This Atlas is one of a series devoted to neurosurgical and neuro logical conditions and is complementary to Atlas of the Histology of Brain Tumors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1971), which was the first in the atlas series. The Atlas is based on the Handbuch der Neurochirurgie, Vols. I and III (Springer 1956, 1959) but, whereas this is a comprehensive reference work, the present book is intended to give the practicing neurosurgeon, neuroradiolo gist, neuropathologist and neurologist the concise information they need for diagnostic purposes concerning the aspect, site, and ma lignancy of tumors and other space-occupying lesions in the brain. The schematic diagrams showing the sites of predilection of these tumors, as well as a piOgnosis based on the degree of malignancy, will be most useful here. The early chapters discuss the general rules governing displace ments due to space-occupying lesions and the manifestations of brain herniations. Other neurosurgical conditions, such as localized inflammatory processes, edema and obstructive hydrocephalus, are dealt with in brief chaptets; in this case I have chosen to show some of the rarer conditions rather than all the common lesions. In spite of probable future changes in terminology and classification, we have retained the classification used in the Atlas of Histology of Brain Tumors.
The third American edition has been completely revised and expanded, although parts of the text of the second edition have been included. I wish to acknowledge once again the excellent translation of the former two editions by Dr. ALAN B. ROTHBALLER and the late Dr. JERZY OLSZEWSKI. With this edition I have followed the general theme of the original German edition published in 1951. However, I have tried to consider modern techniques and the many new publications on the subject of brain tumors. Meanwhile, an early desire of mine has been fulfilled by the completion and publication of a classification which can be understood worldwide and hopefully be used widely, namely, the classi fication of the World Health Organization: Histological Typing of Tu mours of the Central Nervous System (1979). The classification which I used in the 1951 edition is very close to the final pattern of that accepted by the World Health Organization (WHO), since both follow the line of the BAILEY and CUSHING classifica tion of 1926/1930. To consolidate our old concepts and experiences we have reclassi fied our collection of 9000 cases with the assistance of my co-workers Dr. M. FUKUI, Dr. A. SATO. Dr. E. SCHARRER, Dr. E. SIMON, and Dr. J. SZYMAS. In the last decade two large atlases have been published, one called an Atlas of the Histology of Brain Tumors 1 (in six languages) and a second one called an Atlas of the Gross Neurosurgical Pathology 2.
The investigation of the brain by means of ultrasound has acquired increasing importance in the last years because it permits insight into the spatial relationships within the intact human skull in a short time without endangering the patient. The road from the first ultra sonic investigations on the exposed brain to the detection of intracranial midline shifts on the intact skull, the registration of echo pulsations and recently, to ultrasonotomography has been a long one already. However, this development is by no means at an end. Following the suggestion of numerous colleagues concerned with echo-encephalography in this country and abroad, the Neurosurgical Clinic of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg organized an "International Symposium on Echo-Encephalography" on April 14th and 15th, 1967. Here there was an open exchange of experience on the results obtained up to the present. The limitations of the method and sources of error as well as the directions of future development of the ultrasonic echo procedure were discussed.
Dr. Kaufmann and I wish to welcome you here in Schloss Auel to this second symposium on brain and heart infarct. We have chosen this lovely castle because I am always dissatisfied with meetings in great hotels in cities, where we rush to and from the meeting rooms. I had such an experience overseas just 3 weeks ago from 8 o'clock in the morning until 10 o'clock at night. We want you to feel some of the wonderful atmosphere of the Bergisches La~d. Moreover, we wanted like you to enjoy a bit of the spirit of the Rhein valley and the 2000-year-old city of Cologne, even at the expense of losing a few hours of discus sion; though this may be a quantitative loss, we feel sure that the environment of this city will stimulate our discussions. Two years ago we gathered here in Schloss Auel for the first time, attempting to conduct a discussion between neurologists and cardiologists on the similarities and dissimilarities of circulatory disorders of the brain and heart. We are happy to continue this discussi?n in the days to come.
The demonstration of the basic brain mechanism through studying the partially commissure-sectioned case appears to be a most prom ising enterprise. The work with animals of HAMILTON and others in elucidating psychological brain process heretofore not imagined are mere indications of what the potential seems to be. Study of the partially disconnected patient seems equally revealing and productive in showing how many high level cognitive activities are managed in the cerebral flow of information. With respect to the issue of localization of function, it would seem clear that those cerebral areas clearly involved in the im mediate processing of raw sensory information can be selectively and specifically isolated and disconnected. In other words, the informational products of the long axonal type cells of Golgi, which MARCUS JACOBSON claims are the brain cells under strict genetic control, can be isolated, whereas the products of more complex and integrative mental activities which are managed by the more mutable Golgi type II cells do not seem to be so spec ifically disposed. Thus, these data suggest the lateralized spe cialities of the various left and right brain areas can make their contribution to the cerebral activities of the opposite hemisphere through almost any callosal area regardless of its size and loca tion. Indeed, this interpretation suggests to me that the long standing issue of the extent of localization could be better un derstood by considering the dichotomy in genetic specification as offered by HIRSCH and JACOBSON (1974).