Diet and nutrition are vital keys to controlling or promoting morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, and the multitude of biomolecules in dietary fruits and vegetables play a crucial role in health maintenance. They may, therefore, be more effective and certainly could have different actions beyond nutrients however this science is still evolving.
This book brings together experts working on the different aspects of supplementation, foods, and plant extracts, in health promotion and disease prevention. Their expertise and experience provide the most current knowledge to promote future research. Dietary habits need to be altered, for most people and the conclusions and recommendations from the various chapters in this book will provide a basis for that change.
The overall goal of this book is to provide the most current, concise, scientific appraisal of the efficacy of key foods and constituents medicines in dietary plants in preventing disease and improving the quality of life. While vegetables have traditionally been seen to be good sources of vitamins, the roles of other constituents have only recently become more widely recognized. This book reviews and often presents new hypotheses and conclusions on the effects of different bioactive components of the diet, derived particularly from vegetables, to prevent disease and improve the health of various populations.
* Identify bioactive fruit and vegetable options for prevention or treatment of illness
* Moves from general overview to disease specific applications providing a framework for further research and deeper understanding
* Includes discussion of issues and challenges, permitting critical analysis and evaluation
Devices used to analyse one particular food item can theoretically be adapted for other food items or components. This does not just mean the re-deploying the physical platforms but also the mode of bioinformatic and statistical analysis. This includes artificial neural networks (ANN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA) etc. In other words, there is cross transference of chemistry, physics, concepts, techniques, findings and approaches from one food to another. Electronic noses and tongues are two of these devices but are advancing in application and importance.
This book provides examples of the use of electronic noses and tongues to characterise components that contribute to sensory or compositional profiles, from ripening to harvesting and from storage of raw materials to packaging and consumption. These devises are suitable for high-throughput analysis, quality control or to determine the nature and extent of spoilage and adulteration, and have also been used to ascertain the geographical origins of food and mixtures.Presents latest developments in the application of electronic nose and tongue technologies to a variety of food-specific needsIncludes both electronic nose, electronic tongue and combined technology insightsEach chapter has sections on: The physical and chemical platforms; Analysis of specific foods; Applications to other foods and areas of food science
Cannabis has a wide range of adverse neurological effects, and use and abuse can lead to physical, social, and psychopathological issues that are multifarious and complex. Effective understanding and treatment requires knowledge of the drug’s effects from across scientific disciplines.
This book provides an overview of the biological and pharmacological components of the cannabis plant, outlines its neurological, social, and psychopathological effects, assists in the diagnosis and screening for use and dependency, and aids researchers in developing effective treatments for cannabis-related issues and disorders.
Fully illustrated, with contributions from internationally recognized experts, it is the go-to resource for neuroscientists, pharmacologists, pathologists, public-health workers, and any other researcher who needs an in-depth and cross-disciplinary understanding of cannabis and its effects.Comprehensive chapters include an abstract, key facts, mini dictionary of terms, and summary pointsPresents illustrations with at least six figures, tables, and diagrams per chapterProvides a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with cannabis and its related pathology, from chemicals and cells, individuals and communities, and diagnosis and treatmentOffers an integrated and informed synopsis of the complex issues surrounding cannabis as a substance, its use, and its misuse
Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivarsprovides readers with the latest information on the health related properties of foods, making the documentation of the nutritive value of historical cultivars especially urgent, especially before they are lost and can't be effectively compared to modern cultivars.
Because there is considerable diversity and a substantial body of the compositional studies directed towards commercial varieties, this information is useful for identifying traits and features that may be transposed from one variety to another.
In addition, compositional and sensory features may also be used for commercialization and to characterize adulteration. Detailed characterization of cultivars can be used to identify "super-foods". Alternatively, unmasked historical cultivars may be the focus of reinvigorated commercial practices.
Each chapter in this book has sections on the botanical aspects, the composition of traditional or ancient cultivars, the composition of modern cultivars, a focus on areas of research, the specialty of the communicating author of each chapter, and summary points.Presents the botanical aspects and composition of both traditional and modern plants, including in-depth insight into current research, and overall summary points for each fruit for consistent comparison and ease of referenceProvides important information in the consideration of preservation, transference, or re-introduction of historical/traditional cultivars into current crop scienceProvides details on compositional and sensory parameters, from aroma and taste to micro- and macronutrientsIncludes data on nutraceuticals and novel components that have proven to impact on, or be important in, food quality, storage, processing, storage, and marketing
This edited volume will pool knowledge across scientific disciplines in a way that increases its applicability to a wide range of audiences and fills the gap identified in providing comprehensive synopses of food substances. Chemists, analytical scientists, forensic scientists, food scientists, as well as course lecturers and university librarians, will all benefit from this title.
Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention provides a single-volume reference to the healthful benefits of a variety of flours and flour products, and guides the reader in identifying options and opportunities for improving health through flour and fortified flour products.Examines those flour and bread related agents that affect metabolism and other health-related conditionsExplores the impact of compositional differences between flours, including differences based on country of origin and processing techniqueIncludes methods for analysis of flours and bread-related compounds in other foods
The ocular system is perhaps one of the least studied organs in diet and nutrition, yet the consequences of vision loss can be devastating. One of the biggest contributors to complete vision loss in the western hemisphere is diabetes, precipitated by metabolic syndrome. In some developing countries, micronutrient deficiencies are major contributory factors to impaired vision. However, there are a range of ocular defects that have either their origin in nutritional deficiencies or excess or have been shown to respond favorably to nutritional components. The eye from the cornea to the retina may be affected by nutritional components. Effects may be physiological or molecular.
This book represents essential reading for nutritionists, dietitians, optometrists, ophthalmologists, opticians, endocrinologists, and other clinicians and researchers interested in eye health and vision in general.Saves clinicians and researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest details on a broad range of nutrition, ocular health, and disease issuesProvides a common language for nutritionists, nutrition researchers, optometrists, and ophthalmologists to discuss how dietary and nutritional factors, and related diseases and syndromes affect the eyePreclinical, clinical, and population studies will help nutritionists, dieticians, and clinicians map out key areas for research and further clinical recommendations
Part of The Food and Nutritional Components in Focus series, this edited volume pools knowledge across scientific disciplines in a way that increases its applicability to a wide range of audiences. Victor Preedy’s own distinguished career in nutritional science has made him a prolific author of research articles and books in this area, and this project fills a gap in providing comprehensive synopses of food substances.
Chemists, analytical scientists, forensic scientists, food scientists, as well as course lecturers will all benefit from this interdisciplinary title written by international experts in this area.
This volume surveys the current state of play in these and other areas of interest, including chemistry and biochemistry, immunology and cellular homeostasis. Chapters look in depth at some of the functions and effects in the body particularly with regard to exercise and fatigue, wound healing, cancer treatment and age-related diseases. Providing an up to date, interdisciplinary approach, this book is of great interest to researchers and professionals in chemistry, food science, nutrition, biochemistry, health sciences and sports sciences.
Very often oxidative stress is a feature of HIV/AIDs or of the treatment of HIV/AIDs. While immunologists, physicians and clinical workers understand the processes in HIV/AIDs, they may be less conversant in the science of nutrition and dietetics. Similarly, nutritionists and dietitians may be less conversant with the detailed clinical background and science of HIV/AIDs.Offers holistic coverage of HIV/AIDS and the role of oxidative stress Written by a leading team of international experts Provides a roadmap to therapeutic potential and crosses the trans- tissue or transdisciplinary divides
Written by an expert international team, this book provides a fascinating insight for those with an interest in the effects of betaine on health and the diet. It will appeal across disciplines but specifically to nutritional and food scientists, health professionals and researchers.
*Over 100 chapters conveniently divided into 3 sections
*Represents a 'one-stop-shop' of information with suitable indexing of the various pathways and processes
*Each chapter is highly illustrated with tables as well as figures
The causes of iodine deficiencies can be considered from both simplistic and more complex perspectives: From the leaching of iodine from soil resulting in crops with low iodine content to malnutrition resulting in impaired iodine absorption. Poor dietary diversification and impoverished socio-economic development can also lead to iodine deficiencies.
Although it is possible to diagnose and treat deficiencies, there is still an ongoing dialogue regarding the detailed molecular pathology of iodine homeostatis, how hypothyroidism impacts the body tissues, and efficient diagnosis and treatment of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders.
This Handbook provides a resource of information on the various pathways and processes based on different countries or diseases. Because there is a constant flow of new information on iodine and related disorders, the goal of this Handbook is to provide a base of scientific information upon which additional knowledge can be applied.Provides important information on one of the most common micro-nutrient deficiencies in the world, the most important "single nutrient-multiple consequences" paradigm todayIncludes information on iodine-related diseases, including those that are common, preventable and treatableProvides insight from a broad perspective of viewpoints -- from subcellular transports to economic impact
Volume Four discusses:
The extent to which postnatal metal exposure through breastfeeding can impair an infant's health
Selenium bioavailability and metabolism, effects of selenium exposure, and mechanisms of selenium toxicity
The fate of toxic and nontoxic arsenic compounds in the human body upon ingestion
The biological role of sulfur, sulfur metabolism, deficiencies, and toxicity
The effects on fluoride on teeth, bones, kidneys, arteries, hormones, the brain, and the reproductive system
Food-borne disease outbreaks, microbial quality and risk assessment of food-borne microorganisms in ready to eat foods
Effect of T-2 toxin on DNA and chromosomes, circulatory system, skin, reproductive system, liver and spleen, gastrointestinal tract, brain and neurotransmitters, and more
Investigation of the interference of AFB1 with molecular components of cell cycle checkpoints
Analyzes cycad consumption and its effects on the neurological systems and its manifestations; describes bio-chemical changes and morphological or pathological outcomes through time in detail
Lectins in the human diet, toxicity and biological effects, immunomodulatory effects, modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in disease
This is a valuable resource for anyone involved in the food industry or academics researching food science and food technology.
Featuring the most current knowledge from authoritative sources, Diet and Heart Disease: Causation and Prevention reviews the impact of nutrition and diet in the prevention and treatment of heart disease. The book explains how dietary agents such as fats and alcohol can increase as well as reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, discusses the effects of various nutrients, and presents information on special diets that have been known to affect cardiac health in populations around the world.
Providing insight into myriad dietary factors related to cardiovascular disease, the text also addresses the ways that nutrition intervention and treatment directly influence heart health. This comprehensive desk reference will benefit nutrition and cardiovascular researchers, primary care physicians, and dietitians in the race to reduce this deadly disease.
There is a practical need to understand not only the physiological importance of antioxidants in terms of consumer health benefit, but how they may be damaged or enhanced through the processing and packaging phases. This book presents information key to understanding how antioxidants change during production of a wide variety of food products, with a focus toward how this understanding may be translated effectively to other foods as well.Addresses how the composition of food is altered, the analytical techniques used, and the applications to other foodsPresents in-chapter summary points and other translational insights into concepts, techniques, findings and approaches to processing of other foodsExplores advances in analytical and methodological science within each chapter
While the focus is on clinical applications, the book also features landmark and innovative preclinical studies that have served as the foundation of rigorous trials. Chapters explore the evidence of how nutritional components, either in the diet or supplements, can either impede the development to, or progression from, the onset of dementia. Authors investigate how conditions and processes overlap between defined conditions and present studies which show that dietary components may be equally effective in a number of conditions characterized by declining cognition or dementia. This book represents essential reading for researchers and practicing clinicians in nutrition, dietetics, geriatrics, nursing, neurology, and psychology, as well as researchers, such as neuroscientists, molecular and cellular biochemists, interested in dementia.Explores the complex interrelationships between cognitive decline, dementia and the way diet can be modified to improve outcomesFocuses on both clinical nutrition applications and the innovative preclinical studies that serve as the foundation for rigorous trialsCovers specific conditions and mechanisms in dementias, as well as general aspects, risk factors, lifestyle and guidelines for practitionersOrganizes chapter content in terms of the molecular, mechanistic, epidemiologic, and practical, so that correlations can be observed across conditions
Stem cells potentially offer a novel therapeutic platform to treat bone disease. They also help the scientist understand the molecular and cellular aetiology of bone disorders. Gaining knowledge on the nature and application of stem cell sciences is a prerequisite for understanding their potential in treating or preventing bone disorders. Stem Cells and Bone Tissue is designed to address these areas in three sections:Introductory Text and Sources of Stem Cells for Skeletal Tissue Cellular and Molecular Aspects Conditions, Applications, Treatments and Repairs
Coverage includes general aspects of stems cells, sources of stems cells, isolation and purification, applications in regeneration, nanoscale topography, myostatin (GDF-8) signalling, c-Jun, Lnk, cell-derived Factor 1/CXCR4, chromatin remodelling, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, hypophosphatasia, osteopetrosis, osteogenesis, and many other areas of merit too numerous to mention.
Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safetydiscusses the major advances in the understanding of the Essential Oils and their application, providing a resource that takes into account the fact that there is little attention paid to the scientific basis or toxicity of these oils.
This book provides an authoritative synopsis of many of the complex features of the essential oils as applied to food science, ranging from production and harvesting, to the anti-spoilage properties of individual components. It embraces a holistic approach to the topic, and is divided into two distinct parts, the general aspects and named essential oils.
With more than 100 chapters in parts two and three, users will find valuable sections on botanical aspects, usage and applications, and a section on applications in food science that emphasizes the fact that essential oils are frequently used to impart flavor and aroma. However, more recently, their use as anti-spoilage agents has been extensively researched.Explains how essential oils can be used to improve safety, flavor, and functionEmbraces a holistic approach to the topic, and is divided into two distinct parts, the general aspects and named essential oilsProvides exceptional range of information, from general use insights to specific use and application information, along with geographically specific informationExamines traditional and evidence-based usesIncludes methods and examples of investigation and application
Currently, there is no comprehensive book on nutrition in terminal or palliative care that is suitable for novices and experts alike. Diet and Nutrition in Palliative Care addresses this deficiency in the literature. Designed for doctors, nurses, caregivers, and those working within the palliative or end of life domain, each chapter contains sections on applications to other areas of terminal or palliative care, practical methods and techniques, guidelines, key points and ethical issues. The book is divided into six sections:
Setting the Scene Cultural Aspects General Aspects Cancer Non-Cancer Conditions Pharmacological Aspects
Despite the complexity of the correlation between diet and disease, there is now a sufficient body of evidence to encourage applying nutritional science in everyday clinical practice. Increasingly, a strong interest and up-to-date knowledge and understanding of scientific studies on nutrition enables clinicians to help patients under their care more effectively at every stage of their illness. In response to this need, this handbook presents important information on the holistic use of nutrition and diet therapy in palliative care.
For example, reactive components in olive oils or olive oil by-products have now been isolated and identified. These include tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid elenolic acid and oleuropein. Oleic acid is the main monosaturated fatty acid of olive oil. These have putative protective effects and modulate the biochemistry of a variety of cell types including those of the vascular system. Some but not all components have been characterised by their putative pharmacological properties. It is possible that usage of these aforementioned products may have beneficial application in other disease. However, in order for this cross-fertilization to take place, a comprehensive understanding of olives and olive oils is required. Finding this knowledge in a single volume provides a key resource for scientists in a variety of food an nutritional roles.
* Explores olives and olive oil from their general aspects to the detailed level of important micro-and micronutrients
* Includes coverage of various methodologies for analysis to help scientists and chemists determine the most appropriate option for their own studies, including those of olive-related compounds in other foods
* Relates, in a single volume resource, information for food and nutritional chemists, pharmaceutical scientists, nutritionists and dieticians
* Presents information in three key categories: General aspects of olives an olive oils; Nutritional, pharmacological and metabolic properties of olives and olive oil; Specific components of olive oil and their effects on tissue and body systems
The three volumes in this series address new research and challenges, offering comprehensive coverage on the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse, with each volume serving to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction, while also deepening our understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume One addresses tobacco, alcohol, cannabinoids, and opioids, with each section providing data on the general, molecular/cellular, and structural/functional neurological aspects of a given substance, along with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions.Provides a modern approach on the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictionsFills an existing gap in the literature by proving a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuseIncludes a list of abbreviations, abstracts, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, and full references in each chapterOffers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and the genome to whole body
Pharmacological treatments for diabetes are commonly marked by unwanted side effects, leading to treatment efforts using naturally occurring substances. But a plant-based approach alone is not sufficient; understanding the processes inherent in the oxidative stress of diabetes is vital for clinical workers, dietitians, and nutritionists.
This translational work provides that understanding. The book begins by covering the basic biology of oxidative stress from molecular biology to imaging in relation to diabetes. There are chapters on neuropathy, nephropathy, atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, and retinopathy. The book then moves on to antioxidants in foods, including plants, components of the diet, and their relevance to diabetes.Nutritionists will use the information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease and propose new diet-related strategies to prevent such conditions arising in another unrelated disease.Dietitians will prescribe new foods or diets containing antioxidants for conditions that are refractory by conventional pharmacological treatments.Dietitians, after learning about the basic biology of oxidative stress, will be able to suggest new treatments to their multidisciplinary teams.Nutritionists and dietitians will learn about cell signaling and will be able to suggest preventive or therapeutic strategies with antioxidant-rich foods to reduce damage done by diseases involving abnormal cell signaling.
Nutrition and Diet in Maternal Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Approach offers an overview of the Type 1 and type 2 diabetic mother, maternal and offspring aspects of gestation diabetes, and breastfeeding and maternal gestational diabetes.
Probiotics are now a multi-billion-dollar, dietary supplement business which is built upon extremely little research data. In order to follow the 1994 ruling, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration with the support of Congress is currently pushing this industry to base its claims and products on scientific research. Research as shown that dietary habits need to be altered for most people whether for continued or improved good health. The conclusions and recommendations from the various chapters in this book will provide a basis for those important factors of change by industry with new uses. Animal studies and early clinical ones will lead to new uses and studies. Particularly the cutting edge experimental and clinical studies from Europe will provide novel approaches to clinical uses through their innovative new studies.Heavy emphasis on clinical applications (benefits and/or lack thereof) as well as future biomedical therapeutic uses identified in animal model studiesFocused on therapies and data supporting them for application in clinical medicine as complementary and alternative medicinesKey insights into gut flora and the potential health benefits thereofHealth scientists and nutritionists will use this information to map out key areas of research. Food scientists will use it in product developmentInformation on pre-and probiotics as important sources of micro-and macronutrientsAids in the development of methods of bio-modification of dietary plant molecules for health promotionCoverage of a broad range of bacterial consituentsNutritionists will use the information to identify which of these constituents should be used as dietary supplements based on health status of an individualScience-based information on the health promoting characteristics of pre-and probioticsProvides defense of food selections for individual consumption based on health needs and current statusDiverse international authoring team experienced in studying prebiotics and probiotics for medical practiceUnusally broad range of experiences and newly completed clinical and animal studies provides extended access to latest information
Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease investigates the role of foods, herbs and novel extracts in moderating the pathology leading to cardiovascular disease. It reviews existing literature, and presents new hypotheses and conclusions on the effects of different bioactive components of the diet.Addresses the most positive results from dietary interventions using bioactive foods to impact cardiovascular diseaseDocuments foods that can affect metabolic syndrome and other related conditionsConvenient, efficient and effective source that allows readers to identify potential uses of compounds – or indicate those compounds whose use may be of little or no health benefitAssociated information can be used to understand other diseases that share common etiological pathways
Branched Chain Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition: Volume 2 covers the role of branched chain amino acids in healthy individuals, and branched chain amino acid status in disease states, liver diseases, and supplementation studies in certain patient populations.
Branched Chain Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition: Volume 1 covers basic processes at the cellular level, inherited defects in branched chain amino acid metabolism, and experimental models of growth and disease states.