"The Congress created the Arsenal Support Program Initiative (ASPI) to help maintain the functional capabilities of the Army's three manufacturing arsenals, which are located in Rock Island, Illinois, Watervliet, New York, and Pine Bluff, Arkansas. A primary goal of the program is to enable commercial firms to lease vacant space at the arsenals once that space has been renovated, thereby encouraging collaboration between the Army and commercial firms as well as reducing the costs the government incurs to operate and maintain the arsenal facilities. Since the ASPI's inception, a number of commercial tenants have leased unused property at the arsenals; however, the financial benefits that the program has generated for the government have proved to be small relative to the program's funding. In response to a directive from the Congress, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) conducted a 'business case' analysis of the ASPI, examining the program's costs, return on investment, and economic impact. In keeping with CBO's mandate to provide objective, nonpartisan analysis, this report makes no recommendations."--Preface.
"This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) publication provides additional information about long-term projections of the Social Security program's finances that were included in The long-term budget outlook (June 2010, revised August 2010) and in Social security policy (July 2010). Those projections, which cover the 75-year period spanning 2010 to 2084, and the additional information presented in this document update projections CBO prepared last year and reported in CBO's Long-term projections for social security : 2009 update." --Preface.
"A centerpiece of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) transformation efforts in recent years has been the move toward making ground forces less reliant on access to foreign-controlled facilities such as harbors, airports, or logistics bases on the ground in their area of operations." "The United States Marine Corps and Army have long maintained expeditionary forces organized and equipped to be rapidly moved and inserted into combat with little reliance on access to local bases or infrastructure. Recognizing the vulnerability of forces that are dependent on local access (as U.S. forces have been in Afghanistan and Iraq), the Department of Defense (DoD) is improving its expeditionary capabilities across all of the military services. Prominent among those efforts is the Navy's plan to field a 14-ship squadro--the Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F--that would be capable of deploying, employing, and sustaining a Marine expeditionary brigade with little or no need for access to local bases or other infrastructure. This study ... looks at the capabilities and costs associated with MPF(F) and sea basing in general as well as other approaches that DoD might take to improve its expeditionary capabilities."--Preface
This analysis, prepared by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) for the Defense Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Appropriations, examines how O & M spending grew in the 1980s and fell in the 1990s. The study highlights changes that could be made to achieve lower levels of spending by 2002. In keeping with the CBO's mandate to provide objective analysis, the study makes no recommendations. - Preface.
To provide information for federal deliberations on the reauthorization of more than 50 elementary and secondary education programs, this report describes efforts by states to improve schools, examines trends and conditions in primary and secondary education, and analyzes options for changing the federal role in education. Following an overview of education and the federal government, chapter 1 of the report describes the purposes of federal support for educational programs and discusses the educational reform movement that began in the early 1980s. Chapter 2 profiles elementary and secondary education nationwide, focusing on trends in educational outcomes, school resources, and student and family characteristics, while chapter 3 addresses issues of the relative priority that should be given to equity and excellence in education, and the level of control the government should exercise over education. Chapter 4 describes options for reducing the federal role in education through the use of block grants that define funding purposes but do not specify states' implementation procedures, and chapter 5 discusses options for refining the current federal role through fully funding current programs, eliminating programs not directed to special populations, and focusing on early education. Finally, chapter 6 reviews approaches to promoting educational reform, including national curriculum and national assessment efforts, school-based reform, and modification of key elements of the educational system as a whole. (BCY)
In 1991 the Federal Government initiated the multiagency High Performance Computing and Communications program (HPCC) to further the development of U.S. supercomputer technology and high-speed computer network technology. This overview by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) concentrates on obstacles that might prevent the growth of the high-performance computing and data communications industries. The market for supercomputers, relative to that of other technologies, is small. The main obstacle to the rise of large commercial markets for HPCC-developed technology is that cheaper workstations may preempt further growth of the supercomputer market as a whole. In addition, an economic inertia may occur, as conventional supercomputers, working well, become difficult to dislodge in the marketplace. The National Research and Educational Network (NREN) is central to the HPCC program. The ways in which Internet is becoming the core of a national data network promise well for HPCC in the future, but HPCC technology might be precluded from having a substantial effect on the current markets if demand for high-speed communications does not emerge as envisaged by HPCC leaders. Cost considerations and policy directions for HPCC are discussed. Five tables, six figures, and one box illustrate the discussion. Three appendixes discuss HPCC technology spinoffs and speed calculations. (SLD)
"This study examines the performance characteristics and life-cycle costs of possible design choices for the Space Radar system. The Air Force and its partners have not yet decided on the final design of the satellites or the final architecture of the constellation. For the purposes of this analysis, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) developed four alternative Space Radar architectures that could meet the systems principal mission objectives. Those architectures were based on unclassified published studies and were designed to be technologically feasible (albeit challenging) in 2015, the anticipated year of the first launch. The alternatives incorporate two notional radar designs and various constellation sizes. The primary---or reference---architecture consists of nine satellites, each with a 40-square-meter radar array. The other options differ from that architecture by having either more (21) or fewer (5) satellites or larger radars (100-square-meter arrays on nine satellites)."--P. ix.
This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study--prepared at the request of the Ranking Member of the House Committee on Science--presents an overview of issues related to climate change, focusing primarily on its economic aspects. The study draws from numerous published sources to summarize the current state of climate science and provide a conceptual framework for addressing climate change as an economic problem. It also examines public policy options and discusses the potential complications and benefits of international coordination. In keeping with CBO's mandate to provide impartial analysis, the study makes no recommendations.
Currently available launch vehicles have the capacity to lift payloads into low earth orbit that weigh up to about 25 metric tons, which is the requirement for almost all of the commercial and governmental payloads expected to be launched into orbit over the next 10 to 15 years. However, the launch vehicles needed to support the return of humans to the moon, which has been called for under the Bush Administration's Vision for Space Exploration, may be required to lift payloads into orbit that weigh in excess of 100 metric tons and, as a result, may constitute a unique demand for launch services. What alternatives might be pursued to develop and procure the type of launch vehicles necessary for conducting manned lunar missions, and how much would those alternatives cost. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study-prepared at the request of the Ranking Member of the House Budget Committee-examines those questions. The analysis presents six alternative programs for developing launchers and estimates their costs under the assumption that manned lunar missions will commence in either 2018 or 2020. In keeping with CBO's mandate to provide impartial analysis, the study makes no recommendations.
The United States Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps have long maintained tactical fighter forces that provide capabilities for air-to-air combat and air-to-ground attack. The three services are in the process of replacing the bulk of today's fighter aircraft, most of which were purchased in the 1980s, with new F/A-18E/F, F-22, and F-35 (Joint Strike Fighter) aircraft. Although current procurement plans call for the purchase of about 2,500 aircraft over the next 25 years, the services are projecting that those purchases will not keep pace with the need to retire today's aircraft as they reach the limit of their service life. The study also compares the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of seven alternative approaches that DoD might adopt to modernize its fighter forces -- three that satisfy today's inventory requirements, two that maintain aggregate weapons capacity with fewer aircraft, and two that replace portions of the fighter force with longer-range aircraft. In keeping with CBO's mandate to provide objective, impartial analysis, this study makes no recommendations.
"The United States Navy and Marine Corps operate a fleet of tactical fighter aircraft that provide air-to-air and air-to-ground combat capabilities. Although current procurement plans call for the purchase of about 700 new fighter aircraft over the next 15 years, the Department of the Navy is projecting that purchases planned for the next 5 to 10 years will be unable to keep pace with the retirement of today's F/A-18A-D Hornets as they reach the limit of their service life. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) report---prepared as directed by the House Armed Services Committee's Report on the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (H. Rept. 111-166)--compares several alternatives for maintaining the Navy's and Marine Corps' fighter inventory levels. The alternatives include different combinations of extending the service life of Hornets and purchasing new aircraft in addition to those already planned. In keeping with CBO's mandate to provide objective, impartial analysis, this report makes no recommendations"--Preface.
Examines the major factors contributing to bank failures during the 6-year period 1987-1992, & why these failures resulted in such extraordinary resolution costs. Examines bank-specific factors such as asset quality & portfolio composition, as well as more general structural & economic conditions affecting the industry. 25 charts & tables.
I dette amerikanske studie vurderes det konventionelle styrkeforhold mellem NATO- og WAPA-styrker i Europa med henblik på sammensætning og udrustning af amerikanske hærstyrker i fremtiden. For at imødegå WAPAs konventionelle overlegenhed foreslås forskellige NATO-alternativer.
The nationżs transportation and water infrastructure -- its highways, airports, water supply systems, wastewater treatment plants, and other facilities -- plays a vital role in the economy. Commercial activities and the lives of individuals depend on that physical infrastructure, which is provided by all levels of govżt. Concerns about the nationżs infrastructure and its ability to support commerce and promote public well-being have prompted calls for greater infrastructure spending. This study analyzes recent developments in spending on transportation and water infrastructure, trends in spending for capital and for operations and maint. by the various levels of govżt., and the rationale for public spending on infrastructure. A print on demand report.
"As part of their long-term procurement strategies, the Navy and the Coast Guard are each in the process of developing and building two types of small combatants. The Navy is building two versions of its new littoral combat ship, and the Coast Guard is building replacements for its existing classes of high-endurance cutters and medium-endurance cutters. Although all four types of ship are about the same size, they are designed to perform different missions. If the Navy's and Coast Guard's plans for their small combatant programs are fully implemented, the two services combined will spend over $47 billion over the next 20 years purchasing 83 of those ships. In light of the many pressures on the budgets of the Navy and the Coast Guard, some policymakers and analysts have questioned whether the services could combine their small combatant programs in ways that still meet their requirements but save money. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) paper, prepared at the request of the Ranking Member of the Senate Budget Committee, examines three alternatives that might allow the Navy and the Coast Guard to consolidate their small combatant programs."--Pref.