Earthquakes affecting urban areas can lead to catastrophic situations and hazard mitigation requires preparatory measures at all levels. Structural assessment is the diagnosis of the seismic health of buildings. Assessment is the prelude to decisions about rehabilitation or even demolition. The scale of the problem in dense urban settings brings about a need for macro seismic appraisal procedures because large numbers of existing buildings do not conform to the increased requirements of new earthquake codes and specifications or have other deficiencies. It is the vulnerable buildings - liable to cause damage and loss of life - that need immediate attention and urgent appraisal in order to decide if structural rehabilitation and upgrading are feasible. Current economic, efficient and occupant-friendly rehabilitation techniques vary widely and include the application either of precast concrete panels or layers, strips and patches of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) in strategic locations. The papers in this book, many by renowned authorities in earthquake engineering, chart new and vital directions of research and application in the assessment and rehabilitation of buildings in seismic regions. While several papers discuss the probabilistic prediction and quantification of structural damage, others present approaches related with the in-situ and occupant friendly upgrading of buildings and propose both economical and practical techniques to address the problem.
The Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Analysis and Design of Bridges held at ~e§me, lzmir, Turkey from 28 June 1982 to 9 July 1982 are contained in the present volume. The Advanced Study Institute was attended by 37 lecturers and participants from 10 different countries. The Organizing Committee consisted of Professors P. Gtilkan, A. C. Scordelis, S. T. Wasti and 9. Yl. lmaz. The guidelines set by NATO for the Advanced Study Institute require it to serve not only as an efficient forum for the dissemination of available advanced knowledge to a selected group of qualified people but also as a platform for the exploration of future research possibilities in the scientific or engineering areas concerned. The main topics covered by the present Advanced Study Institute were the mathematical modelling of bridges for better analysis and the scientific assessment of bridge behaviour for the introduction of improved design procedures. It has been our observation that as a result of the range and depth of the lectures presented and the many informal discussions that took place, ideas became fissile, the stimulus never flagged and many gaps in the engineering knowledge of the participants were "bridged". Here we particularly wish to mention that valuable informal presenta tions of research work were made during the course of the Institute by Drs. Friedrich, Karaesmen, Lamas and Parker.
The present volume contains a total of 23 papers centred on the research area of Seismic Assessment and Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. This subject also forms the core of Project SfP977231, sponsored by the NATO Science for Peace Office and supported by the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey [ TUBIT AK ]. Most of these papers were presented by the authors at a NATO Science for Peace Workshop held in Izmir on 13 - 14 May, 2003 and reflect a part of their latest work conducted within the general confines of the title of the NATO Project. Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey serves as the hub of Project SfP977231 and coordinates research under the project with universities within Turkey, e. g. Istanbul Technical University and Kocaeli University, and with partner institutions in Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: A few articles have also been contributed by invited experts, who are all noted researchers in the field. Altogether, the contents of the volume deal with a vast array of problems in Seismic Assessment and Rehabilitation and cover a wide range of possible solutions, techniques and proposals. It is intended to touch upon many of these aspects separately below. Earthquakes constitute possibly the most widely spread and also the most feared of natural hazards. Recent earthquakes within the first six months of 2003, such as the Bingol Earthquake in Turkey and the Algerian earthquake, have caused both loss of life and severe damage to property.