What is the state of school infrastructure for primary and secondary education in Paraguay? How much is invested by the government in order to improve school infrastructure and how have these investments evolved over time? What is the legal framework for such investments and is it appropriate? Given budget constraints, which types of investments are likely to be most needed in order to help improve student learning? Finally, how well targeted to the schools most in need are the infrastructure investments being made today? In order to help inform decision making by the Ministry of Education in this area, the objective of this study is to provide tentative answers to those questions on the basis of administrative budget data as well as school level data collected through a 2008 school infrastructure census. The study benefited from support from the Global Partnership for Education.
Despite substantial progress towards peace, economic growth, and better governance since 2003, Liberia remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The objective of this study is twofold. First it is to provide a basic diagnostic of both consumption-based poverty and human development (especially education and health) in the country using the 2007 CWIQ (Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire) survey. Second, it is to assess the likely impact on the poor of the recent economic crisis, and especially the increase in rice prices, and to document the targeting performance of various measures taken by the government in 2008/09 to help the poor cope with the crisis. These measures included a reduction in import taxes for rice, a reform of the personal income tax, and the implementation of a cash for work temporary employment program.
The purpose of this study is to build a stronger evidence base on the role of faith-inspired, private secular, and public schools in sub-Saharan Africa using nationally representative household surveys as well as qualitative data. Six main findings emerge from the study: (1) Across a sample of 16 countries, the average market share for faith-inspired schools is at 10-15 percent, and the market share for private secular schools is of a similar order of magnitude; (2) On average faith-inspired schools do not reach the poor more than other groups; they also do not reach the poor more than public schools, but they do reach the poor significantly more than private secular schools; (3) The cost of faith-inspired schools for households is higher than that of public schools, possibly because of a lack of access to public funding, but lower than that of private secular schools; (4) Faith-inspired and private secular schools have higher satisfaction rates among parents than public schools; (5) Parents using faith-inspired schools place a stronger emphasis on religious education and moral values; and (6) Students in faith-inspired and private schools perform better than those in public schools, but this may be due in part to self-selection.
This study provides a diagnostic of the benefit incidence and targeting performance of a large number of social programs in Ghana. Both broad-based programs (such as spending for education and health, and subsidies for food, oil-related products and electricity) as well as targetd programs (such as LEAP, the indigent exemption under the NHIS, school lunches and uniforms, or fertilizer subsidies) are considered. In addition, the study provides tools and recommendations for better targeting of those programs in the future. The tools include new maps and data sets for geographic targeting according to poverty and food security, as well as ways to implement proxy means-testing. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a brief synthesis of the key findings and messages from the study.
The Economics of Faith-Based Service Delivery provides the first ever comprehensive empirical assessment of the role that faith-inspired institutions (FIIs) play in the supply of health care and education services in sub-Saharan Africa. Wodon focuses on estimating the market share, reach to the poor, and cost for households that rely on FIIs as opposed to public and private secular providers of education and health care services. He also analyzes the causes of user reliance on FIIs, the comparative performance of FIIs, and the level of satisfaction among those that use their services. The Economics of Faith-Based Service Delivery is an innovate combination of previously untapped nationally representative household surveys, qualitative fieldwork, and insights from the fields of religious studies and social economics.
This book presents some basic theoretical concepts of public finance with a particular emphasis on its impact poverty reduction. Eight case studies from Latin America and Africa illustrate how these concepts are applied in practice and the implementation issues that emerge.
Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, and the amount of access to safe water are increasing. Nutrition indicators are also improving. However, other factors demonstrate that many problems persist, especially the inequality between rich and poor. This report analyzes the evolution of poverty and inequality in the LAC region from 1986 to 1996 with projections to 1998. It reviews the policies which have been advocated or implemented to reduce poverty. The report combines the results of new empirical work using household surveys from 12 countries, short theoretical developments, and a review of the literature on issues related to poverty, inequality, and social policy in LAC. Some of the theoretical developments introduce new research techniques. Chapters three to six follow the framework proposed in the forthcoming 'World Development Report 2000-2001'. The framework identifies three essential elements for poverty reduction. Those elements include opportunities for the poor and investments in the human capital of the poor, security through social safety nets, and empowerment.
This volume is devoted to an assessment of the performance and selected aspects of the management and pedagogical practices of Fe y Alegr a, a federation of Jesuit schools serving approximately one million children in 20 countries, mostly in Latin America. Many observers consider Fe y Alegr a a successful organization, but very few rigorous evaluations have been conducted. The available quantitative evidence suggests that the federation s schools often do reach the poor, and that students in Fe y Alegr a schools tend to perform as well on test scores, if not slightly better, than comparable students in other schools. Qualitative data and case studies suggest that the factors that lead to good performance are complex and related not only to the types of inputs ? or resources used by the schools in the education process, but also to the management of these resources and the ability to implement and test innovative programs. Other factors that support this argument include the capacity and flexibility to implement and test innovative programs that take into account the local realities. This volume will be of interest to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working on education and public-private partnerships, and especially to those interested in what is now commonly being referred to as the science of delivery. ?
This paper presents a methodology for adjusting measures of income and poverty for the risk faced by a household. The approach draws on the standard economic concept of risk aversion, and it is based on the intuition that households will prefer a steady stream of income to a variable on with the same mean. Publishing Agency: United Nations (UN).