This 2006 textbook discusses the fundamentals and applications of statistical thermodynamics for beginning graduate students in the physical and engineering sciences. Building on the prototypical Maxwell–Boltzmann method and maintaining a step-by-step development of the subject, this book assumes the reader has no previous exposure to statistics, quantum mechanics or spectroscopy. The book begins with the essentials of statistical thermodynamics, pauses to recover needed knowledge from quantum mechanics and spectroscopy, and then moves on to applications involving ideal gases, the solid state and radiation. A full introduction to kinetic theory is provided, including its applications to transport phenomena and chemical kinetics. A highlight of the textbook is its discussion of modern applications, such as laser-based diagnostics. The book concludes with a thorough presentation of the ensemble method, featuring its use for real gases. Numerous examples and prompted homework problems enrich the text.