Organic compound

A reactions oriented course is a staple of most graduate organic programs, and synthesis is taught either as a part of that course or as a special topic. Ideally, the incoming student is an organic major, who has a good working knowledge of basic reactions, stereochemistry and conformational principles. In fact, however, many (often most) of the students in a first year graduate level organic course have deficiencies in their undergraduate work, are not organic majors and are not synthetically inclined.

To save students much time catching up this text provides a reliable and readily available source for background material that will enable all graduate students to reach the same high level of proficiency in organic chemistry. Produced over many years with extensive feedback from students taking an organic chemistry course this book provides a reaction based approach. The first two chapters provide an introduction to functional groups; these are followed by chapters reviewing basic organic transformations (e.g. oxidation, reduction). The book then looks at carbon-carbon bond formation reactions and ways to ‘disconnect’ a bigger molecule into simpler building blocks.

Most chapters include an extensive list of questions to test the reader’s understanding. There is also a new chapter outlining full retrosynthetic analyses of complex molecules which highlights common problems made by scientists.

The book is intended for graduate and postgraduate students, scientific researchers in chemistry

New publisher, new edition; extensively updated and corrected Over 950 new references with more than 6100 references in total Over 600 new reactions and figures replaced or updatedOver 300 new homework problems from the current literature to provide nearly 800 problems to test reader understanding of the key principles
The main theme of Part B is the description of synthetically useful reactions and the illustration of their application. We have attempted to update the material to reflect the most important advances in synthetic methodology. Because of the extensive developments in the use of organic derivatives of transition metals, as well as of silicon and tin, we have separated the organometallic material into three chapters. Chapter 7 emphasizes organolithium and organomagnesium chemistry and also considers the group lIB metals. Transition metal chemistry is discussed in Chapter 8, with emphasis on copper and palladium intermediates. In Chapter 9, the carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions of organoboranes, silanes, and stannanes are discussed. The increased importance of free-radical reactions in synthesis has led to the incorporation of a section on radical reactions into Chapter 10, in which carbocations, carbenes, and nitrenes are also discussed. Certainly a major advance in synthetic chemistry during the 1980s was the development of methods for enantioselective synthesis. We have increased the level of attention to stereochemistry in the discussion of many reactions. In areas in which new stereoselective methods have been well developed, such as in aldol condensa tions, hydroboration, catalytic reduction, and epoxidation, we discuss these methods. The final chapter discusses some of the general issues which must be addressed in multistep synthesis and provides some illustrative syntheses which can provide the basis for more detailed study of this aspect of synthetic chemistry.
Organic Nanoreactors: From Molecular to Supramolecular Organic Compounds provides a unique overview of synthetic, porous organic compounds containing a cavity which can encapsulate one or more guest(s). Confined space within a nanoreactor can isolate the guest(s) from the bulk and effectively influence the reaction inside the nanoreactor. Naturally occurring enzymes are compelling catalysts for selective reactions as their three-dimensional structures build up clefts, caves, or niches in which the active site is located. Additionally, reactive sites carrying special functional groups allow only specific reagents to react in a particular way, to lead to specific enantiomers as products. Equipped with suitable functional groups, then, nanoreactors form a new class of biomimetic compounds, which have multiple important applications in the synthesis of nanomaterials, catalysis, enzyme immobilization, enzyme therapy, and more. This book addresses various synthetic, organic nanoreactors, updating the previous decade of research and examining recent advances in the topic for the first comprehensive overview of this exciting group of compounds, and their practical applications. Bringing in the Editor’s experience in both academic research and industrial applications, Organic Nanoreactors focuses on the properties and applications of well-known as well as little-examined nanoreactor compounds and materials and includes brief overviews of synthetic routes and characterization methods.Focuses on organic nanoreactor compounds for greater depthCovers the molecular, supramolecular, and macromolecular perspectivesCompiles previous and current sources from this growing field in one unique referenceProvides brief overviews of synthetic routes and characterization methods
Thermodynamic Properties of Organic Compounds: Estimation Methods, Principles and Practice, Revised Edition focuses on the progression of practical methods in computing the thermodynamic characteristics of organic compounds.
Divided into two parts with eight chapters, the book concentrates first on the methods of estimation. Topics presented are statistical and combined thermodynamic functions; free energy change and equilibrium conversions; and estimation of thermodynamic properties. The next discussions focus on the thermodynamic properties of simple polyatomic systems by statistical thermodynamic methods. Discussed are molecular energy of an ideal gas; partition function and thermodynamic properties; and calculation of statistical thermodynamic functions. The book also notes the dynamic properties of long chain hydrocarbons and the method of structural similarity. Tabulations and numerical representations are presented as well.
Discussions also focus on methods of group contributions and group equations. Included are paraffins, unsaturated carbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, and nonhydrocarbon groups. The last part of the text focuses on heat formation and heat capacity; the applications of thermodynamic method; and numerical data. Included in the discussions are bond energies and binding energies; gaseous free radicals and ions; and hydrogenation of benzene.
The book is an important source of data for readers interested in studying the thermodynamic characteristics of organic compounds.
The theory, methods, and practices needed to build molecules and supramolecular systems

Using a synthetic approach to organic materials chemistry, this book sets forth tested and proven methods and practices that make it possible to engineer organic molecules offering special properties and functions. Throughout the book, plenty of real-world examples demonstrate the countless possibilities of creating one-of-a-kind molecules and supramolecular systems to support a broad range of applications. The book explores applications in both materials and bioorganic chemistry, including molecular electronics, energy storage, sensors, nanomedicine, and enzyme engineering.

Organic Synthesis and Molecular Engineering consists of fourteen chapters, each one contributed by one or more leading international experts in the field. The contributions are based on a thorough review and analysis of the current literature as well as the authors' firsthand experience in the lab engineering new organic molecules. Designed as a practical lab reference, the book offers:

Tested and proven synthetic approaches to organic materials chemistry Methods and practices to successfully engineer functionality into organic molecules Explanations of the principles and concepts underlying self-assembly and supramolecular chemistry Guidance in selecting appropriate structural units used in the design and synthesis of functional molecules and materials Coverage of the full range of applications in materials and bioorganic chemistry A full chapter on graphene, a new topic generating intense research

Organic Synthesis and Molecular Engineering begins with core concepts, molecular building blocks, and synthetic tools. Next, it explores molecular electronics, supramolecular chemistry and self-assembly, graphene, and photoresponsive materials engineering. In short, it offers everything researchers need to fully grasp the underlying theory and then build new molecules and supramolecular systems.

Filled with industrial examples emphasizing the practical applications of crystallization methodologies

Based on the authors' hands-on experiences as process engineers at Merck, Crystallization of Organic Compounds guides readers through the practical aspects of crystallization. It uses plenty of case studies and examples of crystallization processes, ranging from development through manufacturing scale-up. The book not only emphasizes strategies that have been proven successful, it also helps readers avoid common pitfalls that can render standard procedures unsuccessful.

The goal of this text is twofold:

Build a deeper understanding of the fundamental properties of crystallization as well as the impact of these properties on crystallization process development. Improve readers' problem-solving abilities by using actual industrial examples with real process constraints. Crystallization of Organic Compounds begins with detailed discussions of fundamental thermodynamic properties, nucleation and crystal growth kinetics, process dynamics, and scale-up considerations. Next, it investigates modes of operation, including cooling, evaporation, anti-solvent, and reactive crystallization. The authors conclude with special applications such as ultrasound in crystallization and computational fluid dynamics in crystallization. Most chapters feature multiple examples that guide readers step by step through the crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

With its focus on industrial applications, this book is recommended for chemical engineers and chemists who are involved with the development, scale-up, or operation of crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries.

Photonics is being labelled by many as the technology for the 21st century. Because of the structural flexibility both at the molecular and bulk levels, organic materials are emerging as a very important class of nonlinear optical materials to be used for generating necessary nonlinear optical functions for the technology of photonics. Since the last NATO advanced research workshop on "Polymers for Nonlinear Optics"held in June 1988, at Nice - Sophia Antipolis, France. there has been a tremendous growth of interest worldwide and important development in this field. Significant progress has been made in theoretical modeling, material development, experimental studies and device concepts utilizing organic materials. These important recent developments provided the rationale for organizing the workshop on "Organic Materials for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics" which was held in La Rochelle, France, in August 1990. This proceeding is the outcome of the workshop held in La Rochelle. The objective of the workshop was to bring together scientists and engineers of varied backgrounds working in this field in order to assess the current status of this field by presenting significant recent developments and make recommendations on future directions of research. The workshop was multidisciplinary as it had contributions from chemists, physicists, materials scientists and device engineers. The participants were both from industries and universities. The workshop included plenary lectures by leading international scientists in this field, contributed research papers and a poster session. Panel discussion groups were organized to summarize important developments and to project future directions.
Small molecules and conjugated polymers, the two main types of organic materials used for optoelectronic and photonic devices, can be used in a number of applications including organic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, photorefractive devices and waveguides. Organic materials are attractive due to their low cost, the possibility of their deposition from solution onto large-area substrates, and the ability to tailor their properties. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices provides an overview of the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials, and explains how these materials can be used across a range of applications.

Parts one and two explore the materials used for organic optoelectronics and nonlinear optics, their properties, and methods of their characterization illustrated by physical studies. Part three moves on to discuss the applications of optoelectronic and nonlinear optical organic materials in devices and includes chapters on organic solar cells, electronic memory devices, and electronic chemical sensors, electro-optic devices.

The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices is a technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists involved in research and development of organic semiconductor and nonlinear optical materials and devices.Comprehensively examines the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materialsDiscusses their applications in different devices including solar cells, LEDs and electronic memory devicesAn essential technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists
Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, Volume 2 deals with the nonlinear optical properties of organic molecules and crystals, with emphasis on cubic nonlinear optical effects and and the intermolecular bond. Topics covered include the basic structural and electronic properties of polydiacetylenes; cubic effects in polydiacetylene solutions and films; and degenerate third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of polydiacetylenes. Dimensionality effects and scaling laws in nonlinear optical susceptibilities are also considered.
This volume is comprised of seven chapters divided into two sections and begins with a discussion on the basic structural and electronic properties of polydiacetylenes as well as their methods of preparation. Cubic nonlinearities in polydiacetylene solutions and films are then examined, paying particular attention to polarization in one-dimensional media; multiple reflections of fundamental and harmonic waves; and harmonic generation in an absorbing medium. The following chapters focus on degenerate third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of polydiacetylenes; dimensionality effects and scaling laws in nonlinear optical susceptibilities; polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of long molecules; and resonant molecular optics. The final chapter analyzes the nonlinear optics of a wide range of compounds that are held together by intermolecular bonding and form supramolecular assemblies.
This monograph will be a useful resource for physicists, physical and organic chemists, and those in the field of quantum electronics.
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