Material

How much further should the affluent world push its material consumption? Does relative dematerialization lead to absolute decline in demand for materials? These and many other questions are discussed and answered in Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization.

Over the course of time, the modern world has become dependent on unprecedented flows of materials. Now even the most efficient production processes and the highest practical rates of recycling may not be enough to result in dematerialization rates that would be high enough to negate the rising demand for materials generated by continuing population growth and rising standards of living. This book explores the costs of this dependence and the potential for substantial dematerialization of modern economies.

Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization considers the principal materials used throughout history, from wood and stone, through to metals, alloys, plastics and silicon, describing their extraction and production as well as their dominant applications. The evolving productivities of material extraction, processing, synthesis, finishing and distribution, and the energy costs and environmental impact of rising material consumption are examined in detail. The book concludes with an outlook for the future, discussing the prospects for dematerialization and potential constrains on materials.

This interdisciplinary text provides useful perspectives for readers with backgrounds including resource economics, environmental studies, energy analysis, mineral geology, industrial organization, manufacturing and material science.

Materials: Engineering, Science, Processing and Design—winner of a 2014 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—is the ultimate materials engineering text and resource for students developing skills and understanding of materials properties and selection for engineering applications. Written by world-class authors, it takes a unique design led-approach that is broader in scope than other texts, thereby meeting the curriculum needs of a wide variety of courses in the materials and design field, from introduction to materials science and engineering to engineering materials, materials selection and processing, and materials in design.

This new edition retains its design-led focus and strong emphasis on visual communication while expanding its treatment of crystallography and phase diagrams and transformations to fully meet the needs of instructors teaching a first-year course in materials. The book is fully linked with the leading materials software package used in over 600 academic institutions worldwide as well as numerous government and commercial engineering departments.

  • Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association
  • Design-led approach motivates and engages students in the study of materials science and engineering through real-life case studies and illustrative applications
  • Highly visual full color graphics facilitate understanding of materials concepts and properties
  • Chapters on materials selection and design are integrated with chapters on materials fundamentals, enabling students to see how specific fundamentals can be important to the design process
  • Available solutions manual, lecture slides, online image bank and materials selection charts for use in class handouts or lecture presentations
  • Links with the Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES EduPack), the powerful materials selection software
Carbon materials are exceptionally diverse in their preparation, structure, texture, and applications. In Advanced Materials Science and Engineering of Carbon, noted carbon scientist Michio Inagaki and his coauthors cover the most recent advances in carbon materials, including new techniques and processes, carbon materials synthesis, and up-to-date descriptions of current carbon-based materials, trends and applications.

Beginning with the synthesis and preparation of nanocarbons, carbon nanotubes, and graphenes, the book then reviews recently developed carbonization techniques, such as templating, electrospinning, foaming, stress graphitization, and the formation of glass-like carbon. The last third of the book is devoted to applications, featuring coverage of carbon materials for energy storage, electrochemical capacitors, lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, and adsorptive storage of hydrogen and methane for environmental protection, photocatalysis, spilled oil recovery, and nuclear applications of isotropic high-density graphite.

  • A progression from synthesis through modern carbonization techniques to applications gives you a thorough understanding of carbon materials
  • Covers a wide range of precursor materials, preparation techniques, and characteristics to inspire your own development of carbonization techniques, carbon materials and applications
  • Applications-oriented chapters include timely content on hot topics such as the engineering of carbon nanofibers and carbon materials for various energy-related applications
Atlas of Material Damage, Second Edition provides a systematic analysis of the modes of damage and morphology of damaged material, and compares the experiences of different industries to provide insight into the most frequently encountered failures, reasons for these failures, and potential improvements to prevent future materials failure. Product reliability is a critical aim of materials scientists and engineers. Uninterrupted performance of manufactured products at typical and extreme conditions of use is the major goal of product development and the most important indicator of material quality.

This atlas has microscopic pictures, schematic diagrams, and graphs which show how materials fail, how they are produced to not fail, and how they are designed to perform particular functions to make outstanding products. Findings presented by each illustration are fully explained in the text and labeled.

Materials increasingly must have optimal structure and specially designed morphology. The book offers numerous examples of how this special morphology can be achieved in electronics, the plastics industry, the pharmaceutical industry, aerospace, automotive applications, medicine, dentistry, and many other fields. This book provides information on defect formation and materials damage; discusses effect of composition, morphological features and structure of different materials on material performance, durability, and resilience; and analyses the cause of material damage and degradation, and the effect of processing conditions on material damage.

  • Includes data and images for many material types, making this a hard-working reference guide for engineers working in a range of different market sectors
  • Provides core data related to the field
  • Explains the range of test and imaging techniques available, enabling engineers and scientists to take optimal and cost effective decisions
  • Offers an essential tool for identifying material damage and implementing successful maintenance and replacement regimes
Advanced Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structural Elements analyzes contemporary theoretical models at the micro- and macro levels of material structure. Its coverage of practical methods and approaches, experimental results, and optimization of composite material properties and structural component performance can be put to practical use by researchers and engineers.

The third edition of the book consists of twelve chapters progressively covering all structural levels of composite materials from their constituents through elementary plies and layers to laminates and laminated composite structural elements. All-new coverage of beams, plates and shells adds significant currency to researchers.

Composite materials have been the basis of many significant breakthroughs in industrial applications, particularly in aerospace structures, over the past forty years. Their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios are the main material characteristics that attract the attention of the structural and design engineers. Advanced Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structural Elements helps ensure that researchers and engineers can continue to innovate in this vital field.

  • Detailed physical and mathematical coverage of complex mechanics and analysis required in actual applications – not just standard homogeneous isotropic materials
  • Environmental and manufacturing discussions enable practical implementation within manufacturing technology, experimental results, and design specifications
  • Discusses material behavior impacts in-depth such as nonlinear elasticity, plasticity, creep, structural nonlinearity enabling research and application of the special problems of material micro- and macro-mechanics
The Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials, Third Edition, explains how to measure, analyze and control environmental degradation for a wide range of industrial materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, wood and textiles exposed to environmental factors, such as weather, seawater, and fire. This updated edition divides the material into four new sections, Analysis and Testing, Types of Degradation, Protective Measures and Surface Engineering, then concluding with Case Studies. New chapters include topics on Hydrogen Permeation and Hydrogen Induced Cracking, Weathering of Plastics, the Environmental Degradation of Ceramics and Advanced Materials, Antimicrobial Layers, Coatings, and the Corrosion of Pipes in Drinking Water Systems.

Expert contributors to this book provide a wealth of insider knowledge and engineering expertise that complements their explanations and advice. Case Studies from areas such as pipelines, tankers, packaging and chemical processing equipment ensure that the reader understands the practical measures that can be put in place to save money, lives and the environment.

  • Introduces the reader to the effects of environmental degradation on a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, concrete, wood and textiles
  • Describes the kind of degradation that effects each material and how best to protect it
  • Includes case studies that show how organizations, from small consulting firms, to corporate giants design and manufacture products that are more resistant to environmental effects
Widely adopted around the world, Engineering Materials 1 is a core materials science and engineering text for third- and fourth-year undergraduate students; it provides a broad introduction to the mechanical and environmental properties of materials used in a wide range of engineering applications. The text is deliberately concise, with each chapter designed to cover the content of one lecture. As in previous editions, chapters are arranged in groups dealing with particular classes of properties, each group covering property definitions, measurement, underlying principles, and materials selection techniques. Every group concludes with a chapter of case studies that demonstrate practical engineering problems involving materials.

Engineering Materials 1, Fourth Edition is perfect as a stand-alone text for a one-semester course in engineering materials or a first text with its companion Engineering Materials 2: An Introduction to Microstructures and Processing, in a two-semester course or sequence.

  • Many new design case studies and design-based examples
  • Revised and expanded treatments of stress–strain, fatigue, creep, and corrosion
  • Additional worked examples—to consolidate, develop, and challenge
  • Compendia of results for elastic beams, plastic moments, and stress intensity factors
  • Many new photographs and links to Google Earth, websites, and video clips
  • Accompanying companion site with access to instructors’ resources, including a suite of interactive materials science tutorials, a solutions manual, and an image bank of figures from the book
This is the 2nd edition of winner of a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA) The first editon has shown to fill the need for a textbook that addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, Materials Chemistry aims to provide a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field -- in a concise format. This modern treatment offers innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout, e.g.: the opening solid-state chemistry chapter uses color illustrations of crystalline unit cells and digital photos of models to clarify their structures, plus an ample amorphous-solids section; the metals chapter treats the full spectrum of powder metallurgical methods, complex phase behaviors of the Fe-C system and steels, and topics such as corrosion and shape-memory properties; the semiconductor chapter addresses evolution and limitations/solutions of modern transistors, as well as IC fabrication and photovoltaics; the polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter describes all polymeric classes including dendritic polymers, as well as important additives such as plasticizers and flame-retardants, and emerging applications such as molecular magnets and self-repairing polymers; final chapters on nanomaterials and materials-characterization techniques are also carefully surveyed, focusing on nomenclature, synthetic techniques, and applications taken from the latest scientific literature. Most appropriate for Junior/Senior undergraduate students, as well as first-year graduate students in chemistry, physics, or engineering fields, Materials Chemistry may also serve as a valuable reference to industrial researchers. Each chapter concludes with a section that describes important materials applications, while appendices include laboratory modules for materials synthesis and a comprehensive timeline of major materials developments. The second edition has been thoroughly updated and revised. Additionally, a complete new chapter on biomaterials was added.
Understanding materials, their properties and behavior is fundamental to engineering design, and a key application of materials science. Written for all students of engineering, materials science and design, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design describes the procedures for material selection in mechanical design in order to ensure that the most suitable materials for a given application are identified from the full range of materials and section shapes available.

Extensively revised for this fourth edition, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design is recognized as one of the leading materials selection texts, and provides a unique and genuinely innovative resource.

Features new to this edition:

  • Material property charts now in full color throughout
  • Significant revisions of chapters on engineering materials, processes and process selection, and selection of material and shape while retaining the book's hallmark structure and subject content
  • Fully revised chapters on hybrid materials and materials and the environment
  • Appendix on data and information for engineering materials fully updated
  • Revised and expanded end-of-chapter exercises and additional worked examples

Materials are introduced through their properties; materials selection charts (also available on line) capture the important features of all materials, allowing rapid retrieval of information and application of selection techniques. Merit indices, combined with charts, allow optimization of the materials selection process. Sources of material property data are reviewed and approaches to their use are given. Material processing and its influence on the design are discussed. New chapters on environmental issues, industrial engineering and materials design are included, as are new worked examples, exercise materials and a separate, online Instructor's Manual. New case studies have been developed to further illustrate procedures and to add to the practical implementation of the text.

  • The new edition of the leading materials selection text, now with full color material property charts
  • Includes significant revisions of chapters on engineering materials, processes and process selection, and selection of material and shape while retaining the book's hallmark structure and subject content
  • Fully revised chapters on hybrid materials and materials and the environment
  • Appendix on data and information for engineering materials fully updated
  • Revised and expanded end-of-chapter exercises and additional worked examples
Materials Processing is the first textbook to bring the fundamental concepts of materials processing together in a unified approach that highlights the overlap in scientific and engineering principles. It teaches students the key principles involved in the processing of engineering materials, specifically metals, ceramics and polymers, from starting or raw materials through to the final functional forms. Its self-contained approach is based on the state of matter most central to the shaping of the material: melt, solid, powder, dispersion and solution, and vapor. With this approach, students learn processing fundamentals and appreciate the similarities and differences between the materials classes.

The book uses a consistent nomenclature that allow for easier comparisons between various materials and processes. Emphasis is on fundamental principles that gives students a strong foundation for understanding processing and manufacturing methods. Development of connections between processing and structure builds on students’ existing knowledge of structure-property relationships. Examples of both standard and newer additive manufacturing methods throughout provide students with an overview of the methods that they will likely encounter in their careers.

This book is intended primarily for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in Materials Science and Engineering who are already schooled in the structure and properties of metals, ceramics and polymers, and are ready to apply their knowledge to materials processing. It will also appeal to students from other engineering disciplines who have completed an introductory materials science and engineering course.

  • Coverage of metal, ceramic and polymer processing in a single text provides a self-contained approach and consistent nomenclature that allow for easier comparisons between various materials and processes
  • Emphasis on fundamental principles gives students a strong foundation for understanding processing and manufacturing methods
  • Development of connections between processing and structure builds on students’ existing knowledge of structure - property relationships
  • Examples of both standard and newer additive manufacturing methods throughout provide students with an overview of the methods that they will likely encounter in their careers
Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials is the latest edition of the classic book previously published as Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition is developed from its predecessor by including detailed coverage of the latest topics in metallurgy and material science. It emphasizes the science, production and applications of engineering materials and is suitable for all post-introductory materials science courses.

This book provides coverage of new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation. It also boasts an updated coverage of sports materials, biomaterials and nanomaterials. Other topics range from atoms and atomic arrangements to phase equilibria and structure; crystal defects; characterization and analysis of materials; and physical and mechanical properties of materials. The chapters also examine the properties of materials such as advanced alloys, ceramics, glass, polymers, plastics, and composites. The text is easy to navigate with contents split into logical groupings: fundamentals, metals and alloys, nonmetals, processing and applications. It includes detailed worked examples with real-world applications, along with a rich pedagogy comprised of extensive homework exercises, lecture slides and full online solutions manual (coming). Each chapter ends with a set of questions to enable readers to apply the scientific concepts presented, as well as to emphasize important material properties.

Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials is intended for senior undergraduates and graduate students taking courses in metallurgy, materials science, physical metallurgy, mechanical engineering, biomedical engineering, physics, manufacturing engineering and related courses.

  • Renowned coverage of metals and alloys, plus other materials classes including ceramics and polymers.
  • Updated coverage of sports materials, biomaterials and nanomaterials.
  • Covers new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation.
  • Easy to navigate with contents split into logical groupings: fundamentals, metals and alloys, nonmetals, processing and applications.
  • Detailed worked examples with real-world applications.
  • Rich pedagogy includes extensive homework exercises.
This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended options for tailor-made bonding solutions have to be stated. Apart from melamine-urea and phenolic-resorcinol adhesives, one-component-polyurethanes, emulsion isocyanate polymers and epoxies offer a wide range of possibilities. The contributions dealing with experimental and numerical investigations on static, cyclic and seismic behavior of structures clearly reveal the enhanced potential of modern timber construction for reliable and sustainable buildings and bridges of the new millennium.

The book is structured in nine thematic areas, being

I) Structures

II) Mechanical Connections

III) Glued Joints and Adhesives

IV) Timber and Concrete/Cement/Polymer Composites

V) Cyclic, Seismic Behavior

VI) Hardwood, Modified Wood and Bamboo

VII) Cross-Laminated Timber

VIII) Properties and Testing of Wood

IX) Glulam

Handbook of Material Weathering, Sixth Edition, is an essential guide to the effects of weathering on polymers and industrial products, presenting theory, stress factors, methods of weathering and testing and the effects of additives and environmental stress cracking. The book provides graphical illustrations and numerical data to examine the weathering of major polymers and industrial products, including mechanisms of degradation, effect of thermal processes, and characteristic changes in properties. The book also discusses recycling, corrosion and weathering, and the weathering of stone. This sixth edition updates this seminal work with recent developments and the latest data.

Polymers and industrial plastics products are widely used in environments where they are vulnerable to the effects of weathering. Weathering stress factors can lead to deterioration or even complete failure. Material durability is therefore vital, and products for outdoor usage or actinic exposure are designed so that the effects of artificial and natural weathering are minimized.

This book is an important reference source for those involved in studying material durability, producing materials for outdoor use and actinic exposure, research chemists in the photochemistry field, chemists and material scientists designing new materials, users of manufactured products, those who control the quality of manufactured products and students who want to apply their knowledge to real materials.

  • Offers detailed coverage of theory, stress factors and methods of weathering
  • Provides specific information and numerical data for 52 polymers and 42 groups of industrial products, including characteristic changes and degradation mechanisms
  • Discusses major additional topics, such as weathered materials for recycling and the interrelation between corrosion and weathering
  • Provides graphical illustrations and numerical data to examine the weathering of major polymers and industrial products
The complete guide to understanding and using lasers in material processing!

Lasers are now an integral part of modern society, providing extraordinary opportunities for innovation in an ever-widening range of material processing and manufacturing applications. The study of laser material processing is a core element of many materials and manufacturing courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. As a consequence, there is now a vast amount of research on the theory and application of lasers to be absorbed by students, industrial researchers, practising engineers and production managers. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field with over twenty years' experience in laser processing, John Ion distils cutting-edge information and research into a single key text.

Essential for anyone studying or working with lasers, Laser Processing of Engineering Materials provides a clear explanation of the underlying principles, including physics, chemistry and materials science, along with a framework of available laser processes and their distinguishing features and variables. This book delivers the knowledge needed to understand and apply lasers to the processing of engineering materials, and is highly recommended as a valuable guide to this revolutionary manufacturing technology.
  • The first single volume text that treats this core engineering subject in a systematic manner
  • Covers the principles, practice and application of lasers in all contemporary industrial processes; packed with examples, materials data and analysis, and modelling techniques
Materials are the stuff of design. From the very beginning of human history, materials have been taken from the natural world and shaped, modified, and adapted for everything from primitive tools to modern electronics. This renowned book by noted materials engineering author Mike Ashby and industrial designer Kara Johnson explores the role of materials and materials processing in product design, with a particular emphasis on creating both desired aesthetics and functionality. The new edition features even more of the highly useful "materials profiles" that give critical design, processing, performance and applications criteria for each material in question. The reader will find information ranging from the generic and commercial names of each material, its physical and mechanical properties, its chemical properties, its common uses, how it is typically made and processed, and even its average price. And with improved photographs and drawings, the reader is taken even more closely to the way real design is done by real designers, selecting the optimum materials for a successful product.
  • The best guide ever published on the on the role of materials, past and present, in product development, by noted materials authority Mike Ashby and professional designer Kara Johnson--now with even better photos and drawings on the Design Process
  • Significant new section on the use of re-cycled materials in products, and the importance of sustainable design for manufactured goods and services
  • Enhanced materials profiles, with addition of new materials types like nanomaterials, advanced plastics and bio-based materials
This book deals with an information-driven approach to plan materials discovery and design, iterative learning. The authors present contrasting but complementary approaches, such as those based on high throughput calculations, combinatorial experiments or data driven discovery, together with machine-learning methods. Similarly, statistical methods successfully applied in other fields, such as biosciences, are presented. The content spans from materials science to information science to reflect the cross-disciplinary nature of the field. A perspective is presented that offers a paradigm (codesign loop for materials design) to involve iteratively learning from experiments and calculations to develop materials with optimum properties. Such a loop requires the elements of incorporating domain materials knowledge, a database of descriptors (the genes), a surrogate or statistical model developed to predict a given property with uncertainties, performing adaptive experimental design to guide the next experiment or calculation and aspects of high throughput calculations as well as experiments. The book is about manufacturing with the aim to halving the time to discover and design new materials. Accelerating discovery relies on using large databases, computation, and mathematics in the material sciences in a manner similar to the way used to in the Human Genome Initiative. Novel approaches are therefore called to explore the enormous phase space presented by complex materials and processes. To achieve the desired performance gains, a predictive capability is needed to guide experiments and computations in the most fruitful directions by reducing not successful trials. Despite advances in computation and experimental techniques, generating vast arrays of data; without a clear way of linkage to models, the full value of data driven discovery cannot be realized. Hence, along with experimental, theoretical and computational materials science, we need to add a “fourth leg’’ to our toolkit to make the “Materials Genome'' a reality, the science of Materials Informatics.
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