Labour economics

Covering the development of the U.S. labor market from 1880-1940, The Fictitious Commodity stresses relations of authority (versus power) in employment. Deemphasizing concepts of market and contract, Korver focuses on the differential statuses of employer/employee and demonstrates the inadequacy of conventional economic discourse on labor market analysis. U.S. companies, while undergoing rapid industrialization, tackled both organizational and technological problems. According to Korver, unskilled labor was the common root to these problems. Emphasizing the importance of this usually forgotten category, Korver's history of the U.S. labor market is seen through America's unskilled labor--its vicissitudes and its varying options of citizenship.

In 19th-century America unskilled labor was both expensive and in short supply. According to Korver, new immigration coupled unskilled labor with the novel option of citizenship. Removing its segregated status, new immigration became an integral part of the emerging world of mass production. Korver demonstrates how the ground was prepared technologically by connecting mechanization and standardization. Bureaucratization of employment relationships, development of industrial unionism, and social security serve to illustrate the organizational integration of the new immigrant. Advanced students and researchers in the field of labor economics, labor history, and the sociology of labor markets will appreciate Korver's unique approach to the history of the American labor market.

This book presents an integrated overview and evidence, taking Japan as an example, on how international trade, especially with developing countries, affects labor market in developed countries, which has been keenly debated among international and labor economists since the late 1980s. The unique point of this book is that it integrates international trade and labor market into the same framework. The analysis includes both theory and empirical study. It especially pays attention to wage inequality between skilled and unskilled labor represented by nonproduction and production workers, and college graduates and high-school graduates. The estimation method used is to analyze input-output tables containing 55 manufacturing industries during the period 1995-2005, and to measure factor content of trade using these tables.
Main results are as follows: First, both relative wage and relative employment of nonproduction to production workers, and college graduates to high-school graduates increased as a trend since the 1980s, suggesting a relative demand shift toward skilled labor. Second, analysis using input-output tables revealed that employment reduction due to increased imports is greater in production workers than in nonproduction workers, and that employment increase due to increased exports is greater in nonproduction workers than in production workers, suggesting the comparative advantage being at work in line with the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson model. Third, analysis using factor content of trade revealed that increased trade during 1995-2005 especially with Asian countries raised the relative wage of nonproduction to production workers in the aggregated manufacturing sector by 0.023 points (1.400 to 1.422), or by 1.6 percent in terms of rate of change. This estimation result suggests that increased trade in this period played a certain role in widening wage inequality between nonproduction to production workers. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the effect of globalization on labor market in the field of economics.
Key Labor Market Indicators: Analysis with Household Survey Data is an introduction to labor market indicator analysis and a guide for analyzing household survey data using the ADePT ILO (International Labour Organization) Labor Market Indicators Module. The analytical framework and approach taken up in this book are based on the ILO’s Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM). KILM indicators provide a strong basis on which to address key questions related to productive employment and decent work. The ADePT ILO Labor Market Indicators Module is a powerful tool for producing and analyzing KILM indicators using household survey data. The software allows researchers and practitioners to automate data production, to minimize data production errors, and to quickly produce a wide range of labor market data from labor force surveys or other household surveys that contain labor market information. ABOUT ADePT Streamlined Analysis with ADePT Software is a series that provides academics, students, and policy practitioners with a theoretical foundation, practical guidelines, and software tools for applied analysis in various areas of economic research. ADePT Platform is a software package developed in the research department of the World Bank (see The series examines such topics as sector performance and inequality in education, the effectiveness of social transfers, labor market conditions, the effects of macroeconomic shocks on income distribution and labor market outcomes, child anthropometrics, and gender inequalities.
From "America’s leading immigration economist" (The Wall Street Journal), a refreshingly level-headed exploration of the effects of immigration.

We are a nation of immigrants, and we have always been concerned about immigration. As early as 1645, the Massachusetts Bay Colony began to prohibit the entry of "paupers." Today, however, the notion that immigration is universally beneficial has become pervasive. To many modern economists, immigrants are a trove of much-needed workers who can fill predetermined slots along the proverbial assembly line.

But this view of immigration’s impact is overly simplified, explains George J. Borjas, a Cuban-American, Harvard labor economist. Immigrants are more than just workers—they’re people who have lives outside of the factory gates and who may or may not fit the ideal of the country to which they’ve come to live and work. Like the rest of us, they’re protected by social insurance programs, and the choices they make are affected by their social environments.

In We Wanted Workers, Borjas pulls back the curtain of political bluster to show that, in the grand scheme, immigration has not affected the average American all that much. But it has created winners and losers. The losers tend to be nonmigrant workers who compete for the same jobs as immigrants. And somebody’s lower wage is somebody else’s higher profit, so those who employ immigrants benefit handsomely. In the end, immigration is mainly just another government redistribution program.

"I am an immigrant," writes Borjas, "and yet I do not buy into the notion that immigration is universally beneficial…But I still feel that it is a good thing to give some of the poor and huddled masses, people who face so many hardships, a chance to experience the incredible opportunities that our exceptional country has to offer." Whether you’re a Democrat, a Republican, or an Independent, We Wanted Workers is essential reading for anyone interested in the issue of immigration in America today.

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