This book introduces students to the basics of computers, software and internet along with how to program computers using the C language. It is intended for an introductory course that gives beginning engineering and science students a firm rooting in the fundamental principles of computers and information technology, and also provides invaluable insights into key concepts of computing through development of skills in programming and problem solving using C language. To this end, the book is eminently suitable for the first-year engineering students of all branches and MCA students, as per the prescribed syllabus of several universities. C is a difficult language to learn if it is not methodically introduced. The book explains C and its basic programming techniques in a way suitable for beginning students. It begins by giving students a solid foundation in algorithms to help them grasp the overall concepts of programming a computer as a problem-solving tool. Simple aspects of C are introduced first to enable students to quickly start writing programs. More difficult concepts in the latter parts of the book, such as pointers and their use, have been presented in an accessible manner making the learning of C an exciting and interesting experience. The methodology used is to illustrate each new concept with a program and emphasize a good style in programming to allow students to gain sufficient skills in problem solving. KEY FEATURES Self-contained introduction to both computers and programming for beginners All important features of C illustrated with over 100 examples Good style in programming emphasized Laboratory exercises on applications of MS Office, namely, Word processing, Spreadsheet, PowerPoint are included.
This book introduces Computer Programming to a beginner, using Fortran 90 and its recent extension Fortran 95. While Fortran 77 has been used for many years and is currently very popular, computer scientists have been seriously concerned about good programming practice to promote development of reliable programs. Thus, the International Standards Organization set up a group to 'modernise' Fortran and introduce new features which have made languages such as Pascal and C popular. The committee took over a decade to come up with the new standard, Fortran 90. Fortran 90 has introduced many new features in Fortran, such as recursion, pointers, user-defined data types etc., which were hitherto available only in languages such as Pascal and C. Fortran 90 is not an evolutionary change of Fortran 77 but is drastically different. Though Fortran 77 programs can be run using a Fortran 90 compiler, Fortran 90 is so different that the author felt it was not a good idea to just revise Fortran 77 and introduce Fortran 90 in some places in the book. Thus this book is entirely new and introduces Fortran 90 from basics. In 1996 some small extensions were made to Fortran 90 and has called Fortran 95. This book also discusses these features. As all new programs in Fortran will henceforth be written in Fortran 90, it is essential for students to learn this language.The methodology of presentation, however, closely follows the one used by the author in his popular book on Fortran 77.
This book is a concise presentation of the basic concepts used in evolving numerical methods with special emphasis on developing computational algorithms for solving problems in algebra and calculus on a computer. It is written for undergraduate science and engineering students who have taken a first course in differential and integral calculus. The approach is to ensure conceptual understanding of the numerical methods by relying on students geometric intuition. The book provides coverage of iterative methods for solving algebraic and transcendental equations, direct and iterative methods of solving simultaneous algebraic equations, numerical methods for differen-tiation and integration, and solution of ordinary differential equations with initial conditions. The formulation of algorithms is illustrated with a number of solved examples and an algorithmic language based on English (and similar to PASCAL) is used to express the logic of the numerical procedures. This approach is thus different from that used in most books which either use a programming language like FORTRAN or use flow charts to express algorithms. The solutions to selected problems have been provided at the end of the book.
This book introduces computer programming to a beginner using the programming language C. The version of C used is the one standardised by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI C). C has rapidly gained users due to its efficiency, rich data structure, variety of operators and affinity to UNIX operating system. C is a difficult language to learn if it is not methodically approached. Our attempt has been to introduce the basic aspects of C to enable the student to quickly start writing C programs and postpone more difficult features of C to later chapters. The methodology of presentation closely follows the one used by the author in his popular book on PASCAL programming. Those who know PASCAL will find it very easy to learn C using this book.
The sixth edition of the highly acclaimed “Fundamentals of Computers” lucidly presents how a computer system functions. Both hardware and software aspects of computers are covered. The book begins with how numeric and character data are represented in a computer, how various input and output units function, how different types of memory units are organized, and how data is processed by the processor. The interconnection and communication between the I/O units, the memory, and the processor is explained clearly and concisely. Software concepts such as programming languages, operating systems, and communication protocols are discussed. With growing use of wireless to access computer networks, cellular wireless communication systems, WiFi (Wireless high fidelity), and WiMAX have become important. Thus it has now become part of “fundamental knowledge” of computers and has been included. Besides this, use of computers in multimedia processing has become commonplace and hence is discussed. With the increase in speed of networks and consequently the Internet, new computing environments such as peer to peer, grid, and cloud computing have emerged and will change the future of computing. Hence a new chapter on this topic has been included in this edition. This book is an ideal text for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Computer Applications (BCA and MCA), undergraduate students of engineering and computer science who study fundamentals of computers as a core course, and students of management who should all know the basics of computer hardware and software. It is ideally suited for working professionals who want to update their knowledge of fundamentals of computers. Key features • Fully updated retaining the style and all contents of the fifth edition. • In-depth discussion of both wired and wireless computer networks. • Extensive discussion of analog and digital communications. • Advanced topics such as multiprogramming, virtual memory, DMA, RISC, DSP, RFID, Smart Cards, WiGig, GSM, CDMA, novel I/O devices, and multimedia compression (MP3, MPEG) are described from first principles. • A new chapter on Emerging Computing Environments, namely, peer to peer, grid, and cloud computing, has been added for the first time in an entry level book. • Each chapter begins with learning goals and ends with a summary to aid self-study. • Includes an updated glossary of over 340 technical terms used in the book.
This book is designed to acquaint the readers with major aspects of e-commerce with particular emphasis on technology such as cryptography, e-payment and mobile payment security. The book presents a layered architecture of e-commerce systems with six layers. The physical layer (the bottommost layer) described first, provides the basic communication infrastructure needed by e commerce. The next layer described is the logical layer consisting of Local Area Networks, the Internet, Intranet, etc. which provide connectivity. The layer above is the network services layer which provides e-mail and World Wide Web applications. Above this is a very important messaging layer of e-commerce which provides facilities for exchanging messages securely using the communication infrastructure. Here various methods of encryption, public key infrastructure and digital signature are discussed. It is also explained as to how the messaging layer is used to exchange structured electronic documents, using XML. The next layer called middleman services layer, describes the design of home page of an organization and elaborates various payment services such as credit card, e cash, smart card, etc. The topmost layer is on applications, namely, B2C, B2B and C2C e commerce which are defined and described at the beginning of the book. As use of mobile phones and mobile network is rapidly increasing, a whole chapter is devoted to explain m-commerce. Of special interest are detailed discussions of Wireless Application Protocol, security issues and payment methods. A complete chapter is also devoted to new developments in multimedia information goods such as e-books, MP3 compressed audio and digital quality video. A unique feature of these goods is the method of delivery which also uses the mobile Internet infrastructure. Finally, the legal framework of e-commerce provided by the Information Technology Act 2000 (and the amended act of 2008) is explained. This book with its numerous student-friendly features is an ideal text for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Computer Science and Information Technology (BSc and MSc), Computer Applications (BCA and MCA), and for undergraduate engineering students of Computer Science and Engineering and Information Technology. Besides, it would be useful to professionals for quickly understanding the basics of e commerce. Key Features : • Gives detailed discussions of security and payment schemes in e-commerce. • Discusses essentials of m-commerce technology including WAP protocol and mobile security. • Discusses e-commerce of multimedia such as e-books, MP3 audio and video on demand. • Provides learning aids such as chapter summaries, over 300 review questions and 350 objective type questions.
This introductory text on ‘digital logic and computer organization’ presents a logical treatment of all the fundamental concepts necessary to understand the organization and design of a computer. It is designed to cover the requirements of a first-course in computer organization for undergraduate Computer Science, Electronics, or MCA students. Beginning from first principles, the text guides students through to a stage where they are able to design and build a small computer with available IC chips. Starting with the foundation material on data representation, computer arithmetic and combinatorial and sequential circuit design, the text explains ALU design and includes a discussion on an ALU IC chip. It also discusses Algorithmic State Machine and its representation using a Hardware Description Language before shifting to computer organization. The evolutionary development of a small hypothetical computer is described illustrating hardware-software trade-off in computer organization. Its instruction set is designed giving reasons why each new instruction is introduced. This is followed by a description of the general features of a CPU, organization of main memory and I/O systems. The book concludes with a chapter describing the features of a real computer, namely the Intel Pentium. An appendix describes a number of laboratory experiments which can be put together by students, culminating in the design of a toy computer. Key Features • Self-contained presentation of digital logic and computer organization with minimal pre-requisites • Large number of examples provided throughout the book • Each chapter begins with learning goals and ends with a summary to aid self-study by students.
This is a revised and enlarged version of the author's book which received wide acclamations in its earlier three editions. It provides a lucid and in-depth introduction to the programming language Fortran 77 which is widely used by scientists and engineers.The fourth edition is completely revised chapterwise and also minor corrections incorporated. A new standard for Fortran called Fortran 90 was introduced in early 90s and compilers for this version of Fortran were sold in early 1995 by computer vendors. All Fortran 77 programs will run without change with Fortran 90 compilers; however some aspects of Fortran 77 have been declared obsolete and will not run on future Fortran compilers_these are explained in this revised edition. An appendix consolidates these features. Fortran 90 is introduced in a new chapter which summarises all its features.
Designed as an introductory text for the students of computer science, computer applications, electronics engineering and information technology for their first course on the organization and architecture of computers, this accessible, student friendly text gives a clear and in-depth analysis of the basic principles underlying the subject. This self-contained text devotes one full chapter to the basics of digital logic. While the initial chapters describe in detail about computer organization, including CPU design, ALU design, memory design and I/O organization, the text also deals with Assembly Language Programming for Pentium using NASM assembler. What distinguishes the text is the special attention it pays to Cache and Virtual Memory organization, as well as to RISC architecture and the intricacies of pipelining. All these discussions are climaxed by an illuminating discussion on parallel computers which shows how processors are interconnected to create a variety of parallel computers. KEY FEATURES Self-contained presentation starting with data representation and ending with advanced parallel computer architecture. Systematic and logical organization of topics. Large number of worked-out examples and exercises. Contains basics of assembly language programming. Each chapter has learning objectives and a detailed summary to help students to quickly revise the material.