In spite of intensive efforts over many decades, the problem of turbulence remains as challenging as ever and the number of papers, books and conferences on this topic con tinues to grow. As experimental techniques and computing power have developed, the breadth of investigations into the structure and development of turbulent flows has in creased to encompass many diverse fields of application in engineering, physics, biolo gy and so on. As a consequence, it is now very difficult for a single research worker to keep in touch with the many developments that are taking place in turbulence. One of the few opportunities for obtaining some overall view of the subject arises from large international symposia on turbulence and, although they have some drawbacks, it is this opportunity that is one of their main merits. The International Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows has now been held on three occasions and they seem to be established as a major opportunity for papers on a very diverse range of topics to be presented at a single meeting. This volume is a collec tion of papers from the third symposium that was held at the University of California, Davis from 9-11 September 1981. The papers are divided into four sections entitled Wall Flows, Scalar Transport, Recirculating Flows and Fundamentals. This collection represents about a third of the total number of papers presented.
The Fourth International Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows took place at Karlsruhe University in Germany. The papers presented at this Symposium encompassed a similar range to that of the previous meetings, with greater emphasis placed on experimental work, and continued a trend towards the examination of complex flows. Once again, three dimensional, recirculating and reacting flows featured strongly in the programme and were complemented by consideration of two-phase flows and discussions of both numerical and experimental techniques. The Symposium brought together some 300 participants from all over the world, and it was evident that there is a need for Turbulent Shear Flows Symposia, in order to obtain and communicate new information useful to researchers in the field of turbulent flows and of interest to engineers who design flow equipment. This volume contains 27 papers selected from more than 100 presentations at the Symposium which have been reviewed and edited before publication. Together they provide an indication of the status of current knowledge on the subjects represented at the Sympo sium. They are grouped into four sections, namely: • Fundamentals • Free Flows • Boundary Layers • Reacting Flows As in previous volumes in this series, each section begins with an introductory article con sidering the papers which follow in the broader context of available literature and current research.