## Books

Key features:

* Gradual progression in problem difficulty builds and strengthens mathematical skills and techniques

* Basic topics include trigonometric formulas and identities, their applications in the geometry of the triangle, trigonometric equations and inequalities, and substitutions involving trigonometric functions

* Problem-solving tactics and strategies, along with practical test-taking techniques, provide in-depth enrichment and preparation for possible participation in various mathematical competitions

* Comprehensive introduction (first chapter) to trigonometric functions, their relations and functional properties, and their applications in the Euclidean plane and solid geometry expose advanced students to college level material

103 Trigonometry Problems is a cogent problem-solving resource for advanced high school students, undergraduates, and mathematics teachers engaged in competition training.

Other books by the authors include 102 Combinatorial Problems: From the Training of the USA IMO Team (0-8176-4317-6, 2003) and A Path to Combinatorics for Undergraduates: Counting Strategies (0-8176-4288-9, 2004).

The exposition concentrates on key concepts and then elementary results concerning these numbers. The reader learns how complex numbers can be used to solve algebraic equations and to understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers and the operations involving them.

The theoretical parts of the book are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty. A special feature of the book is the last chapter, a selection of outstanding Olympiad and other important mathematical contest problems solved by employing the methods already presented.

The book reflects the unique experience of the authors. It distills a vast mathematical literature, most of which is unknown to the western public, and captures the essence of an abundant problem culture. The target audience includes undergraduates, high school students and their teachers, mathematical contestants (such as those training for Olympiads or the W. L. Putnam Mathematical Competition) and their coaches, as well as anyone interested in essential mathematics.

Key features of Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems:

* A rigorous exposition starts with the natural numbers and the basics.

* Important concepts are presented with an example, which may also emphasize an application. The exposition moves systematically and intuitively to uncover deeper properties.

* Topics include divisibility, unique factorization, modular arithmetic and the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Diophantine equations, quadratic residues, binomial coefficients, Fermat and Mersenne primes and other special numbers, and special sequences. Sections on mathematical induction and the pigeonhole principle, as well as a discussion of other number systems are covered.

* Unique exercises reinforce and motivate the reader, with selected solutions to some of the problems.

* Glossary, bibliography, and comprehensive index round out the text.

Written by distinguished research mathematicians and renowned teachers, this text is a clear, accessible introduction to the subject and a source of fascinating problems and puzzles, from advanced high school students to undergraduates, their instructors, and general readers at all levels.

Key features and topics:

* Comprehensive selection of problems, including Greek geometry and optics, Newtonian mechanics, isoperimetric problems, and recently solved problems such as Malfatti’s problem

* Unified approach to the subject, with emphasis on geometric, algebraic, analytic, and combinatorial reasoning

* Presentation and application of classical inequalities, including Cauchy--Schwarz and Minkowski’s Inequality; basic results in calculus, such as the Intermediate Value Theorem; and emphasis on simple but useful geometric concepts, including transformations, convexity, and symmetry

* Clear solutions to the problems, often accompanied by figures

* Hundreds of exercises of varying difficulty, from straightforward to Olympiad-caliber

Written by a team of established mathematicians and professors, this work draws on the authors’ experience in the classroom and as Olympiad coaches. By exposing readers to a wealth of creative problem-solving approaches, the text communicates not only geometry but also algebra, calculus, and topology. Ideal for use at the junior and senior undergraduate level, as well as in enrichment programs and Olympiad training for advanced high school students, this book’s breadth and depth will appeal to a wide audience, from secondary school teachers and pupils to graduate students, professional mathematicians, and puzzle enthusiasts.

Key features:

* Intertwined discussion of linear algebra and geometry, giving readers a solid understanding of both topics and the relationship between them

* Each section starts with a concise overview of important concepts in results, followed by a selection of fully-solved problems

* Example-driven exposition

* Over 500 problems (roughly half include complete solutions) that are carefully selected for instructive appeal, elegance, and theoretical importance

* Two or more solutions provided to many of the problems; paired solutions range from step-by-step, elementary methods whose purpose is to strengthen basic comprehension to more sophisticated, powerful proofs to challenge advanced readers

* Appendices with review material on complex variables

Ideal as an introduction to linear algebra, the extensive exercises and well-chosen applications also make this text suitable for advanced courses at the junior or senior undergraduate level. Furthermore, it can serve as a colorful supplementary problem book, reference, or self-study manual for professional scientists and mathematicians. Complete with bibliography and index, "Essential Linear Algebra" is a natural bridge between pure and applied mathematics and the natural and social sciences, appropriate for any student or researcher who needs a strong footing in the theory, problem-solving, and model-building that are the subject’s hallmark.

The problems are clustered by topic into self-contained sections with solutions provided separately. All sections start with an essay discussing basic facts and one or two representative examples. A list of carefully chosen problems follows and the reader is invited to take them on. Additionally, historical insights and asides are presented to stimulate further inquiry. The emphasis throughout is on encouraging readers to move away from routine exercises and memorized algorithms toward creative solutions to open-ended problems.

Aimed at motivated high school and beginning college students and instructors, this work can be used as a text for advanced problem- solving courses, for self-study, or as a resource for teachers and students training for mathematical competitions and for teacher professional development, seminars, and workshops.

Throughout the book students are encouraged to express their ideas, conjectures, and conclusions in writing. The goal is to help readers develop a host of new mathematical tools that will be useful beyond the classroom and in a number of disciplines.

Key features of Putnam and Beyond

* Preliminary material provides an overview of common methods of proof: argument by contradiction, mathematical induction, pigeonhole principle, ordered sets, and invariants.

* Each chapter systematically presents a single subject within which problems are clustered in every section according to the specific topic.

* The exposition is driven by more than 1100 problems and examples chosen from numerous sources from around the world; many original contributions come from the authors.

* Complete solutions to all problems are given at the end of the book. The source, author, and historical background are cited whenever possible.

This work may be used as a study guide for the Putnam exam, as a text for many different problem-solving courses, and as a source of problems for standard courses in undergraduate mathematics. Putnam and Beyond is organized for self-study by undergraduate and graduate students, as well as teachers and researchers in the physical sciences who wish to to expand their mathematical horizons.

Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics.

Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bridges a useful resource in calculus, linear and abstract algebra, analysis and differential equations. Students desiring to hone and develop their mathematical skills or with an interest in mathematics competitions must have this book in their personal libraries.

102 Combinatorial Problems consists of carefully selected problems that have been used in the training and testing of the USA International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) team. The text provides in-depth enrichment in the important areas of combinatorics by systematically reorganizing and enhancing problem-solving tactics and strategies. The book gradually builds combinatorial skills and techniques and not only broadens the student's view of mathematics, but is also excellent for training teachers.

There are also “secret” pathways through the book. Each chapter has a subtext, a theme which prepares the student for learning other mathematical topics, concepts, or habits of mind. For example, the early chapters on the arithmetic mean/geometric mean inequality show how very simple observations can be leveraged to yield useful and interesting results. Later chapters give examples of how one can generalize a mathematical statement. The chapter on the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality provides an introduction to vectors as mathematical objects. And there are many other secret pathways that the authors hope the reader will discover—and follow.

In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession.

* Theoretical aspects are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty

* A special feature is a selection of outstanding Olympiad problems solved by employing the methods presented

* May serve as an engaging supplemental text for an introductory undergrad course on complex numbers or number theory

Key features:

*Uses competition-inspired problems as a platform for training typical inventive skills;

*Develops basic valuable techniques for solving problems in mathematical analysis on the real axis and provides solid preparation for deeper study of real analysis;

*Includes numerous examples and interesting, valuable historical accounts of ideas and methods in analysis;

*Offers a systematic path to organizing a natural transition that bridges elementary problem-solving activity to independent exploration of new results and properties.