Side Reactions in Peptide Synthesis,

based on the author’s academic and industrial experience, and backed by a thorough review of the current literature, provides analysis of, and proposes solutions to, the most frequently encountered side reactions during peptide and peptidomimetic synthesis.

This valuable handbook is ideal for research and process chemists working with peptide synthesis in diverse settings across academic, biotech, and pharmaceutical research and development.

While peptide chemistry is increasingly prevalent, common side reactions and their causes are often poorly understood or anticipated, causing unnecessary waste of materials and delay.

Each chapter discusses common side reactions through detailed chemical equations, proposed mechanisms (if any), theoretical background, and finally, a variety of possible solutions to avoid or alleviate the specified side reaction.

Provides a systematic examination on how to troubleshoot and minimize the most frequent side reactions in peptide synthesisGives chemists the background information and the practical tools they need to successfully troubleshoot and improve resultsIncludes optimization-oriented analysis of side reactions in peptide synthesis for improved industrial process development in peptidyl API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) production Answers the growing, global need for improved, replicable processes to avoid impurities and maintain the integrity of the end product.Presents a thorough discussion of critical factors in peptide synthesis which are often neglected or underestimated by chemists Covers solid phase and solution phase methodologies, and provides abundant references for further exploration
Fluctuation Mechanism and Control on System Instantaneous Availability facilitates the development of modeling and identification skills for both theoretical research and applications. Supplying a systematic introduction to the basic results in fluctuation analysis of instantaneous availability, it covers the theory, methodology, and specific engineering implementation required to conduct equipment instantaneous availability research.

Presenting practical methods and tools, the book describes how to control the matching transition of new equipment systems as a result of interactions among sub-systems. It will help readers further extend their research on steady-state availability analysis to the optimization and control over instantaneous availability that is more suitable for engineering practices.

The book provides the in-depth research on system instantaneous availability models, solutions, methodology, and frameworks required to investigate system instantaneous availability fluctuations within a certain range. Its chapters are divided into "Basic" and "Applied" components.

The Basic chapters introduce the relevant concepts about system availability, the general continuous availability model approximate solution algorithms and problems, the discrete-time systems instantaneous availability model under general probability distribution, and the system instantaneous availability model and stability proof constraint by limited time, respectively.

The Applied chapters focus on system instantaneous availability fluctuation analysis and control methods, discrete-time instantaneous availability model comparison and analysis under exponential distribution, system instantaneous availability fluctuations analysis under truncated discrete Weibull distribution, and system instantaneous availability fluctuations optimal design under truncated discrete Weibull distribution.

Presenting the material in an accessible manner, the book summarizes current research results and engineering practices. It includes many examples that illustrate the roles of the new modeling methods for instantaneous availability. It also supplies Matlab® code for all the calculations performed in the book.
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