Over 80% of the approx. 200 billion mail pieces processed and delivered by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) last year was sent by commercial mailers that barcode, sort, or transport mail to get lower postage rates. Starting in May 2009, USPS will encourage these mailers to use new barcodes that have increased capabilities as part of Intelligent Mail, a new program. According to USPS, Intelligent Mail is the most complex change it has ever undertaken. This report describes: (1) the Intelligent Mail program and the status of implementation efforts; and (2) the key risks to implementing Intelligent Mail and how USPS is addressing these risks. Includes recommendations. Charts and tables.