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It is predicted that robots will surpass human intelligence within the next fifty years.
The ever increasing speed of advances in technology and neuroscience, coupled with the creation of super computers and enhanced body parts and artificial limbs, is paving the way for a merger of both human and machine.
Devices which were once worn on the body are now being implanted into the body, and as a result, a class of true cyborgs, who are displaying a range of skills beyond those of normal humans-beings, are being created. There are cyborgs which can see colour by hearing sound, others have the ability to detect magnetic fields, some are equipped with telephoto lenses to aid their vision or implanted computers to monitor their heart, and some use thought to communicate with a computer or to manipulate a robotic arm. This is not science-fiction, these are developments that are really happening now, and will continue to develop in the future. However, a range of legal and policy questions has arisen alongside this rise of artificial intelligence.
Cyber-Humans provides a deep and unique perspective on the technological future of humanity, and describes how law and policy will be particularly relevant in creating a fair and equal society and protecting the liberties of different life forms which will emerge in the 21st century.
Dr Woodrow (Woody) Barfield previously headed up the Sensory Engineering Laboratory, holding the position of Industrial and Systems Engineering Professor at the University of Washington. His research revolves around the design and use of wearable computers and augmented reality systems and holds both JD and LLM degrees in intellectual property law and policy. He has published over 350 articles and major presentations in the areas of computer science, engineering and law. He currently lives in Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program is a cooperative effort by government, private industry, and academia to apply advanced technology to the task of resolving the problems of surface transportation. The objective is to improve travel efficiency and mobility, enhance safety, conserve energy, provide economic benefits, and protect the environment. The current demand for mobility has exceeded the available capacity of the roadway system. Because the highway system cannot be expanded, except in minor ways, the available capacity must be used more efficiently to handle the increased demand.

ITS applies advanced information processing, communication, sensing, and computer control technologies to the problems of surface transportation. Considerable research and development efforts will be required to produce these new technologies and to convert technologies developed in the defense and space programs to solve surface transportation problems.

ITS has been subdivided into six interlocking technology areas. This book addresses human factors concerns for four of these areas:
* Advanced Traveler Information Systems are a variety of systems that provide real time, in-vehicle information to drivers regarding navigation and route guidance, motorist services, roadway signing, and hazard warnings.
* Advanced Vehicle Control Systems refer to systems that aid drivers in controlling their vehicle particularly in emergency situations and ultimately taking over some or all of the driving tasks.
* Commercial Vehicle Operations address the application of ITS technologies to the special needs of commercial roadway vehicles including automated vehicle identification, location, weigh-in-motion, clearance sensing, and record keeping.
* Advanced Traffic Management Systems monitor, control and manage traffic on streets and highways to reduce congestion using vehicle route diversion, automated signal timing, changeable message signs, and priority control systems.

Two technical areas are not specifically addressed in individual chapters, but many aspects of them are covered in associated chapters:
* Advanced Rural Transportation Systems include systems that apply ITS technologies to the special needs of rural systems and include emergency notification and response, vehicle location, and traveler information.
* Advanced Public Transportation Systems enhance the effectiveness, attractiveness and economics of public transportation and include fleet management, automated fare collection, and real-time information systems.
The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program is a cooperative effort by government, private industry, and academia to apply advanced technology to the task of resolving the problems of surface transportation. The objective is to improve travel efficiency and mobility, enhance safety, conserve energy, provide economic benefits, and protect the environment. The current demand for mobility has exceeded the available capacity of the roadway system. Because the highway system cannot be expanded, except in minor ways, the available capacity must be used more efficiently to handle the increased demand.

ITS applies advanced information processing, communication, sensing, and computer control technologies to the problems of surface transportation. Considerable research and development efforts will be required to produce these new technologies and to convert technologies developed in the defense and space programs to solve surface transportation problems.

ITS has been subdivided into six interlocking technology areas. This book addresses human factors concerns for four of these areas:
* Advanced Traveler Information Systems are a variety of systems that provide real time, in-vehicle information to drivers regarding navigation and route guidance, motorist services, roadway signing, and hazard warnings.
* Advanced Vehicle Control Systems refer to systems that aid drivers in controlling their vehicle particularly in emergency situations and ultimately taking over some or all of the driving tasks.
* Commercial Vehicle Operations address the application of ITS technologies to the special needs of commercial roadway vehicles including automated vehicle identification, location, weigh-in-motion, clearance sensing, and record keeping.
* Advanced Traffic Management Systems monitor, control and manage traffic on streets and highways to reduce congestion using vehicle route diversion, automated signal timing, changeable message signs, and priority control systems.

Two technical areas are not specifically addressed in individual chapters, but many aspects of them are covered in associated chapters:
* Advanced Rural Transportation Systems include systems that apply ITS technologies to the special needs of rural systems and include emergency notification and response, vehicle location, and traveler information.
* Advanced Public Transportation Systems enhance the effectiveness, attractiveness and economics of public transportation and include fleet management, automated fare collection, and real-time information systems.
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