In offshore oil and gas operations, produced water (the water produced with oil or gas from a well) accounts for the largest waste stream (in terms of volume discharged). Its discharge is continuous during oil and gas production and typically increases in volume over the lifetime of an offshore production platform.
Produced water discharge as waste into the ocean has become an environmental concern because of its potential contaminant content. Environmental risk assessments of ocean discharge of produced water have yielded different results. For example, several laboratory and field studies have shown that significant acute toxic effects cannot be detected beyond the "point of discharge" due to rapid dilution in the receiving waters. However, there is some preliminary evidence of chronic sub-lethal impacts in biota associated with the discharge of produced water from oil and gas fields within the North Sea.
As the composition and concentration of potential produced water contaminants may vary from one geologic formation to another, this conference also highlights the results of recent studies in Atlantic Canada.
This book provides a timely international perspective on applied research and development, technology transfer, and “lessons learned” from field trials and actual case studies associated with recent spill events. Topics include Preparedness/Contingency Planning, (Eco-terrorism); Oil Spill Fate and Transport (Environmental Persistence, Remote Sensing, modelling, Biodegradation), Biological Effects (Environmental Effects Monitoring and Environmental Risk Assessment); and Operational Response (Containment/Recovery Treating Agents, Shoreline Cleanup, In-situ Burning, Emerging Response Strategies). This book provides a synopsis as to the methods currently employed to deals with spills and an insight on future technologies under development.
This special volume is the result of several years of collaboration between Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Internationally recognized research scientists at many institutions have contributed to this state-of-the-art examination of the exciting, environmentally important field of microscale testing in aquatic toxicology.
Microscale Testing in Aquatic Toxicology contains over forty chapters covering relevant principles, new techniques and recent advancements, and applications in scientific research, environmental management, academia, and the private sector.
Kenneth Lee explains why recent immigration policy has failed to reflect the public opinion by approaching the question from a broad, historical outlook, and from a focused, contemporary perspective. He traces several momentous historical changes that have abetted the pro-immigration block and weakened the restrictionists' clout (mainly, the rise of conservative economics in the 1970s and the growing racial liberalism in America). He also examines immigration policy on a micro-level: detailing the intense lobbying that went on for the 1990 and 1996 immigration bills, and he also shows how unlikely players as, for example, Christian Coalition's Ralph Reed, helped defeat the restrictionist bill in 1996.