Why does a huge income gap still exist between developed and developing countries? Plausible causes on the surface may be the difference in technology, the quality of human resources, and economic institutions, but on the deeper level the gap reflects the success and failure of state building which is vital for economic development. This book provides cutting-edge knowledge on state building, economic development, and democratization based on case studies of Japan, ASEAN, South Asia, and selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
The book examines the interaction between land policies and the state building in sub-Saharan Africa. It also pays special attention to corruption, which affects the relationship between the state and the development, and decentralization, which exerts influences on the contentious politics. Finally, the book also sheds new light on the failure and success of industrial policies based on a literature review and a case study of the rapidly growing pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh.
This book is one of the few studies which squarely addresses state building and economic development, and will be of use to those interested in this subject, development practitioners, and policymakers in developing countries.
The story for maize is wholly different, where most farmers use local varieties, apply little chemical fertilizer, and obtain very low yields. However, in the highly populated highlands of Kenya, a number of farmers have adopted high-yielding hybrid maize varieties and chemical fertilizer, as was the case in the Asian Green Revolution, apply manure produced by stall-fed cows, as was the case during the British Agricultural Revolution, and keep improved cows or cross-breeds from European cows and local stock, as was the case of the Indian White Revolution. We conclude that while rice in Africa has benefited from an Asian Green Revolution strategy that emphasizes modern seeds, inputs, and focused knowledge transfers, the success of Africa’s Maize Revolution will require a different system approach based on hybrid maize, chemical and organic fertilizers, and stall-fed cross-bred cows.
The chapters in the book explore how the spread of Green Revolution has triggered the subsequent transformation of rural economies. Many rural households in Asia have been able to move out of poverty in the presence of increasing scarcity of farmland initially by increasing rice income through the adoption of modern rice technology and gradually diversifying their income sources away from farm to non-farm activities. Increased participation in non-farm employment has been more pronounced among the more educated children, whose education is facilitated by an increase in farm income brought about by the Green Revolution. This book identifies the importance of Green Revolution and non-farm employment for poverty reduction in Asia, which provides valuable lessons for sub-Saharan Africa.
This book is topical considering that the agriculture scenario in many countries has been undergoing a transformation due to various factors such as changes in governments` macroeconomic policies and climatic variations.
The book also highlights that in order to minimize the negative impact of farmers` own yield gaps (the difference between farmers` own potential and actual yields) on their income levels, it is important that new approaches to agricultural technological development be employed in the form of more opportunities rather than a single crop production technology.
This book will be of great value to development economists, students and researchers interested in rural economies in Asia, and policymakers engaged in poverty reduction.
This volume examines different aspects of the Japanese experience in a comparative context. There is much here of relevance to contemporary developing countries anxious to initiate the experience of miraculous growth and anxious to avoid the subsequent stagnation.
Such issues of the role of government in providing the right amount of infant industry protection, the relevance of the financial system, the country’s peculiar corporate structure and the role of education in a comparative context serve to illuminate the lessons and legacies of this unique experience in development.
The relationship between various dimensions of its domestic policy experience and Japan’s international experience in trade promotion and foreign aid is explored and is of special interest to an international audience of academics and policymakers.
The case studies in the book show that, while land markets and especially informal markets have been rapidly emerging in densely populated parts of Africa - and have generally been to the benefit of the poor--their functions remain imperfect. This is due to policy-induced tenure insecurity and the fragmentation of agricultural land. Applying rigorous quantitative analyses, the book provides a basis for taking into account the role of land markets in national land policies. All too often, the authors argue, land policies have been extreme, either prohibiting all land transactions or giving unrestricted freehold rights to a small elite at the expense of the poor. From the long experience in Asia, it is known that such policies are detrimental to both production efficiency and equity of land use. The authors argue that future policies in Africa should work with the markets. Regulations should be imposed only with careful testing that they are having the intended effects.
The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa is a resource for teaching in developed and developing countries, as it provides both comprehensive reviews of the literature and detailed case studies. It is intended to facilitate the dialogue between researchers and policymakers, as well as inspire researchers to go further in their investigations and build an even stronger basis for good policies. The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa is the first publication in the new Environment for Development (EfD) book series. EfD books focus on research and applications in environmental and natural resource economics as they are relevant to poverty reduction and environmental problems in developing countries. The EfD book series is part of the EfD initiative. (www.environmentfordevelopment.org)
Despite the common issues addressed by economic historians and development economists regarding the advantages of industrial districts for industrial development, discussion of these issues between the two groups of researchers has been largely absent, or at best weak. The purpose of this book is to integrate the results of case studies by economic historians interested in France, Spain, and Japan and those by development economists interested in the contemporary industries still developing in China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Tanzania, and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa.