## Ebooks

Key features of Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems:

* A rigorous exposition starts with the natural numbers and the basics.

* Important concepts are presented with an example, which may also emphasize an application. The exposition moves systematically and intuitively to uncover deeper properties.

* Topics include divisibility, unique factorization, modular arithmetic and the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Diophantine equations, quadratic residues, binomial coefficients, Fermat and Mersenne primes and other special numbers, and special sequences. Sections on mathematical induction and the pigeonhole principle, as well as a discussion of other number systems are covered.

* Unique exercises reinforce and motivate the reader, with selected solutions to some of the problems.

* Glossary, bibliography, and comprehensive index round out the text.

Written by distinguished research mathematicians and renowned teachers, this text is a clear, accessible introduction to the subject and a source of fascinating problems and puzzles, from advanced high school students to undergraduates, their instructors, and general readers at all levels.

Key features:

* Intertwined discussion of linear algebra and geometry, giving readers a solid understanding of both topics and the relationship between them

* Each section starts with a concise overview of important concepts in results, followed by a selection of fully-solved problems

* Example-driven exposition

* Over 500 problems (roughly half include complete solutions) that are carefully selected for instructive appeal, elegance, and theoretical importance

* Two or more solutions provided to many of the problems; paired solutions range from step-by-step, elementary methods whose purpose is to strengthen basic comprehension to more sophisticated, powerful proofs to challenge advanced readers

* Appendices with review material on complex variables

Ideal as an introduction to linear algebra, the extensive exercises and well-chosen applications also make this text suitable for advanced courses at the junior or senior undergraduate level. Furthermore, it can serve as a colorful supplementary problem book, reference, or self-study manual for professional scientists and mathematicians. Complete with bibliography and index, "Essential Linear Algebra" is a natural bridge between pure and applied mathematics and the natural and social sciences, appropriate for any student or researcher who needs a strong footing in the theory, problem-solving, and model-building that are the subject’s hallmark.

The exposition concentrates on key concepts and then elementary results concerning these numbers. The reader learns how complex numbers can be used to solve algebraic equations and to understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers and the operations involving them.

The theoretical parts of the book are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty. A special feature of the book is the last chapter, a selection of outstanding Olympiad and other important mathematical contest problems solved by employing the methods already presented.

The book reflects the unique experience of the authors. It distills a vast mathematical literature, most of which is unknown to the western public, and captures the essence of an abundant problem culture. The target audience includes undergraduates, high school students and their teachers, mathematical contestants (such as those training for Olympiads or the W. L. Putnam Mathematical Competition) and their coaches, as well as anyone interested in essential mathematics.

Throughout the book students are encouraged to express their ideas, conjectures, and conclusions in writing. The goal is to help readers develop a host of new mathematical tools that will be useful beyond the classroom and in a number of disciplines.

Key features:

* Gradual progression in problem difficulty builds and strengthens mathematical skills and techniques

* Basic topics include trigonometric formulas and identities, their applications in the geometry of the triangle, trigonometric equations and inequalities, and substitutions involving trigonometric functions

* Problem-solving tactics and strategies, along with practical test-taking techniques, provide in-depth enrichment and preparation for possible participation in various mathematical competitions

* Comprehensive introduction (first chapter) to trigonometric functions, their relations and functional properties, and their applications in the Euclidean plane and solid geometry expose advanced students to college level material

103 Trigonometry Problems is a cogent problem-solving resource for advanced high school students, undergraduates, and mathematics teachers engaged in competition training.

Other books by the authors include 102 Combinatorial Problems: From the Training of the USA IMO Team (0-8176-4317-6, 2003) and A Path to Combinatorics for Undergraduates: Counting Strategies (0-8176-4288-9, 2004).

The problems are clustered by topic into self-contained sections with solutions provided separately. All sections start with an essay discussing basic facts and one or two representative examples. A list of carefully chosen problems follows and the reader is invited to take them on. Additionally, historical insights and asides are presented to stimulate further inquiry. The emphasis throughout is on encouraging readers to move away from routine exercises and memorized algorithms toward creative solutions to open-ended problems.

Aimed at motivated high school and beginning college students and instructors, this work can be used as a text for advanced problem- solving courses, for self-study, or as a resource for teachers and students training for mathematical competitions and for teacher professional development, seminars, and workshops.

There are also “secret” pathways through the book. Each chapter has a subtext, a theme which prepares the student for learning other mathematical topics, concepts, or habits of mind. For example, the early chapters on the arithmetic mean/geometric mean inequality show how very simple observations can be leveraged to yield useful and interesting results. Later chapters give examples of how one can generalize a mathematical statement. The chapter on the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality provides an introduction to vectors as mathematical objects. And there are many other secret pathways that the authors hope the reader will discover—and follow.

In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession.

Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics.

Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bridges a useful resource in calculus, linear and abstract algebra, analysis and differential equations. Students desiring to hone and develop their mathematical skills or with an interest in mathematics competitions must have this book in their personal libraries.