Erika

Kant’s Ethics

Van Cleve on Epistemic Circularity

Plato’s Theory of Forms

Can we trust our senses? Yes we can

Descartes on What He Believes Himself to Be

The Role of Values in Science

Modern Science

Kant’s Moral Philosophy

Plato’s Republic as Pol Potist Bureaucracy

Schopenhauer on Human Suffering

Bertrand Russell on the Value of Philosophy

The Philosophical Value of Uncertainty

Logic Homework: Theorems and Models

Searle vs. Turing on the Imitation Game

Hume, Frankfurt, and Holbach on Personal Freedom

Manifesto of the University of Wisconsin, Madison Secular Society

Michael’s Analysis of the Limits of Civil Protections

Bentham and Mill on Different Types of Pleasure

Set Theory Homework

Aristotle on Virtue

Nagel On the Hard Problem

Wittgenstein on Language and Thought

Camus and Schopenhauer on the Meaning of Life

Camus’ Hero as Rebel without a Cause

My Little Finger: Camus’ Absurdism Illustrated

Are Late-term Abortions Ethical?

Does Mathematics Assume the Truth of Platonism?

The Self-defeating Nature of Utilitarianism and Consequentialism Generally

What is The Good Life?

Bentham and Mill regarding types of pleasures

Kant’s Moral Philosophy

Five Short Papers on Mind-body Dualism

Tracy Latimer’s Father had the Right to Kill Her: Towards a doctrine of generalized self-defense

Arguments Concerning God and Morality

Goldman, Rousseau and von Hayek on the Ideal State

J.S Mill on Liberty and Personal Freedom

A Kantian Analysis of a Borderline Date-rape Situation

Living Well as Flourishing: Aristotle’s Conception of the Good Life

Three Essays on Medical Ethics: Answers to Exam Questions on Elective Amputation, Vaccination, and Informed Consent

Hobbes, Marx, Rousseau, Nietzsche: Their Central Themes

De Tocqueville on Egoism

Mill vs. Hobbes on Liberty

Exam-Essays on the Moral Systems of Mill, Bentham, and Kant

Kant’s Moral System

Aristotle on Virtue

Plato’s Cave Allegory

An Ethical Quandary


The Tuskegee Experiment A Rawlsian Analysis

Why Moore’s Proof of an External World Fails

A Defense of Nagel’s Argument Against Materialism

A Utilitarian Analysis of a Case of Theft

The Paradox of the Self-aware Wretch: An Analysis of Pascal’s Moral Philosophy

Jean-Paul Sartre: Decline and Fall of a Marxist Sell-out

A One Page Proof of Plato’s Theory of Forms

Plato’s Republic as Pol Potist Bureaucracy

The problem of the one and the many

Four Short Essays on Truth and Knowledge

What is ‘the Good Life?’

The Ontological Argument

Different Political Philosophies: Plato, Locke, Madison, Rousseau, Hayek, and Mill on the State

What do I know with certainty?

Skepticism about skepticism

Neuroscience and Freewill

Operant Conditioning

What makes us special?

Are Late-term Abortions Ethical? No

Two Papers on Epistemology: Gettier and Bostrom Examination

Nietzsche on Punishment

God’s Foreknowledge and Moral Responsibility

What is it to have a concept? What is it to make an inference? What is it to be rational? On the basis of recent developments in semantics, a number of authors have embraced answers to these questions that have radically counterintuitive consequences, for example:
• One can rationally accept self-contradictory propositions (e.g.
Smith is a composer and Smith is not a composer). • Psychological states are causally inert: beliefs and desires do nothing.
• The mind cannot be understood in terms of folk-psychological concepts (e.g. belief, desire, intention).
• One can have a single concept without having any others: an otherwise conceptless creature could grasp the concept of justice or of the number seven.
• Thoughts are sentence-tokens, and thought-processes are driven by the syntactic, not the semantic, properties of those tokens.

In the first half of Conceptual Atomism and the Computational Theory of Mind, John-Michael Kuczynski argues that these implausible but widely held views are direct consequences of a popular doctrine known as content-externalism, this being the view that the contents of one’s mental states are constitutively dependent on facts about the external world. Kuczynski shows that content-externalism involves a failure to distinguish between, on the one hand, what is literally meant by linguistic expressions and, on the other hand, the information that one must work through to compute the literal meanings of such expressions.
The second half of the present work concerns the Computational Theory of Mind (CTM). Underlying CTM is an acceptance of conceptual atomism – the view that a creature can have a single concept without having any others – and also an acceptance of the view that concepts are not descriptive (i.e. that one can have a concept of a thing without knowing of any description that is satisfied by that thing). Kuczynski shows that both views are false, one reason being that they presuppose the truth of content-externalism, another being that they are incompatible with the epistemological anti-foundationalism proven correct by Wilfred Sellars and Laurence Bonjour. Kuczynski also shows that CTM involves a misunderstanding of terms such as “computation”, “syntax”, “algorithm” and “formal truth”; and he provides novel analyses of the concepts expressed by these terms. (Series A)
Abridged Table of Contents

The Altman-Z Bankruptcy-Prediction Algorithm

Application of Cobit-framework (July 24, 2019)

Microsoft Financial Analysis 2016-2018 (June 23, 2019)


Operating Cash Flow

Common Equity


Return on Equity

Net Profit Margin

Asset Turnover


Return on Assets

Liquidity Ratios

Current Ratio

Quick Ratio

Ebit Interest Coverage

Average Days to Collect Receivables


Works Cited

Microsoft Five Forces Analysis


Industry Competition (Strong Force)

Bargaining Power of Customers (Weak Force)

Bargaining Power of Suppliers (Moderate Force)

Threat of Substitutes (Weak Force)

Threat of New Entrants (Moderate Force)


Reflection Paper: Harvey on Commodity Fetishism (Politics/Economics)

Reflection Paper: Defending Marxist Economist (Politics/Economics)

Outline of Economics Paper on Contradictions in Free Market (Economics)

Some Reflections on the Virtues of the Free Market (Economics/Politics/Current Events)

When is wealth-redistribution legitimate? (Economics/Philosophy)

An Economic Argument for Drug-legalization (Economics)

Hobbes, Marx, Rousseau, Nietzsche: Their Central Themes (Politics/Philosophy/Intellectual History)

De Tocqueville on Egoism (Politics/History/Philosophy)

Would the Founding Fathers Approve of Trump? (Politics/Current Events)

The Most Basic Principles of Knowledge Management

The ‘Free’ Market Isn’t Always So Free

An Analysis of Barry Deutsch’s ‘Really Good Careers’ (Economics/Current Events)

Knowledge Management and Information Economics in Relation

to the Optimization of Instruction-markets (Economics/Business/Graduate Work)

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Study


Background to the Study

Problem Statement

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions

Advancing Scientific Knowledge and Significance of Study

Rationale for Methodology

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

Research Questions

Definitions of Terms

Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations

Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study


Goldman, Rousseau and von Hayek on the Ideal State (Politics)

Take-home Exam on Russian History (Politics/History/Current Events)

Did the founding fathers support or oppose democracy? Was the Constitution a democratic document or an anti-democratic document? (History/Politics)

The Two Faces of China’s Negative Soft Power:

China’s Belt and Road Initiative as a Case of Negative Soft Power (Politics)

Interest Groups and Political Parties (Politics/Current Events)

What led to the collapse of the Soviet Union? (Politics/History/Current Events)

Plato’s Republic as Pol Potist Bureaucracy (Politics/Philosophy)

Politics and Contemporary France and Russia (Politics/Current Events)

Politics in the USA, Russia and France

Political Parties in the United States: A Brief History

France’s Political System

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