This book was written in the context of new and innovative policies for customs and tax administration reform. Eight chapters describe how measurement and various quantification techniques may be used to fight against corruption, improve cross-border celerity, boost revenue collection, and optimize the use of public resources. More than presenting best practices and due to the association of academics and practitioners, the case studies explore the conditions under which measurement has been introduced and the effects on the administrative structure, and its relations with the political authority and the users. By analyzing the introduction of measurement to counter corruption and improve revenue collection in Cameroon, two chapters describe to which extent the professional culture has changed and what effects have been noted or not on the public accountability of fiscal administrations. Two other chapters present experiments of uses of quantification to develop risk analysis in Cameroon and Senegal. By using mirror analysis on the one hand and data mining on the other hand, these two examples highlight the importance of automated customs clearance systems which collect daily extensive data on users, commodities flows and officials. One chapter develops the idea of measuring smuggling to improve the use of human and material resources in Algeria and nurture the questioning on the adaptation of a legal framework to the social context of populations living near borders. Finally, two examples of measurement policies, in France and in South Korea, enlighten the diversity of measurement, the specificities of developing countries and the convergences between developing and developed countries on common stakes such as trade facilitation and better use of public funds.
This first edition of A Dictionary of Dentistry provides over 4,500 definitions covering all the important terms and concepts used in dentistry today. Entries are written in clear and concise English without the use of unnecessary dental or medical jargon, and many entries are supplemented by detailed line drawings. The dictionary defines terms in a broad range of dental specialist areas including primary care, anatomy and comparative anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, radiography, radiology, orthodontics, periodontology, restorative dentistry, dental public health, paediatric dentistry, oral surgery, embryology, homeopathy, pharmacology, sedation, histology, implantology, ethics, and oral medicine. For completeness, some drugs, techniques, and instruments of historical interest have been included. It also includes a number of biographies of those who are considered to have made a highly significant contribution to dentistry. The principal muscles, nerves, arteries, veins, foramina, and sinuses of the head and neck together with illustrations are grouped together as appendices: also included is a further reading list, and a list of common symbols and abbreviations used in both the UK and America. A key feature of this book is the Dictionary of Dentistry companion website, which provides quick access to recommended web links for many entries, plus over 100 full-colour illustrations.. An essential guide for dental practitioners and dental students, it is also an invaluable reference source for all members of the dental team, medical practitioners, lawyers involved with members of the dental profession, and the general reader.