In particular, it focuses on Hamburg's HafenCity", which, at around 155 hectares, is one of the most prominent city centre development projects in Europe and will increase the size of Hamburg's city centre by 40 percent. The project HafenCity serves as a starting point for a conceptually wide ranging debate on the character, shape, function and meaning of New Downtowns.
This book explores the intersection and articulation of physical and digital environments and the ways they can extend and reshape a spirit of place. It considers this from three main perspectives: the implications for the public sphere and urban public or semi-public spaces; the implications for community regeneration and empowerment; and the dilemmas and challenges which the augmentation of space implies for urbanists. Grounded with international real -life case studies, this is an up-to-date, interdisciplinary and holistic overview of the relationships between cities, communities and high technologies.
Examining colonized cities in East Asia, this book brings together a range of different perspectives across both space and time. European, Chinese, Taiwanese, Korean and Japanese discourses are examined, with a range of complementary and conflicting views on the design of urban and architectural forms; the political, institutional, religious and economical contexts of urban planning; the role played by various media; and the influence of various geographical, social and anthropological research methods.
The diversity and plurality of these perspectives in this book provides an entwined architectural, urban and social history of East Asia, which offers insights into the cultural systems and the historical and spatial meanings of these colonized cities. It concludes that the difficulties in the historical study of East Asia's colonial cities do not so much indicate cultural difference as the potentiality for multiple readings of the past toward the future.
The very idea of a modern metropolis evokes visions of bustling sidewalks, vital mass transit, and a vibrant, pedestrian-friendly urban core. But in the typical American city, the car is still king, and downtown is a place that's easy to drive to but often not worth arriving at.
Making walkability happen is relatively easy and cheap; seeing exactly what needs to be done is the trick. In this essential new book, Speck reveals the invisible workings of the city, how simple decisions have cascading effects, and how we can all make the right choices for our communities.
Bursting with sharp observations and real-world examples, giving key insight into what urban planners actually do and how places can and do change, Walkable City lays out a practical, necessary, and eminently achievable vision of how to make our normal American cities great again.
Not in my backyard -- that's the refrain commonly invoked by property owners who oppose unwanted development. Such words assume a special ferocity when the development in question is public housing. Lisa Belkin penetrates the prejudices, myths, and heated emotions stirred by the most recent trend in public housing as she re-creates a landmark case in riveting detail, showing how a proposal to build scattered-site public housing in middle-class neighborhoods nearly destroyed an entire city and forever changed the lives of many of its citizens.
-- Public housing projects are being torn down throughout the United States. What will take their place? Show Me a Hero explores the answer.
-- An important and compelling work of narrative nonfiction in the tradition of J. Anthony Lukas's Common Ground.
-- A sweeping yet intimate group portrait that assesses the effects of public policy on individual human lives.
Most of all, he was a social reformer. He didn't simply create places that were beautiful in the abstract. An awesome and timeless intent stands behind Olmsted's designs, allowing his work to survive to the present day. With our urgent need to revitalize cities and a widespread yearning for green space, his work is more relevant now than it was during his lifetime. Justin Martin restores Olmsted to his rightful place in the pantheon of great Americans.
According to the United Nations, more than one billion people now live in the slums of the cities of the South. In this brilliant and ambitious book, Mike Davis explores the future of a radically unequal and explosively unstable urban world. From the sprawling barricadas of Lima to the garbage hills of Manila, urbanization has been disconnected from industrialization, and even from economic growth. Davis portrays a vast humanity warehoused in shantytowns and exiled from the formal world economy. He argues that the rise of this informal urban proletariat is a wholly unforeseen development, and asks whether the great slums, as a terrified Victorian middle class once imagined, are volcanoes waiting to erupt.
Just a couple of decades ago, we took it for granted that inner cities were the preserve of immigrants and the poor, and that suburbs were the chosen destination of those who could afford them. Today, a demographic inversion is taking place: Central cities increasingly are where the affluent want to live, while suburbs are becoming home to poorer people and those who come to America from other parts of the world. Highly educated members of the emerging millennial generation are showing a decided preference for urban life and are being joined in many places by a new class of affluent retirees.
Ehrenhalt shows us how the commercial canyons of lower Manhattan are becoming residential neighborhoods, and how mass transit has revitalized inner-city communities in Chicago and Brooklyn. He explains why car-dominated cities like Phoenix and Charlotte have sought to build twenty-first-century downtowns from scratch, while sprawling postwar suburbs are seeking to attract young people with their own form of urbanized experience.
The Great Inversion is an eye-opening and thoroughly engaging look at our urban society and its future.
From the Hardcover edition.
In recent decades, the world has seen an unprecedented shift of people from the countryside into cities. As Steve Inskeep so aptly puts it, we are now living in the age of the "instant city," when new megacities can emerge practically overnight, creating a host of unique pressures surrounding land use, energy, housing, and the environment. In his first book, the co-host of Morning Edition explores how this epic migration has transformed one of the world's most intriguing instant cities: Karachi, Pakistan.
Karachi has exploded from a colonial port town of 350,000 in 1941 to a sprawling metropolis of at least 13 million today. As the booming commercial center of Pakistan, Karachi is perhaps the largest city whose stability is a vital security concern of the United States, and yet it is a place that Americans have frequently misunderstood.
As Inskeep underscores, one of the great ironies of Karachi's history is that the decision to divide Pakistan and India along religious lines in 1947 only unleashed deeper divisions within the city-over religious sect, ethnic group, and political party. In Instant City, Inskeep investigates the 2009 bombing of a Shia religious procession that killed dozens of people and led to further acts of terrorism, including widespread arson at a popular market. As he discovers, the bombing is in many ways a microcosm of the numerous conflicts that divide Karachi, because people wondered if the perpetrators were motivated by religious fervor, political revenge, or simply a desire to make way for new real estate in the heart of the city. Despite the violence that frequently consumes Karachi, Inskeep finds remarkable signs of the city's tolerance, vitality, and thriving civil society-from a world-renowned ambulance service to a socially innovative project that helps residents of the vast squatter neighborhoods find their own solutions to sanitation, health care, and education.
Drawing on interviews with a broad cross section of Karachi residents, from ER doctors to architects to shopkeepers, Inskeep has created a vibrant and nuanced portrait of the forces competing to shape the future of one of the world's fastest growing cities.
"I am proud to call myself a straphanger," writes Taras Grescoe. The perception of public transportation in America is often unflattering—a squalid last resort for those with one too many drunk-driving charges, too poor to afford insurance, or too decrepit to get behind the wheel of a car. Indeed, a century of auto-centric culture and city planning has left most of the country with public transportation that is underfunded, ill maintained, and ill conceived. But as the demand for petroleum is fast outpacing the world's supply, a revolution in transportation is under way.
Grescoe explores the ascendance of the straphangers—the growing number of people who rely on public transportation to go about the business of their daily lives. On a journey that takes him around the world—from New York to Moscow, Paris, Copenhagen, Tokyo, Bogotá, Phoenix, Portland, Vancouver, and Philadelphia—Grescoe profiles public transportation here and abroad, highlighting the people and ideas that may help undo the damage that car-centric planning has done to our cities and create convenient, affordable, and sustainable urban transportation—and better city living—for all.
"Written in a clear and elegant style, The Ghosts of Berlin is not just another colorless architectural history of the German capital. . . . Mr. Ladd's book is a superb guide to this process of urban self-definition, both past and present."—Katharina Thote, Wall Street Journal
"If a book can have the power to change a public debate, then The Ghosts of Berlin is such a book. Among the many new books about Berlin that I have read, Brian Ladd's is certainly the most impressive. . . . Ladd's approach also owes its success to the fact that he is a good storyteller. His history of Berlin's architectural successes and failures reads entertainingly like a detective novel."—Peter Schneider, New Republic
"[Ladd's] well-written and well-illustrated book amounts to a brief history of the city as well as a guide to its landscape."—Anthony Grafton, New York Review of Books
A Prayer for the City is acclaimed journalist Buzz Bissinger's true epic of Philadelphia mayor Ed Rendell, an utterly unique, unorthodox, and idiosyncratic leader willing to go to any length for the sake of his city: take unions head on, personally lobby President Clinton to save 10,000 defense jobs, or wrestle Smiley the Pig on Hot Dog Day—all the while bearing in mind the eternal fickleness of constituents whose favor may hinge on a missed garbage pick-up or an overzealous meter maid. It is also the story of citizens in crisis: a woman fighting ceaselessly to give her great-grandchildren a better life, a father of six who may lose his job at the Navy Shipyard, and a policy analyst whose experiences as a crime victim tempt her to abandon her job and ideals. "Fascinating, humane" (The New Yorker) and alive with detail and insight, A Prayer for the City describes the rare combination of political courage and optimism that may be the only hope for America's urban centers.
Their coverage is both comprehensive and cutting edge, not just including all the basic topics (OT, budgeting, HRM), but also reflecting new realities in public administration:
Innovations in e-government
The importance of new technology
Changes in intergovernmental relations, especially the emphasis on inter-local and shared regional resources
Public performance and accountability initiatives
Public Administrationhas been crafted with student appeal in mind. Each of the book s 14 chapters is generously and colorfully illustrated with cartoons, quotes, and artwork all reinforcing the book s theme that the field of PA is rooted in the cultural and political world. Each chapter is also supported with a listing of key terms, exercises, and additional resources."
The book's contributors include the most well-known experts in the planning and design fields, among them James Howard Kunstler, Alex Garvin, Andres Duany, Joel Kotkin, and Wendell Cox. These and other prominent thinkers offer passionate debates and thought-provoking commentary on the most important and controversial topics in the field of urban planning and design: gentrification, eminent domain, the philosophical divide between the Smart Growth community, libertarians and New Urbanists, regional growth patterns, urban design trends, transportation systems, and reaction to disasters such as Katrina and 9/11 that changed the way we look at cities and security.
Planetizen's Contemporary Debates in Urban Planning provides readers with a unique and accessible introduction to a broad array of ideas and perspectives. With the increasing awareness of the need for sound urban planning to ensure the economic, environmental, and social health of modern society, Planetizen's Contemporary Debates in Urban Planning gives professionals in the field and concerned citizens alike a deeper understanding of the critical, complex issues that continue to challenge urban planners, designers, and developers.
Kerr locates the origins of today's shelter system in the era that followed the massive railroad rebellions of 1877. From that period through the Great Depression, business and political leaders sought to transform downtown Cleveland to their own advantage. As they focused on bringing business travelers and tourists to the city and beckoned upper-income residents to return to its center, they demolished two downtown working-class neighborhoods and institutionalized a shelter system to contain and control the unhoused and unemployed. The precedents from this period informed the strategies of the post-World War II urban renewal era as the "new urbanism" of the late twentieth century.
The efforts of the city's elites have not gone uncontested. Kerr documents a rich history of opposition by people at the margins whose organized resistance and everyday survival strategies have undermined the grand plans crafted by the powerful and transformed the institutions designed to constrain the lives of the homeless.
"A tightly argued, effectively researched, and well-written book. Kerr successfully brings the voices of the unhoused and unemployed into his story at every turn, making a convincing case for their role in altering, if rarely determining, policy."---Mark E. Santow, coauthor of Social Security and the Middle Class Squeeze
"One of the most robust portraits available of homelessness both as an institutional-spatial condition and as a human experience that changes over time."---Joseph Heathcott, coeditor of Beyond the Ruins: The Meanings of Deindustrialization
Site Engineering for Landscape Architects is the top choice for site engineering, planning, and construction courses as well as for practitioners in the field, with easy-to-understand coverage of the principles and techniques of basic site engineering for grading, drainage, earthwork, and road alignment. The Sixth Edition has been revised to address the latest developments in landscape architecture while retaining an accessible approach to complex concepts.
The book offers an introduction to landform and the language of its design, and explores the site engineering concepts essential to practicing landscape architecture today—from interpreting landform and contour lines, to designing horizontal and vertical road alignments, to construction sequencing, to designing and sizing storm water management systems. Integrating design with construction and implementation processes, the authors enable readers to gain a progressive understanding of the material.
This edition contains completely revised information on storm water management and green infrastructure, as well as many new and updated case studies. It also includes updated coverage of storm water management systems design, runoff calculations, and natural resource conservation. Graphics throughout the book have been revised to bring a consistent, clean approach to the illustrations.
Perfect for use as a study guide for the most difficult section of the Landscape Architect Registration Exam (LARE) or as a handy professional reference, Site Engineering for Landscape Architects, Sixth Edition gives readers a strong foundation in site development that is environmentally sensitive and intellectually stimulating.
Table of Contents
Mixing the colors
Drawing the shadows
Sunset in Africa - drawing tutorial
Mountain and house - Drawing Tutorial
Sunset - drawing tutorial
Forest - Drawing Tutorial
In the forest - Drawing Tutorial
Boats on the beach - Drawing Tutorial
Drawing with colored pencil is super easy if you use the right colors and have drawn a good sketch. Unlike the graphite pencils, colored pencils cannot be easily erased, so we have to draw carefully, particularly the darker areas. Always draw parts with colored pencil pressing down lightly and if it looks good, color over the same area pressing down hard. Buy a good brand of colored pencils and smooth paper. If you don't have a lot of red pencils, you can get more variations with only one pencil, by controlling how hard you press when you draw. In the image below I've drawn with one red pencil three nuances. In the first example I pressed hard, in the second I pressed normally and in the third example I pressed lightly. Even more variations of color can be created this way: This is just an example of what is inside the book.
This book offers a unique critical assessment of the contribution of the growth machine thesis to research in urban political economy. Written from an interdisciplinary and international perspective, it brings together leading urban studies scholars. These contributors explore three organizing themes: urban growth, discourse and ideology; new dimensions of urban politics; and the growth machine in comparative perspective. These themes not only provide the focus for the critical examinations of the growth machine thesis, but also offer exciting new ways of thinking about and researching urban politics and local economic development.
As Harvey Molotch himself notes in this book’s concluding chapter, “The growth machine idea makes a substantive argument about the empirical substance of U.S. urban regimes. It asserts that virtually every city (and state) government is a growth machine and long has been. It asserts that this puts localities in chronic competition with one another in ways that harm the vast majority of their citizens as well as their environments. It anticipates an ideological structure that naturalizes growth goals as a background assumption of civic life. In a social science realm where successful empirical generalizations have been few, the growth machine idea robustly and usefully describes reality.”
Contributors include Thabit Abu-Rass, Keith Bassett, Mark Boyle, Allan Cochrane, Kevin R. Cox, Kyle Crowder, Melissa R. Gilbert, Bob Jessop, Andrew Kirby, Mickey Lauria, Helga Leitner, John R. Logan, Harvey Molotch, Jamie Peck, Stephanie Pincetl, Eric Sheppard, John Rennie Short, Adam Tickell, Rachel Bridges Whaley, and Andrew Wood.
Topics covered include land use and urban design, transportation, ecological planning and restoration, energy and materials use, economic development, social and environmental justice, and green architecture and building. All sections have a concise editorial introduction that places the selection in context and suggests further reading. Additional sections cover tools for sustainable development, international sustainable development, visions of sustainable community and case studies from around the world. The book also includes educational exercises for individuals, university classes, or community groups, and an extensive list of recommended readings.
The anthology remains unique in presenting a broad array of classic and contemporary readings in this field, each with a concise introduction placing it within the context of this evolving discourse. The Sustainable Urban Development Reader presents an authoritative overview of the field using original sources in a highly readable format for university classes in urban studies, environmental studies, the social sciences, and related fields. It also makes a wide range of sustainable urban planning-related material available to the public in a clear and accessible way, forming an indispensable resource for anyone interested in the future of urban environments.
For thousands of years, people have altered the meaning of space by reshaping nature. As an art form, these architectural landscape creations are stamped with societal imprints unique to their environment and place in time.
Illustrated History of Landscape Design takes an optical sweep of the iconic landscapes constructed throughout the ages. Organized by century and geographic region, this highly visual reference uses hundreds of masterful pen-and-ink drawings to show how historical context and cultural connections can illuminate today's design possibilities.
This guide includes:
Storyboards, case studies, and visual narratives to portray spaces
Plan, section, and elevation drawings of key spaces
Summaries of design concepts, principles, and vocabularies
Historic and contemporary works of art that illuminate a specific era
Descriptions of how the landscape has been shaped over time in response to human need
Directing both students and practitioners along a visually stimulating timeline, Illustrated History of Landscape Design is a valuable educational tool as well as an endless source ofinspiration.
Drawing on cutting-edge research in the social sciences, the contributors explore optimal ways to manage the modern city and propose solutions to today's most pressing urban problems. Topics include the urban economy, transportation, housing and open space, immigration, race, the impacts of poverty on children, education, crime, and financing and managing services. The contributors show how to make cities work for diverse urban constituencies, and why we still need cities despite the many challenges they pose. Making Cities Work brings the latest findings in urban economics to policymakers, researchers, and students, as well as anyone interested in urban affairs.
In addition to the editor, the contributors are David Card, Philip J. Cook, Janet Currie, Edward L. Glaeser, Joseph Gyourko, Richard J. Murnane, Witold Rybczynski, Kenneth A. Small, and Jacob L. Vigdor.
Jay S. Levy brings us a new educationalresource entitled "Homeless Outreach & Housing First: LessonsLearned." This monograph features three written works onhomelessness inclusive of an article on moral, fiscal, andquality of life considerations, a new story entitled "Ronald'sNarrative: The Original Housing First," and an interview thatwas originally featured in "Recovering The Self: A Journal ofHope and Healing." These three documents provide a rich andfertile resource for learning, reflecting, and informing neededaction that promotes high quality outreach services andhousing stabilization for the most vulnerable among us.The Reader will...
Learn about the positive measurable impact of a HousingFirst approach and its moral, fiscal, and quality of lifeimplications.Explore the relationship between Homeless Outreach andHousing First, as well as understand the five basic pretreatmentprinciples that can be applied to both.Learn how to utilize a Pretreatment Approach with individualsexperiencing major mental illness and addiction.Understand how to better integrate Housing First andHomeless Outreach initiatives with homelessness policy.
Praise for Jay S. Levy
"This is one of the best guides I have read about workingwith the underserved and homeless. I wonder why all citiesdon't put it into place? How we approach our homelesscan defi nitely make a diff erence. Sometimes it's not in thetechniques, but in the attitude of the case manager."--Carol S. Hoyer, PhD, for Reader Views
Learn more at www.JaySLevy.comFrom Loving Healing Press www.LHPress.com
The volume’s essays include an investigation of representation and self-stylization in the city, an ethnographic examination of friction zones and practices of social reproduction in inner-city Johannesburg, and a discussion of the economic and literary relationship between Johannesburg and Maputo, Mozambique’s capital. One contributor considers how Johannesburg’s cosmopolitan sociability enabled the anticolonial projects of Mohandas Ghandi and Nelson Mandela. Journalists, artists, architects, writers, and scholars bring contemporary Johannesburg to life in ten short pieces, including reflections on music and megamalls, nightlife, built spaces, and life for foreigners in the city.
Contributors: Arjun Appadurai, Carol A. Breckenridge, Lindsay Bremner, David Bunn, Fred de Vries, Nsizwa Dlamini, Mark Gevisser, Stefan Helgesson, Julia Hornberger, Jonathan Hyslop, Grace Khunou, Frédéric Le Marcis, Xavier Livermon, John Matshikiza, Achille Mbembe, Robert Muponde, Sarah Nuttall, Tom Odhiambo, Achal Prabhala, AbdouMaliq Simone
As New York City’s transportation commissioner, Janette Sadik-Khan managed the seemingly impossible and transformed the streets of one of the world’s greatest, toughest cities into dynamic spaces safe for pedestrians and bikers. Her approach was dramatic and effective: Simply painting a part of the street to make it into a plaza or bus lane not only made the street safer, but it also lessened congestion and increased foot traffic, which improved the bottom line of businesses. Real-life experience confirmed that if you know how to read the street, you can make it function better by not totally reconstructing it but by reallocating the space that’s already there.
Breaking the street into its component parts, Streetfight demonstrates, with step-by-step visuals, how to rewrite the underlying “source code” of a street, with pointers on how to add protected bike paths, improve crosswalk space, and provide visual cues to reduce speeding. Achieving such a radical overhaul wasn’t easy, and Streetfight pulls back the curtain on the battles Sadik-Khan won to make her approach work. She includes examples of how this new way to read the streets has already made its way around the world, from pocket parks in Mexico City and Los Angeles to more pedestrian-friendly streets in Auckland and Buenos Aires, and innovative bike-lane designs and plazas in Austin, Indianapolis, and San Francisco. Many are inspired by the changes taking place in New York City and are based on the same techniques. Streetfight deconstructs, reassembles, and reinvents the street, inviting readers to see it in ways they never imagined.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Blending aesthetics and environmental consciousness, landscape architecture is one of the fastest growing fields, according to the US Department of Labor. Becoming a Landscape Architect gives you a comprehensive survey of the field as it is practiced today, and explains how to get started and how to succeed in this exciting, creative, and in-demand profession.
Featuring more than thirty-five interviews with leading landscape architects and more than 250 illustrations, the guide covers everything an aspiring landscape architect needs to know- from education and training, design specialties, and work settings to preparing an effective portfolio and finding a job in residential, ecological, commercial, and parks design.Complete guide to the profession of landscape architecture, one of today's fastest growing fields More than thirty-five interviews with leading landscape designers and educators give you an idea of what it's really like to work as a landscape architect Over 250 striking illustrations and a lively interior make the book visually appealing as well as informative Explains different educational paths and their prerequisites and requirements Author Kelleann Foster is Associate Professor and Assistant Department Head, Department of Landscape Architecture, Pennsylvania State University and Managing Partner, Visual Interactive Communications Group
Frug and Barron show that state law can make it much easier for cities to pursue a global-city or a tourist-city agenda than to respond to the needs of middle-class residents or to pursue regional alliances. But they also explain that state law is often so outdated, and so rooted in an unjustified distrust of local decision making, that the legal process makes it hard for successful cities to develop and implement any coherent vision of their future. Their book calls not for local autonomy but for a new structure of state-local relations that would enable cities to take the lead in charting the future course of urban development. It should be of interest to everyone who cares about the future of American cities, whether political scientists, planners, architects, lawyers, or simply citizens.
Rebel Cities places the city at the heart of both capital and class struggles, looking at locations ranging from Johannesburg to Mumbai, and from New York City to São Paulo. Drawing on the Paris Commune as well as Occupy Wall Street and the London Riots, Harvey asks how cities might be reorganized in more socially just and ecologically sane ways—and how they can become the focus for anti-capitalist resistance.
What they could not imagine -- and what they would soon discover -- was the enormity of the task at Ground Zero. Four hundred million pounds of steel; 600,000 square feet of broken glass; and 2,700 vertical feet of building had been reduced to a pile of burning debris covering sixteen acres. Charlie, Bobby, and hundreds of other construction workers, many of whom had helped to build the Twin Towers, were the only ones qualified to safely handle the devastation.
Everyone working the site faced the looming danger of the collapse of the slurry wall protecting lower Manhattan from the waters of the Hudson River, the complexity of shifting tons of steel without losing additional lives, and the day-to-day challenge and emotional strain of recovering victims. Charlie Vitchers became the go-to guy for the hundreds of people and numerous agencies laboring to clean up Ground Zero. What he and Bobby Gray make dramatically evident is how the job of dismantling the remaining ruins and restoring order to the site was far more complex and dangerous than constructing the tallest buildings in the world.
With stunning full-color photographs donated by Joel Meyerowitz -- a celebrated and award-winning artist and the only non-newsroom photographer allowed access to the site -- and first-person oral accounts of the tragedy from the morning of the attack to the Last Column ceremony, Nine Months at Ground Zero is a harrowing but ultimately redemptive story of forthright and heroic service.
Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design.
This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features:Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanical design, systems analysis, and stray-light suppression New chapter on polarization including lots of really useful information New and expanded chapter on diffractive optics Techniques for getting rid of geometrical aberrations Testing, tolerancing, and manufacturing guidance Intelligent use of aspheric surfaces in optical design Pointers on using off-the-shelf optics Basic optical principles and solutions for common and advanced design problems
In Smart Cities, urbanist and technology expert Anthony Townsend takes a broad historical look at the forces that have shaped the planning and design of cities and information technologies from the rise of the great industrial cities of the nineteenth century to the present. A century ago, the telegraph and the mechanical tabulator were used to tame cities of millions. Today, cellular networks and cloud computing tie together the complex choreography of mega-regions of tens of millions of people.
In response, cities worldwide are deploying technology to address both the timeless challenges of government and the mounting problems posed by human settlements of previously unimaginable size and complexity. In Chicago, GPS sensors on snow plows feed a real-time "plow tracker" map that everyone can access. In Zaragoza, Spain, a "citizen card" can get you on the free city-wide Wi-Fi network, unlock a bike share, check a book out of the library, and pay for your bus ride home. In New York, a guerrilla group of citizen-scientists installed sensors in local sewers to alert you when stormwater runoff overwhelms the system, dumping waste into local waterways.
As technology barons, entrepreneurs, mayors, and an emerging vanguard of civic hackers are trying to shape this new frontier, Smart Cities considers the motivations, aspirations, and shortcomings of them all while offering a new civics to guide our efforts as we build the future together, one click at a time.
If you love nature and life's simpler things, you'll love painting with Wilson Bickford. In this book, with a teaching style as easy and inviting as his paintings, Wilson guides you step by step through ten charming wildlife scenes on canvas.
Projects feature a variety of beloved animals including deer, black bears, blue herons, loons, ducks, swans and woodpeckers
Learn to paint a range of breathtaking settings - sparkling lakes, majestic mountains, forest retreats and even atmospheric effects like hazy sunsets, snow-laden pines and rippling water.
Includes mini-demonstrations that focus on key landscape elements such as trees, rocks, water and clouds.
Each project includes color swatches showing which mix is used where and easy-to-follow directions.
Simpler is always better when you're just starting out. These projects require minimal equipment, only five colors and absolutely no previous experience. Wilson loves to paint them - and with his friendly, straightforward approach, you will, too!
The analysis of towns and cities is a central element of all social sciences including geography, which offers a particular perspective on and insight into the urban condition. The principal goal of this third edition of the book remains that of providing instructors and students of the contemporary city with a comprehensive introduction to the expanding field of urban studies. The structure of the first two editions is maintained, with minor amendments. Each of the thirty chapters has been revised to incorporate recent developments in the field. All of the popular study aids are retained; the glossary has been expanded; and chapter references and notes updated to reflect the latest research. This third edition also provides new and expanded discussions of key themes and debates including detailed consideration of metacities, boomburgs, public space, urban sprawl, balanced communities, urban economic restructuring, poverty and financial exclusion, the right to the city, urban policy, reverse migration , and traffic and transport problems.
The book is divided into six main parts. Part one outlines the field of urban geography and explains the importance of a global perspective. Part two explores the growth of cities from the earliest times to the present day and examines the urban geography of the major world regions. Part three considers the dynamics of urban structure and land use change in Western cities. Part four focuses on economy, society and politics in the Western city. In part five attention turns to the urban geography of the Third World, where many of the countries experiencing highest rates or urban growth are least well equipped to respond to the economic, social, political and environmental challenge. Finally part six affords a prospective on the future of cities and cities of the future. New to this edition are: further readings based on the latest research; updated data and statistics; an expanded glossary; new key concepts; additional study questions; and a listing of useful websites.
The book provides a comprehensive interpretation of the urban geography of the contemporary world. Written in a clear and readable style, lavishly illustrated with more than eighty photographs, 180 figures, 100 tables and over 200 boxed studies and with a plethora of study aids Urban Geography: A Global Perspective represents the ultimate resource for students of urban geography.
Catastrophes come in different forms—hurricanes, recessions, and oil spills, to name a few. It is imperative that we learn how best to rebuild in the wake of disasters and what capacities and conditions are needed to improve future resilience. Since the devastating summer of 2005, leaders have made important inroads to restoring communities in more prosperous ways. Resilience and Opportunity is an important contribution to our collective learning from a teachable moment.
Contributors: Ivye Allen, Foundation for the Mid South; Lance Buhl, Duke University; Ann Carpenter, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; Robert A. Collins, Dillard University; Mark S. Davis, Tulane University Law School; Breonne DeDecker, Brandeis University; Karen B. DeSalvo, Tulane University School of Medicine; Kathryn A. Foster, University at Buffalo Regional Institute, SUNY; Linetta Gilbert, The Declaration Initiative; Ambassador James Joseph, Duke University; Mukesh Kumar, Jackson State University; Luceia LeDoux, Baptist Communities Ministries; Silas Lee III, Xavier University of Louisiana; David A. Marcello, Tulane University; Richard McCline, Southern University; Nancy T. Montoya, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; Reilly Morse, Mississippi Center for Justice; Elaine Ortiz, Greater New Orleans Community Data Center; Andre Perry, Loyola University, New Orleans; John L. Renne, University of New Orleans; Kalima Rose, PolicyLink; Michael Schwam-Baird, Tulane University; Jasmine M. Waddell, Brandeis University; Nadiene Van Dyke, New Orleans Police and Justice Foundation; Alandra Washington, W. K. Kellogg Foundation; Frederick Weil, Louisiana State University; Leslie Willams, LeaderShift Consulting; Jon Wool, Vera Institute of Justice.
-Rick Fedrizzi, President, CEO and Founding Chairman, U.S. Green Building Council
"Having seen firsthand in my company the power of biomimicry to stimulate a wellspring of profitable innovation, I can say unequivocably that biophilic design is the real deal. Kellert, Heerwagen, and Mador have compiled the wisdom of world-renowned experts to produce this exquisite book; it is must reading for scientists, philosophers, engineers, architects and designers, and-most especially-businesspeople. Anyone looking for the key to a new type of prosperity that respects the earth should start here."
-Ray C. Anderson, founder and Chair, Interface, Inc.
The groundbreaking guide to the emerging practice of biophilic design
This book offers a paradigm shift in how we design and build our buildings and our communities, one that recognizes that the positive experience of natural systems and processes in our buildings and constructed landscapes is critical to human health, performance, and well-being. Biophilic design is about humanity's place in nature and the natural world's place in human society, where mutuality, respect, and enriching relationships can and should exist at all levels and should emerge as the norm rather than the exception.
Written for architects, landscape architects, planners,developers, environmental designers, as well as building owners, Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life is a guide to the theory, science, and practice of biophilic design. Twenty-three original and timely essays by world-renowned scientists, designers, and practitioners, including Edward O. Wilson, Howard Frumkin, David Orr, Grant Hildebrand, Stephen Kieran, Tim Beatley, Jonathan Rose, Janine Benyus, Roger Ulrich, Bert Gregory, Robert Berkebile, William Browning, and Vivian Loftness, among others, address:
The basic concepts of biophilia, its expression in the built environment, and how biophilic design connects to human biology, evolution, and development.
The science and benefits of biophilic design on human health, childhood development, healthcare, and more.
The practice of biophilic design-how to implement biophilic design strategies to create buildings that connect people with nature and provide comfortable and productive places for people, in which they can live, work, and study.
Biophilic design at any scale-from buildings to cities-begins with a few simple questions: How does the built environment affect the natural environment? How will nature affect human experience and aspiration? Most of all, how can we achieve sustained and reciprocal benefits between the two?
This prescient, groundbreaking book provides the answers.
Contents of the Garden History Reference Encyclopedia
eTEXTS: The 100+ eTexts in the Encyclopedia are listed below
BIOGRAPHY: there is an alphabetical index with links to biographies of famous designers, writers and patrons who have guided the course of garden design history
GLOSSARY: there are explanations of garden history terms, with links to examples of their use in the eTexts
STYLES: there are diagrams of 24 key garden types and styles
TIMELINE: a combination of the 24 style diagrams with links to key persons and key examples
General histories of garden design
Garden History Guide. An overview of garden history from 2000 BC to 2000 AD (by Tom Turner). It introduces the subject and serves as a guide to the other resources in the Encyclopedia (approx 2,500 pages, 1.5m words and 2,000 illustrations).
Tom Turner Garden Design in the British Isles: History and styles since 1650 (1986, 2000) The Encyclopedia edition has been revised, with additional illustrations and hyperlinks to garden descriptions.
Marie-Luise Gothein History of garden art (English edition, 1928) Gothein's book, originally published in German (Geschichte der Gartenkunst, 1914 ), provides by far the best and by far the most comprehensive account of garden history from antiquity up to the start of the twentieth century.
eTexts relating to Ancient Egypt
Egyptian Book of the Dead (excerpts)
Herodotus journeyed to Egypt and down the Nile in the 5th century BC and included valuable information on sanctuaries, gardens, groves and statues.
A journey down the Nile in 1902, with romantic paintings of the people and the landscape
A visit to the Estate of Amun in 1909, with paintings capturing the mood of the ancient monuments
A journey down the Nile in 1914, with photographs of the monuments before they were restored and details of how the author's family hired a house boat and 'sailed away into a lotus land of sunshine and silent waters for five or six months'
eTexts relating to Ancient West Asia
The Song of Solomon from Old Testament of The Bible (also known as the Song of Songs). The greatest erotic love song in Western literature, making the association of gardens and love. It has been a profound influence on western thinking about gardens. 'The entire world, all of it, it not equal in worth to the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel.'
Excerpts from The Bible relating to gardens. The Garden of Eden was thought to have been in West Asia.
Excerpts from The Koran relating to gardens. Because gardens were so often used as a symbol of paradise, there are more references to gardens in The Koran than in The Bible.
eTexts relating to Ancient Greece
Plato's discussion of 'imitation' (mimesis) is explained and discussed. Book X of The Republic (c370 BC) is in the Encyclopedia . Plato's Theory of Forms led to the aesthetic principle that 'Art should Imitate Nature' which had a profound influence on western art in general and garden design in particular.
Homer, excerpts from the Iliad and Odyssey relating to gardens
Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough (1890). The chapter in the Encyclopedia describes 'The Ritual of Adonis'. It is written by the founder of modern anthropology and helps to explain the Adonis Cult, which provides evidence of plants being grown in Greek courtyard gardens, and of the spirit in which sacred groves were made in Ancient Greece.
eTexts relating to The Roman Empire
Vitruvius Pollio on landscape architecture and garden design (27 BC) from de Architectura. Vitruvius was a Roman and wrote the oldest western book on design to have survived. It lays down the principle that places should have 'commodity, firmness and delight'. Book 1, Chapters 1-7, are in the Encyclopedia .
Excerpts from Ovid's Metamorphosis (1-8 AD) and Art of Love (1 BC). Ovid's poetry provided a rich source of imagery for garden designers and for the artists who made garden sculpture.
Pliny the Younger's letters describing his own gardens (c100 AD). These letters are the best surviving descriptions of Roman gardens and of how their owners used them. Pliny owned many gardens and 500 slaves.
Cicero, excerpts from his letters relating to gardens
Virgil's Aenead, sections relating to gardens
Life of St Martin The first outstanding monastic leader in France was St Martin of Tours (c316-397). His account of how he destroyed the sacred groves of the pagan religion does much to explain why Europe has such scanty remains of this type of outdoor space.
Ibn Battuta's account of Constantinople c1300
eTexts relating to Medieval Gardens
Charlemagne's 'chapter' (capitulary) on gardens gave detailed instructions for the plants to be used in the royal gardens and for the management of his lands. They are key texts for the study of medieval gardens, c800 AD.
A note on 'Irminsul.' , the sacred tree of the Saxons, destroyed by the Christians.
Guillaume de Lorris' Romance of the Rose or Roman de la Rose (c1250). This is an allegorical poem, inspired by Ovid, in which gardens and roses are associated with romantic love ('Full many a time I smote and struck the door and listened for someone to let me in')
Excerpts from Boccaccio's Decameron (1353), with classical descriptions of medieval garden scenes. The tales are famed for their sexual intrigue and this aspect is more prominent than garden scenery in the illustrations in the Encyclopedia .
Albertus Magnus advice on how to make a pleasure garden (1206)
Walafried Strabbo's poem Hortulus. This is the literary classic of medieval garden literature, celebrating the delight of plants in monastic life and giving detailed information on the culture and uses of plants.
The Life of St Anthony, relating to the origin of monastic gardening
The Life of St Philbert, relating to the origin of the European monastic cloister. He was Abbot of Jumièges in France c750.
A set of quotations from The Bible which make reference to gardens.(61 No)
eTexts relating to Islamic Gardens
A set of quotations from The Koran which make reference to gardens (151 No)
The Spanish Ambassador's visit to Samarkand, in 1404, with his descriptions of Mughal gardens
Babur's Memoir, Babur admired the gardens he had seen and, after founding a Mughal Empire, made gardens he made in India
Persian gardens were in better condition in 1900 than in 2000, and better still in 1700. This gives a particular importance to past travellers descriptions of their use and form. There sections from the following accounts of visits to Persian gardens in the Encyclopedia (and engravings, to capture the flavour of Persian gardens as they were)
Montesquieu's Persian letters (1721) contained little information on Pesian gardens but did much to awaken interest in seraglios and the 'romance of the East'.
Washington Irving, the 'father of American literature' published a famous account of the Alhambra in 1832. He was a friend of Sir Walter Scott and has the same interest in welding history with imagination. This provides a glimpse of the Alhambra and Generalife when they were, beyond question, the finest gardens in Europe.
eTexts relating to Renaissance Gardens
Plotinus The Enneads Eighth Tractate: 'On the Intellectual Beauty'. Plotinus (205-270AD) was 'rediscovered' during the renaissance, in the Platonic Academy founded at Careggi, and came to have a profound influence on renaissance design methods
St Augustine's conversion took place in a garden in Milan (described in his Confessions) and was often chosen as a frontispiece to editions of his work. Augustine is regarded as the greatest Christian thinker of antiquity, the transmitter of Plato and Aristotle to medieval and renaissance Christianity.
Leon Battista Alberti On Garden Design (1485) from De re aedificatoria libri X (Ten Books on Architecture). Drawing from Pliny and Vitruvius, the humanist scholar set forth the principles for the design of renaissance villas. They were taken up by Donato Bramante and guided the course of garden design for two centuries.
Vasari's biographical note on Leon Battista Alberti describes his multi-faced genius.
Leonardo da Vinci note on the design of a water garden (from his Notebooks) with a reference to his interpretation of Vitruvius
Andrea Palladio's I Quattro Libri dell'Architecttura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1570) is one of the most influential design works ever published. The quotations in the Encyclopedia relate to the placing of buildings and Neoplatonism.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne's diary accounts of Italian Gardens (1580-1) let us view many still-famous Italian gardens through the eyes of a French renaissance traveller and writer. Montaigne invented the 'essay form'.
William Shakespeare's mention of gardens (30 No.) tell much of the gardens he knew. Despite his dates (1564-1616) these gardens are medieval, with only the slightest renaissance accent.
Francis Bacon's Essay 'On Gardens' (1625). This famous essay, by a philosopher and scientist, in Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe's words 'magisterially lays down the fundamental principles of gardening'. It begins with the words 'God Almighty first planted a garden' and praises wildness in gardens.
John Evelyn's diary accounts of gardens in France and Italy visited between 1644 and 1685. As with Montaigne's diary, they provide contemporary descriptions of French and Italian parks and gardens.
Andrew Marvell's The Garden (c1650) celebrates the delights in the symbolism of seventeenth century enclosed gardens. Marvell's Upon Appleton House, to my Lord Fairfax contains some garden description.
The Garden by Abraham Cowley 'I never had any other desire so strong, and so like to covetousness, as ....that I might be master at last of a small house and large garden
Sir Thomas Browne's essay on The Garden of Cyrus deals with the history of gardens, as viewed from 1658 (an extract is in the Encyclopedia )
eTexts relating to Enlightenment Gardens
René Descartes Descartes did not write either on aesthetics or on garden design, but historians continue to speak of the 'Cartesian Garden', by which they mean a geometrical garden. The Encyclopedia contains the text and a comment on his Discourse on the method of rightly conducting the reason, and seeking truth in the sciences.(1637) This short book laid the foundation for the philosophy of the Enlightenment and for Neoclassical aesthetics.
John James Theory and Practice of Gardening was published in 1712, based on A J Dezallier d'Arganville and Le Blond. It became the standard book on laying out a French baroque garden and provides a fascinating insight into how this was done. James also 'introduced the concept of the ha-ha and anticipated Pope's famous dictum on the genius of the place'. The Encyclopedia has 3 chapters, 4 plates and a discussion of James' book.
Alexander Pope's and his Essay on Criticism (1711) Epistle to Lord Burlington (1731). The former summarises contemporary attitudes to gardens and the latter summarises contemporary (rationalist-Neoclassical) aesthetic theory: based on Reason, Nature and the Genius of the Place.
John Serle's plan of Alexander Pope's garden at the time of his death, and his description of Pope's grotto (+ photographs of the grotto and its setting)
Sir Joshua Reynolds Discourses were delivered at the Royal Academy in London between 1769 and 1790 embody 'The basic ideas of neoclassical theory in the fine arts were set forth in definitive form, with clarity and grace'. The Encyclopedia contains relevant quotations.
eTexts relating to Romantic Gardens
William Temple's essay 'Upon the Gardens of Epicurus: or Of Gardening' (1685) is extravagantly praised by Nicholas Pevsner. He claims this essay 'started a line of thought and visual conceptions which were to dominate first England and then the World for two centuries.' The full text is in the Encyclopedia .
Jospeh Addison's Essay 161 made the key association of natural scenery with liberty and freedom. Essay 37 describes a perfect garden in which reason and nature go hand in hand. Essay 414 sees the works of nature as more delightful than artificial arrangements. Essay 417 supports Locke's theory of knowledge. Essay 477 describes Addison's own garden at Bilton.
William Shenstone A description of The Leasowes. This was one of the landscape gardens most admired in continental Europe, partly because it was the work of a poet and partly because it combined use and beauty - a ferme orneé. The full text of his publisher's description is in the Encyclopedia .
William Shenstone 'Unconnected thoughts on gardening'. The invention of the term 'landskip gardening' is attributed to Shenstone.
Edmund Burke An essay on the sublime and beautiful (1757). Taking an empiricist approach, Burke attacks Vitruvian and rationalist aesthetics. He also discusses garden design, praising Hogarth's 'line of beauty' (which Brown followed) and comparing 'smooth streams in the landscape' with ' in fine women smooth skins'.
Quotations from Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, describing the principles on which he worked.
Horace Walpole's essay 'On Gardening' (1780). The most brilliant and influential essay ever written on the development English park and garden design.
Thomas Jefferson's descriptions of English gardens
John Claudius Loudon's biography of Humphry Repton (1840). After Repton's own writings, this is the primary source of information on Humphry Repton's life and work.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau one of the letters from La Nouvelle Héloise deal's with Julie's garden. It is a romantic treatment of an ancient theme, making the association between women, sex and gardens (see above references the Song of Solomon, the Romance of the Rose and Boccaccio. Also the reference below to Goethe).
Uvedale Price On the Picturesque (1794) Excerpt from Chapter 1 and Chapter 4. Price was a widely respected authority on picturesque taste in gardens.
Humphry Repton 'A letter to Mr Price' (1795)
Humphry Repton Sketches and Hints (1795) This is Repton's first theoretical statement on his chosen professional (Introduction and Chapter 1 on Encyclopedia )
Humphry Repton Fragments on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1816) The Fragment reproduced (No 27) comes from the Red Book for Ashridge - a favourite project and the occasion for Repton's advocacy of what became the Mixed Style of garden design.
eTexts relating to Nineteenth Century Gardens
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Elective Affinities (1809). Like Rousseau, Goethe admired 'natural' gardens. He also drew gardens and designed gardens. The section reproduced in the Encyclopedia deals with the design of a romantic garden.
Jane Loudon's life of her husband John Claudius Loudon (1843). Jane was a novelist and her memoir is as touching as it is important as the key source of information on her husband - who was the most influential garden writer of the nineteenth century. Loudon's influence was particularly important in America.
Edward Kemp How to lay out a garden (1864 edn). Excerpts giving his views on styles of garden design and describing two gardens which he designed. It presents a somewhat depressing picture of the confusion which reigned in the mid-nineteenth century garden aesthetics - and continues to reign in many of the world's municipal parks departments..
Sir Walter Scott, excerpt from Waverly and from The Quarterly Review on gardens. Scott's remarks can be read in conjunction with those of his friends, Gilbert Laing Meason and Washington Irving. They introduced a romantic-historical dimension to garden design and appreciation.
Gustave Flaubert Bouvard and Pécuchet. Flaubert satirizes the bourgeois taste in garden design displayed by the characters whose names form the title of his last novel.
Famous Parks and Gardens of the World - the book was published anonymously and provides a good illustration of European gardening opinion in 1880. The Preface and Chapter 10 are in the Encyclopedia .
Ludwig II of Bavaria: the romantic gardens of the 'Mad King' were rich in historical associations.
eTexts relating to the History of Landscape Architecture
Guide to the History of Landscape Architecture, by Tom Turner
Gilbert Laing Meason. The full text of Meason's On the Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy (London 1828). Meason was the 'inventor' of the term Landscape Architecture, which has since come to be used by a world-wide profession, represented by the International Federation of Landscape Architects, by the American Society of Landscape Architects, by the UK Landscape Institute and numerous other national associations. Only 150 copies of his book were printed and its contents are not well known. This is the first time the book has been re-published. It is accompanied with an analysis of the text by Tom Turner. A clear appreciation of how landscape architecture began is regarded as central to comprehension of the modern profession.
Notes on the Top twenty theorists and designers in the history of landscape architecture and on the question What is landscape architecture?
John Claudius Loudon's included comments on Meason in his Gardener's Magazine (1828) and in his Encyclopedia of Architecture (1833). These comments transmitted the term to Andew Jackson Downing and, later, to Frederick Law Olmsted - setting the course of American landscape architecture.
Andrew Jackson Downing's Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. (Section 1, Section 2 and Section 9). Downing was 'the first American writer on landscape architectural topics' (Norman T Newton in Design on the Land) and an 'incalcuable' influence on American garden design and landscape architecture (Oxford Companion to Gardens). Loudon's writings were his starting point.
Frederick Law Olmsted's description of his winning design for the Central Park, New York, competition (1858). Olmsted 'the father of American landscape architecture' entered the profession as a result of the Greensward Plan for Central Park, done in partnership with the English architect Calvert Vaux.
Norman T Newton's account of the scope of landscape architecture, from Design on the land.
Geoffrey Jellicoe's account of the scope of landscape design, from the Landscape of Man
Ian McHarg: notes and links on the twentieth century's outstanding landscape planner.
eTexts relating to Arts and Crafts Gardens
William Morris' essay on Hopes and fears for art in which he criticises carpet bedding and makes the point that gardens should be works of art and of craft.
Thomas Huxley's discussion of Evolution and ethics (1859), in which he views his own garden as a 'work of art' in contrast to the 'state of nature' which existed before it was made.
William Robinson The Wild Garden (1881 edn Chapters 1-5, originally published by John Murray and reproduced with their permission). Robinson is described by Jekyll (in the reference below) as 'our great champion of hardy flowers'. He urged the use of hardy plants, instead of subtropical plants and carpet bedding, in garden design. He had a sharp dispute with Blomfield (below).
John D Sedding Garden craft old and new (1891) introduced his book with a chapter on The Theory of the Garden. There are 2 chapters in the Encyclopedia .
Reginald Blomfield's The Formal garden in England (1901 edn, originally published by MacMillan and reproduced with their permission). A contemporary review in The Times said 'Mr. Blomfield's historical sketch of the art of gardening in England is full of interest and instruction, and his polemic against the so-called landscape gardeners is vigorous, incisive, and to our mind convincing.' The book is undoubtedly polemical, but commendably scholarly. Blomfield was the son of a bishop and had a hatred of modernism.
Gertrude Jekyll's account of garden design (from Wall water and woodland gardens, 1901, originally published by Country Life and reproduced with their permission). Jekyll was the most influential writer on planting design in the twentieth century. This chapter is the clearest statement of her views on the history and theory of garden design.
eTexts relating to Design Methods
Design methodology: an overview by Tom Turner
Surface water drainage and management (from Landscape Design October 1985) arguing for 'privileging' water in the design procedure
Wilderness and plenty: construction and deconstruction (from Urban Design Quarterly September 1992) arguing that the professional structure of the construction industry would benefit from deconstruction.
'Feminine' landscape design: a tale of two tragedies (from a Sheffield Spring School lecture, April 1993) arguing for the 'way of the hunter' to be balanced by the 'way of the nester'
Postmodern landscapes (from Landscape Design May 1993) arguing for landscape and garden designers to take account of postmodern ideas and theories in their work
Pattern analysis (from Landscape Design October 1991) arguing for a design method based on pattern analysis, instead of the modernist Survey-Analysis-Design (SAD) method taught in most of the world's landscape and garden design schools.
Revolutions in the garden (from Tom Turner's City as landscape, Spons 1996). After looking at the design revolutions which have taken place in the 1690s, 1790s, and 1890s this essay finds the seeds of a fourth design revolution in the work of Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe, Charles Jencks, and Ian Hamilton Finlay.
The flowers of garden design theory (from Garden Design Journal Autumn 1999, published as 'Timeless with delight') this article suggests a design method which integrates knowledge drawn from various fields, including the fine arts, philosophy, the natural and social sciences.
PAKILDA: Pattern Assisted Knowledge Intensive Landscape Design Approach (from Landscape Design May 2001). Developing the method outlined in the Garden Design Journal, this article the recommends a design method for landscape design and planning.
Design history and theory (from a lecture delivered at the University of Uppsala in April 2002) this article relates the PAKILDA method to the set of design objectives outlined by Vitruvius in the first century: utilitas (Commodity), firmitas (Firmness) and venustas (Delight).
eTexts relating to Twentieth Century Gardens
There are histories of American Garden Design in the Encyclopedia , written in 1834, 1928 and 2001.
Geoffrey Jellicoe: a collection of information on his work, including an essay by Tom Turner on: Geoffrey Jellicoe, the subconscious and landscape design (1998)
Garden Revolutions: an essay in which it is argued that 'structuralism can infuse gardens with post-Postmodern ideas and beliefs. It is a layered approach to garden making. '
Place attachments are emotional bonds that form between people and their physical surroundings. These connections are a powerful aspect of human life that inform our sense of identity, create meaning in our lives, facilitate community and influence action. Place attachments have bearing on such diverse issues as rootedness and belonging, placemaking and displacement, mobility and migration, intergroup conflict, civic engagement, social housing and urban redevelopment, natural resource management and global climate change.
In this multidisciplinary book, Manzo and Devine-Wright draw together the latest thinking by leading scholars from around the globe, capturing important advancements in three areas: theory, methods and application. In a wide range of conceptual and applied ways, the authors critically review and challenge contemporary knowledge, identify significant advances and point to areas for future research.
This volume offers the most current understandings about place attachment, a critical concept for the environmental social sciences and placemaking professions.
When Sam Schwartz was growing up in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn—his block belonged to his community: the kids who played punchball and stickball & their parents, who'd regularly walk to the local businesses at which they also worked. He didn't realize it then, but Bensonhurst was already more like a museum of a long-forgotten way-of-life than a picture of America's future. Public transit traveled over and under city streets—New York's first subway line opened in 1904—but the streets themselves had been conquered by the internal combustion engine.
America's dependency on the automobile began with the 1908 introduction of Henry Ford's car-for-everyone, the Model T. The “battle for right-of-way” in the 1920s saw the demise of streetcars and transformed America's streets from a multiuse resource for socializing, commerce, and public mobility into exclusive arteries for private automobiles. The subsequent destruction of urban transit systems and post WWII suburbanization of America enabled by the Interstate Highway System and the GI Bill forever changed the way Americans commuted.
But today, for the first time in history, and after a hundred years of steady increase, automobile driving is in decline. Younger Americans increasingly prefer active transportation choices like walking or cycling and taking public transit, ride-shares or taxis. This isn't a consequence of higher gas prices, or even the economic downturn, but rather a collective decision to be a lot less dependent on cars—and if American cities want to keep their younger populations, they need to plan accordingly. In Street Smart, Sam Schwartz explains how.
In this clear and erudite presentation of the principles of smart transportation and sustainable urban planning—from the simplest cobblestoned street to the brave new world of driverless cars and trains—Sam Schwartz combines rigorous historical scholarship with the personal and entertaining recollections of a man who has spent more than forty years working on planning intelligent transit networks in New York City. Street Smart is a book for everyone who wants to know more about the who, what, when, where, and why of human mobility.
This fifth edition has been restructured to bring it in to line with the most recent RHS syllabus, adding new material on the basis of science for horticulturists. The book contains beginning of chapter summaries, highlighted definitions and key points, and end of chapter test your learning questions. Each chapter ends with references for further reading.
Structured to meet the needs of a wide variety of courses in horticulture at levels 2 and 3, this book is particularly suitable for the RHS Certificate, Advanced Certificate and Diploma in Horticulture, BTEC National and the City and Guilds/NPTC National and Advanced National Certificate and Diploma courses. It also supports those studying plant science and related modules for 'A' Level Biology and the Diploma in Environmental and Land-based studies.
Charles Adams BSc (Agric) Hons, Dip Applied Educ., Fellow Inst Horticulture, is a lecturer at Capel Manor College and University of Hertfordshire, an external examiner in horticulture, and also a member of the Royal Horticultural Society Qualifications Advisory Committee.
Katherine Bamford BSc (Agric Sci) Hons, Cert Ed., formerly lecturer in horticulture science at Oaklands College, St. Albans, works in the commercial sector with herbs, organic vegetables and hardy plants.
Mike Early MSc, BSc Hons, DTA, Cert Ed., formerly a lecturer in horticulture science at Oaklands College, St. Albans, now works as a landscape gardner.
This groundbreaking work explains key ecological concepts and their application to the design and management of sustainable landscapes. It covers biogeography and plant selection, assembling plant communities, competition and coexistence, designing ecosystems, materials cycling and soil ecology, plant-animal interactions, biodiversity and stability, disturbance and succession, landscape ecology, and global change. Beck draws on real world cases where professionals have put ecological principles to use in the built landscape.
The demand for this information is rising as professional associations like the American Society of Landscape Architects adopt new sustainability guidelines (SITES). But the need goes beyond certifications and rules. For constructed landscapes to perform as we need them to, we must get their underlying ecology right. Principles of Ecological Landscape Design provides the tools to do just that.
This subtle study of a storied urban neighborhood reveals the way that upper-middle-class newcomers have positioned themselves as champions of diversity, and how their mobilization around this key concept has reordered class divisions rather than abolished them.
From the Hardcover edition.