Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3, http://www.uni-jena.de/ (Institut für Anglistik/Amerikanistik), course: Mythology for England, 9 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Narrator. Storyteller. When thinking about a person who narrates or tells a story, one of the first impressions that usually come to mind is that of a man or a woman, sitting in a well-worn rocking chair, surrounded by children who listen with rapt attention to tales of dragons and princesses. This image, depicting the classical oral storyteller as he has been known since ancient times, may at first glance have little to do with the narrative voice of a written work of literature. However, the oral storyteller and the narrator of a novel have many things in common. They both mediate the story to an audience - either to a real one that is physically present or to an impersonal reader of a book, and, depending on their technique, they are able to recount a story in a number of ways. There are many different approaches to narrating a tale. A narrator can remain mostly in the background and simply relate the story to his readers or listeners, without any commentary of other interruptions, or he can narrate the story through his or her own eyes, using the first person singular and thus creating an intensely personal atmosphere and letting the audience experience the adventures almost first-hand. However, sometimes the narrator can become actively involved into the tale, but without actually being a part of it. He adds his own thoughts and opinions to the story, he speaks to the readers himself and actively guides them through his story. Such a narrator is also present in Tolkien’s novel The Hobbit. So the topic of this paper will be to analyse the narrator of The Hobbit, and to determine his most characteristic features. It will be illustrated on the following pages that the narrator of The Hobbit is an intrusive authorial narrator who frequently comments on and judges the characters as well as the unfolding events, who is acutely aware of himself, his audience and his role as a storyteller, and who addressed his readers in a direct way and actively leads them through his narrative. Furthermore it will be determined whether there are any obvious changes to the narrative voice in the last chapters of the book, which were written over three years after the rest of the novel.
Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject American Studies - Culture and Applied Geography, grade: 2 (B), http://www.uni-jena.de/ (Institute for Anglistics/American Studies), course: S: 'Rule, Britannia...' English Cultural History, ca. 1815 - 1900, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The history of Ireland is a turbulent one full of mysterious customs, fiery battles and unwavering pride. Many events have given account to the repeated struggle of the Irish people against invasion and the loss of their freedom. Such an incident also took place in the year 1916. It was probably one of the most important occurrences in Irish history, and it shaped the future of the country for many years to come, all the way until the present time. The event in question is until today known as the Easter Rising. On Easter Monday, the 24 April 1916, a siege was organized that lasted only for 5 days and ended in a massacre. However, the consequences of this comparatively small act of revolution were enormous. The Easter rising heavily influenced the political relations between Ireland and England during the years that followed, and was the foundation stone of Ireland’s militant fight for independence. The aim of this paper will be to show that the Easter Rebellion of 1916 was the crucial event in the history of modern Ireland, and that it profoundly shaped political relations with England for many years afterwards. The first chapter will consist of a synopsis of the proceedings leading up to the rising, and the naming of possible reasons for the rebellion. Following will be a recount of the happenings on that fateful Easter Monday and the four days after, including the results of the upheaval and the subsequent reactions of the British government. Lastly it will be dealt with the consequences of the Easter rebellion, and how it influenced the political proceedings in the years following 1916.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2005 im Fachbereich Ethnologie / Volkskunde, Note: 1,0, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Veranstaltung: KpS Gartenkultur, 7 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Der Klostergarten, welcher im Mittelpunkt dieser Arbeit stehen soll, ist einer der wohl bekanntesten und am häufigsten mit dem Mittelalter assoziierten Gartentypen. Allerdings war der Klostergarten bei weitem nicht der einzige Vertreter der Gartenkultur jener Zeit, auch wenn er heute nahezu der einzige mittelalterliche Gartentyp ist, der noch mehr oder weniger unversehrt erhalten werden konnte. Aus diesem Grund soll dieses erste Kapitel dazu genutzt werden, die wichtigsten mittelalterlichen Gartentypen, welche besonders der Erholung dienten, kurz vorzustellen und zu erläutern, um ein umfassenderes Bild der Gartenkultur des Mittelalters zu präsentieren. Zudem sollen auch einige der wichtigeren mittelalterlichen Nutzgärten kurz genannt werden. Die folgenden Ausführungen sind zudem auch für das Verständnis des mittelalterlichen Klostergartens von Bedeutung, da dieser in der Regel eine Verschmelzung diverser unterschiedlicher Gärten war. So waren die im Folgenden zu besprechenden Gartentypen nicht nur separat, sondern oftmals auch als Bestandteil eines Klostergartenkomplexes zu finden. Allerdings muss einleitend gesagt werden, dass die Rekonstruktion von mittelalterlichen Gärten ein schwieriges Unterfangen ist, da mit Ausnahme der Klostergärten so gut wie keine Anlagen aus jener Zeit erhalten geblieben sind. Ein Großteil der Informationen, welche zur Bestimmung des Aufbaus und des Aussehens der Gärten genutzt wurden, mussten daher aus sekundären Quellen gewonnen werden, zum Beispiel aus erhaltenen Kunstwerken, aus schriftlichen Quellen oder aus archäologischen Funden, welche Aufschluss über erhaltenen Reste mittelalterlicher Gärten liefern. Mit Hilfe solcher Quellen war es möglich, den Aufbau mittelalterlicher Gärten relativ zuverlässig zu rekonstruieren. Im Folgenden sollen nun drei der wichtigsten überlieferten mittelalterlichen Gartentypen vorgestellt werden, welche vor allem im englischen Raum weite Verbreitung fanden.
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