Pedagogy

10 lectures, Oosterbeek, The Netherlands, July 17-24, 1924 (CW 310)

The underlying thesis of these lectures, volume 20 in the "Foundations of Waldorf Education" series, is that true education must be based on knowledge of the whole human being and that such knowledge cannot be attained without love. On this basis, Steiner presents his understanding of every aspect of child development--bodily, psychological, and spiritual. At the same time, he shows that, to prove worthy of their calling, teachers must begin a process of inner development. In Steiner's view, it is human beings who give value and meaning to the world. Modern education, however, is gradually undermining this meaning. These lectures demonstrate that education can heal that lack of meaning and restore the meaning of humankind for the world.

Steiner also discusses the practical, day-to-day operation of the school. He talks about styles of teaching, teacher conferences, parent-teacher meetings, and how Waldorf education is related to the anthroposophic movement.

This book, while serving as a good introduction to Steiner's ideas on education, also represents the fruits of four years experience in the Waldorf school.

Lectures:

The Need for Understanding the Human Being Incarnation of the Human Being in a Physical Body Walking, Speaking, Thinking The Three Stages of Childhood Teachers' Conferences in the Waldorf School Parent-Teacher Meetings The Temperaments and the Human Organism Diet and the Four Temperaments Styles of Education Education and the Anthroposophic Movement
German source: Der pädagogisch Wert der Menschenerkenntnis und der Kulturwert der Pädagogik (CW 310).
Teaching and Learning: Pedagogy, Curriculum and Culture is designed to share important theory with readers in an accessible but sophisticated way. It offers an overview of the key issues and dominant theories of teaching and learning as they impact upon the practice of education professionals in the classroom.

This second edition has been updated to take account of significant changes in the field; young people’s use of digital technologies, the increasing involvement of world of business in state education, and ongoing high-profile debates about assessment, to name but a few. It examines the global move from traditional subject-and-knowledge based curricula towards skills and problem-solving and discusses how the emphasis on education for citizenship has forced us to reconsider the social functions of education.

Central topics also covered include:

an assessment of the most influential theorists of learning and teaching

the ways in which public educational policy impinges on local practice

the nature and role of language and culture in formal educational settings

an assessment of different models of 'good teaching'

alternative models of curriculum and pedagogy.

With questions, points for consideration and ideas for further reading and research throughout, this book delivers discussion and analysis designed to support understanding of classroom interactions and to contribute to improved practice. It will be essential reading for all student teachers, those engaged in professional development, and Education Studies students.

'[This book] is readable, engaging, informative and provoking' - Tony Rae, ESCalate

'The book is encompassing all my own passions as a holistic practitioner; I feel it is multi-cultural, offering powerfully diverse and inclusive ideas of pedagogy. In particular, the concepts of this book are like a breath of fresh air for the 'disabled' student, talking about alternative assessment etc.' - Helene McArthur, ESCalate

`Every now and again you come across a really important book that shifts and clarifies your thinking. The Power of Pedagogy is one of those books. Here you'll find a fascinating analysis of the myriad of issues and ideas surrounding teaching and learning today. Drawing on history, theory and vignettes form today's classrooms, these two experienced and active thinkers and practitioners have managed to provide new perspectives on the pedagogic mission. A remarkable piece of scholarship, it's a 'must' for all those setting out to teach and for those already teaching with the sort of intellectual curiosity that is the hallmark of the outstanding teacher' - Tim Brighouse, formerly Adviser for London Schools, is Visiting Professor at the Institute of Education

'This important book manages to combine an illuminating breadth of global reference with real insight into the practice of teaching and learning. Its highly readable investigative narrative integrates theory and practice with a quality of analysis that is both rare and entirely convincing' - Sir David Winkley, former Headteacher Grove School, Handsworth and government education advisor

The concept of 'pedagogy' has become increasingly important as a frame of reference for debate about teaching and learning. In this book the authors analyse and explore contemporary ideas of pedagogy through the work of key figures including Freire, Montessori and Vygotsky, and explain how a new conception of pedagogy could transform educational institutions, particularly schools.

In locating pedagogy as central to the process of education the authors:

- explore the historical and cultural antecedents of our understanding of pedagogy

- analyse the way understanding of the working of the human mind influences teaching and learning

- review and critique ideas about learning and the construction of knowledge

- examine the way new forms of communication are impacting on the processes and purposes of pedagogic activity.

Highly relevant for masters and doctoral students of education, this book will also be of interest to educational practitioners undertaking research on issues related to pedagogy, both in the UK and internationally.

Bob Moon and the late Jenny Leach have written extensively on pedagogy, teacher education and international developments in the field, including Learners and Pedagogies (1999). They lead the Research Group on Teacher Education across Societies and Cultures (RITES) at the Open University, UK.

Bob Moon is Professor of Education at the Open University and Director of the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA) Programme.

Jenny Leach was Professor of Teacher Learning and Development at the Open University.

First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning.

Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb.

How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system.

Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • “An impassioned book, laced with anger and indignation, about how our public education system scorns so many of our children.”—The New York Times Book Review
 
In 1988, Jonathan Kozol set off to spend time with children in the American public education system. For two years, he visited schools in neighborhoods across the country, from Illinois to Washington, D.C., and from New York to San Antonio. He spoke with teachers, principals, superintendents, and, most important, children. What he found was devastating. Not only were schools for rich and poor blatantly unequal, the gulf between the two extremes was widening—and it has widened since. The urban schools he visited were overcrowded and understaffed, and lacked the basic elements of learning—including books and, all too often, classrooms for the students.
 
In Savage Inequalities, Kozol delivers a searing examination of the extremes of wealth and poverty and calls into question the reality of equal opportunity in our nation’s schools.
 
Praise for Savage Inequalities
 
“I was unprepared for the horror and shame I felt. . . . Savage Inequalities is a savage indictment. . . . Everyone should read this important book.”—Robert Wilson, USA Today
 
“Kozol has written a book that must be read by anyone interested in education.”—Elizabeth Duff, Philadelphia Inquirer
 
“The forces of equity have now been joined by a powerful voice. . . . Kozol has written a searing exposé of the extremes of wealth and poverty in America’s school system and the blighting effect on poor children, especially those in cities.”—Emily Mitchell, Time
 
“Easily the most passionate, and certain to be the most passionately debated, book about American education in several years . . . A classic American muckraker with an eloquent prose style, Kozol offers . . . an old-fashioned brand of moral outrage that will affect every reader whose heart has not yet turned to stone.”—Entertainment Weekly
"Following the financial crises in 2007, we have seen the intensification of neoliberal policies in education, with radical and potentially irrevocable shifts in the educational landscape, promoted under the auspices of ‘austerity’. This book highlights the central features of neoliberal education policies, their origins, recent developments and also their inherent weaknesses and flaws. It provides insights into the day to day realities and negative impacts of recent policies on the professional practice and work of educators, demonstrating how the changing conditions have led to de-professionalisation, alienation and a loss of professional autonomy and identity. The book also provides a set of accounts that detail the new realities emerging as a result of ‘austerity’ policies and questions the degree to which austerity has actually been developed as an ideological ‘cover story’ for the further monetisation and privatisation of public services. The various chapters challenge the common assumption that the neoliberal project is a monolithic orthodoxy by highlighting its complexities, variations and contradictions in the ways policies are refracted through action and practice in different contexts. The book also challenges the common assumption that there are no viable alternatives to neoliberal education policies, and does so by presenting a range of different examples, theoretical perspectives, discourses and alternative practices. It is argued that such alternatives not only highlight the range of different approaches, choices and possibilities but also provide the seedbed for a reimagined educational future. The authors offer a range of conceptual and theoretical insights and analyses that highlight the weaknesses and limitations inherent within the neoliberal education project and also illustrate the dangers in following the prevailing hegemonic discourse and trajectories. It is postulated that alternative educational approaches warrant greater and urgent attention because history suggests that rather than having weathered the recent economic crisis, we may well be witnessing the long tail of decline for the neoliberal project.This book will be useful for educators, researchers, students and policy makers interested in the detrimental effects of neoliberal education, the range of viable alternatives, and the routes to resistance and ways of reimagining alternative educational futures."
What is meant by pedagogy?

How does our conception of pedagogy inform good teaching and learning?

Pedagogy is a complex concept of which student and practising teachers need to have an understanding, yet there remain many ambiguities about what the term means, and how it informs learning in the classroom. Understanding Pedagogy examines pedagogy in a holistic way, supporting a more critical and reflective understanding of teaching and learning. It considers pedagogy as a concept that covers not just teaching approaches and pupil-teacher relationships but one which also embraces and informs educational theory, personal learning styles, assessment, and relationships inside and outside the classroom.

A detailed consideration of what it means to be a professional in the contemporary climate, Understanding Pedagogy challenges student and practising teachers to reappraise their understanding and practice through effectively linking theory and practice. Key issues explored include the importance of understanding a learning styles profile, the application of cognitive neuroscience to teaching, personalised learning, assessment and feedback, and what we mean by critical reflection. Using the Personal Learning Styles Pedagogy, the authors make explicit the integration of theory and practice and the many decisions and selections that teachers make, their implications for what is being taught and learnt, how learners are positioned in the pedagogical process, and ultimately, how learning can be improved.

Understanding Pedagogy

will be essential reading for student and practising teachers, as well those on Education Studies courses and undertaking masters level courses, involved in the endeavour of understanding what constitutes effective teaching and learning.
In her new book, Yvette Jackson shows educators how to focus on students’ strengths to inspire learning and high intellectual performance. Jackson asserts that the myth that the route to increasing achievement by focusing on weaknesses (promoted by policies such as NCLB) has blinded us to the strengths and intellectual potential of urban students—devaluing the motivation, initiative, and confidence of dedicated educators to search for and optimize this potential.The Pedagogy of Confidencedispels this myth and provides practical approaches to rekindle educators’ belief in their ability to inspire the vast capacity of their urban students.

Book Features:



Describes practical approaches and examples of how inspirational educators implement High Operational Practices, offering strategies for dealing with cultural disconnects, the influence of new technologies, and language preferences of students.
Illustrates how educators empower student investment in the “mediative learning community” to foster positive relationships.
Presents historical, cognitive, and neuroscience research, providing educators the rationale and benefits of changing old policies and practices to new ones that will guide students to intellectual development, self-directed learning, and self-actualization.
Explores the theory and methodology of cognitive psychologist Reuven Feuerstein, upon whichThe Pedagogy of Confidenceis based.

Yvette Jacksonis the Chief Executive Officer of the National Urban Alliance for Effective Education, founded at the College Board and Teachers College, Columbia University. She is internationally recognized for her work in assessing the learning potential of disenfranchised urban students. Yvette Jackson is available for select readings and lectures.


“The very in-depth elaboration of psychological, educational, and social concepts Dr. Jackson presents creates a large and ingenious inventory of pedagogical tools to promote the goals of achievement and upward mobility for those students who depend on teachers to make this possible.”

—From the Foreword byReuven Feuerstein, Chairman and Founder, ICELP, Jerusalem, Israel


“The Pedagogy of Confidencecan change the way we approach learning, teaching, and urban school reform. A remarkable achievement, this book should be read by every educator and policymaker truly interested in closing the achievement gap.”

—Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education, Stanford University


“Jackson’s unparalleled urban experience, coupled with her strength-based approach to learning, make this book what will become the ‘Rosetta Stone’ of urban education.”

—Joseph S. Renzulli, Director, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, The University of Connecticut


“The Pedagogy of Confidenceis for urban educators who want to know how to be effective in teaching and developing strong relationships with their students. It is an invaluable resource to those who seek to make a difference.”

—Pedro A. Noguera, Peter L. Agnew Professor of Education, New York University


“ThePedagogy of Confidencerenews our hope for schools as homes for the fullest development of the mind, classrooms as engaging, mediative environments, and all learners as having the propensity for continued, lifelong intellectual growth.”

—Arthur L. Costa, Professor Emeritus, California State University, Sacramento

Praise for How Learning Works

"How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have demystified a complex topic into clear explanations of seven powerful learning principles. Full of great ideas and practical suggestions, all based on solid research evidence, this book is essential reading for instructors at all levels who wish to improve their students' learning."
—Barbara Gross Davis, assistant vice chancellor for educational development, University of California, Berkeley, and author, Tools for Teaching

"This book is a must-read for every instructor, new or experienced. Although I have been teaching for almost thirty years, as I read this book I found myself resonating with many of its ideas, and I discovered new ways of thinking about teaching."
—Eugenia T. Paulus, professor of chemistry, North Hennepin Community College, and 2008 U.S. Community Colleges Professor of the Year from The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Council for Advancement and Support of Education

"Thank you Carnegie Mellon for making accessible what has previously been inaccessible to those of us who are not learning scientists. Your focus on the essence of learning combined with concrete examples of the daily challenges of teaching and clear tactical strategies for faculty to consider is a welcome work. I will recommend this book to all my colleagues."
—Catherine M. Casserly, senior partner, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

"As you read about each of the seven basic learning principles in this book, you will find advice that is grounded in learning theory, based on research evidence, relevant to college teaching, and easy to understand. The authors have extensive knowledge and experience in applying the science of learning to college teaching, and they graciously share it with you in this organized and readable book."
—From the Foreword by Richard E. Mayer, professor of psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara; coauthor, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction; and author, Multimedia Learning

Seven authoritative contributions to the emerging field of pedagogy and to comparative, cultural and policy studies in education. A must for those who want to do more than merely comply with received versions of ‘best practice’.

Pedagogy is at last gaining the attention in English-speaking countries which it has long enjoyed elsewhere. But is it the right kind of attention? Do we still tend to equate pedagogy with teaching technique and little more? Now that governments, too, have become interested in it, is pedagogy a proper matter for public policy and official prescription?

In Essays on Pedagogy, Robin Alexander brings together some of his most powerful recent writing, drawing on research undertaken in Britain and other countries, to illustrate his view that to engage properly with pedagogy we need to apply cultural, historical and international perspectives, as well as evidence on how children most effectively learn and teachers most productively teach.

The book includes chapters on a number of themes, expertly woven together:

the politicisation of school and classroom life and the trend towards a pedagogy of compliance;

the benefits and hazards of international comparison;

pedagogical dichotomies old and new, and how to avoid them;

how education and pedagogy might respond to a world in peril;

the rare and special chemistry of the personal and the professional which produces outstanding teaching;

the scope and character of pedagogy itself, as a field of enquiry and action.

For those who see teachers as thinking professionals, rather than as technicians who merely comply with received views of ‘best practice’, this book will open minds while maintaining a practical focus. For student teachers it will provide a framework for their development. Its strong and consistent international perspective will be of interest to educational comparativists, but is also an essential response to globalisation and the predicaments now facing humanity as a whole.

Energize your classrooms with these key techniques for college teaching

Students say the best teachers get them excited about learning, stretch their thinking, and keep them actively involved in class. But with increasingly diverse classrooms and constantly changing technology, each semester throws up new challenges for engaging students.

Discover how to keep your teaching, and your students, energized with The Skillful Teacher, a practical guide to effective techniques, approaches, and methods for today's college classrooms. Providing insights, reflections, and advice from his four decades of college teaching, Stephen Brookfield now adapts his successful methods to teaching online, working with diverse student populations, and making classrooms truly inclusive. As well as being completely revised, updated, and rewritten, this edition adds six brand new chapters on:

Teaching critical thinking Using play and creativity in the classroom Teaching in teams Helping students take responsibility for learning Teaching about racism Exercising teacher power responsibly

Readers will delve into what learning feels like from a student's perspective, as well as absorb the wisdom of veteran college faculty with whom the author has worked. Themes from the bestselling previous editions remain, but are revisited and expanded with the perspective of an additional decade in the classroom. This authoritative guide is now even more comprehensive to better serve teachers looking to improve. Whether you are new to the classroom or are looking to rise to new challenges, The Skillful Teacher will provide answers, expand your repertoire of techniques, and invigorate your teaching and your classrooms.

Nearly a decade ago Frank McCourt became an unlikely star when, at the age of sixty-six, he burst onto the literary scene with Angela's Ashes, the Pulitzer Prize -- winning memoir of his childhood in Limerick, Ireland. Then came 'Tis, his glorious account of his early years in New York.
Now, here at last, is McCourt's long-awaited book about how his thirty-year teaching career shaped his second act as a writer. Teacher Man is also an urgent tribute to teachers everywhere. In bold and spirited prose featuring his irreverent wit and heartbreaking honesty, McCourt records the trials, triumphs and surprises he faces in public high schools around New York City. His methods anything but conventional, McCourt creates a lasting impact on his students through imaginative assignments (he instructs one class to write "An Excuse Note from Adam or Eve to God"), singalongs (featuring recipe ingredients as lyrics), and field trips (imagine taking twenty-nine rowdy girls to a movie in Times Square!).
McCourt struggles to find his way in the classroom and spends his evenings drinking with writers and dreaming of one day putting his own story to paper. Teacher Man shows McCourt developing his unparalleled ability to tell a great story as, five days a week, five periods per day, he works to gain the attention and respect of unruly, hormonally charged or indifferent adolescents. McCourt's rocky marriage, his failed attempt to get a Ph.D. at Trinity College, Dublin, and his repeated firings due to his propensity to talk back to his superiors ironically lead him to New York's most prestigious school, Stuyvesant High School, where he finally finds a place and a voice. "Doggedness," he says, is "not as glamorous as ambition or talent or intellect or charm, but still the one thing that got me through the days and nights."
For McCourt, storytelling itself is the source of salvation, and in Teacher Man the journey to redemption -- and literary fame -- is an exhilarating adventure.
"Dee Fink challenges our conventional assumptions and practices and offers an insightful approach to expanding our learning goals, making higher education more meaningful. This is a gem of a book that every college teacher should read." —Ken Bain, author, What the Best College Students Do

Since the original publication of L. Dee Fink's Creating Significant Learning Experiences, higher education has continued to move in two opposite directions: more institutions encourage faculty to focus on research, obtaining grants, and publishing, while accreditation agencies, policy-makers, and students themselves emphasize the need for greater attention to the quality of teaching and learning.

Now the author has updated his bestselling classic, providing busy faculty with invaluable conceptual and procedural tools for instructional design. Step by step, Fink shows how to use a taxonomy of significant learning and systematically combine the best research-based practices for learning-centered teaching with a teaching strategy in a way that results in powerful learning experiences.

This edition addresses new research on how people learn, active learning, and student engagement; includes illustrative examples from online teaching; and reports on the effectiveness of Fink's time-tested model. Fink also explores recent changes in higher education nationally and internationally and offers more proven strategies for dealing with student resistance to innovative teaching.

Tapping into the knowledge, tools, and strategies in Creating Significant Learning Experiences empowers educators to creatively design courses that will result in significant learning for their students.

"As thought-provoking and inspiring today as it was when it was first published, it is a 'must' for anyone serious about creating courses that challenge students to learn deeply." —Elizabeth F. Barkley, author, Student Engagement Techniques

In November 2008, John Hattie’s ground-breaking book Visible Learning synthesised the results of more than fifteen years research involving millions of students and represented the biggest ever collection of evidence-based research into what actually works in schools to improve learning.

Visible Learning for Teachers takes the next step and brings those ground breaking concepts to a completely new audience. Written for students, pre-service and in-service teachers, it explains how to apply the principles of Visible Learning to any classroom anywhere in the world. The author offers concise and user-friendly summaries of the most successful interventions and offers practical step-by-step guidance to the successful implementation of visible learning and visible teaching in the classroom.

This book:

links the biggest ever research project on teaching strategies to practical classroom implementation

champions both teacher and student perspectives and contains step by step guidance including lesson preparation, interpreting learning and feedback during the lesson and post lesson follow up

offers checklists, exercises, case studies and best practice scenarios to assist in raising achievement

includes whole school checklists and advice for school leaders on facilitating visible learning in their institution

now includes additional meta-analyses bringing the total cited within the research to over 900

comprehensively covers numerous areas of learning activity including pupil motivation, curriculum, meta-cognitive strategies, behaviour, teaching strategies, and classroom management.

Visible Learning for Teachers is a must read for any student or teacher who wants an evidence based answer to the question; ‘how do we maximise achievement in our schools?’

How do other countries create “smarter” kids? What is it like to be a child in the world’s new education superpowers? The Smartest Kids in the World “gets well beneath the glossy surfaces of these foreign cultures and manages to make our own culture look newly strange....The question is whether the startling perspective provided by this masterly book can also generate the will to make changes” (The New York Times Book Review).

In a handful of nations, virtually all children are learning to make complex arguments and solve problems they’ve never seen before. They are learning to think, in other words, and to thrive in the modern economy. Inspired to find answers for our own children, author and Time magazine journalist Amanda Ripley follows three Americans embed­ded in these countries for one year. Kim, fifteen, raises $10,000 so she can move from Oklahoma to Finland; Eric, eighteen, trades his high-achieving Minnesota suburb for a booming city in South Korea; and Tom, seventeen, leaves a historic Pennsylvania village for Poland.

Through these young informants, Ripley meets battle-scarred reformers, sleep-deprived zombie students, and a teacher who earns $4 million a year. Their stories, along with groundbreaking research into learning in other cultures, reveal a pattern of startling transformation: none of these countries had many “smart” kids a few decades ago. Things had changed. Teaching had become more rigorous; parents had focused on things that mattered; and children had bought into the promise of education.
“In this important new book the authors present a compelling case for broadening the way we think about literacy in relation to the ‘new media.’ Through compelling case studies, they examine the ways in which youth engage this medium both as active participants and producers of new, original content. The result is a new way of conceptualizing literacy, one that will push the reader to reconsider how we think about youth (particularly urban youth of color) and their capacities for learning and critical thinking.”

—Pedro Noguera, Peter L. Agnew Professor of Education, New York University

“This book is at once a trenchant critique of shallow and de-politicized approaches to teaching and learning, and a deftand illuminating commentary on the possibilities of recoveringeducationfor a transformative future. An invaluable feat for education!”

—Peter McLaren, professor, the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, UCLA


“In this stunning collaboration, the authors deliver on their promise to demonstrate how youth can use their critical reasoning skills to interpret and interrogate a range of media texts. This is a quintessential book for youth workers in both schools and in out-of-school contexts who are committed to critical media education.”

—Maisha Winn, Susan J. Cellmer Chair in English Education, University of Wisconsin, Madison


This practical book examines how teaching media in high school English and social studies classrooms can address major challenges in our educational system. The authors argue that, in addition to providing underserved youth with access to 21st century learning technologies, critical media education will help improve academic literacy achievement in city schools.Critical Media Pedagogypresents first-hand accounts of teachers who are successfully incorporating critical media education into standards-based lessons and units. The book begins with an analysis of how media have been conceptualized and studied; it identifies the various ways that youth are practicing media, as well as how these practices are constantly increasing in sophistication. Finally, it offers concrete examples of how to develop a rigorous, standards-based content area curriculum that embraces new media practices and features media production.


Book Features:



Case studies from urban high schools co-written with English and social studies teachers.
Discussion of multiple forms of media education, including PowerPoint, hip-hop education, digital film production, and art.
Hands-on media production projects that address issues of social justice in urban communities.
An online appendix of example lessons adaptable for different curricular contexts.

Ernest Morrellis a professor of English education at Teachers College, Columbia University, and president-elect of the National Council of Teachers of English.Rudy Dueñasis a social studies teacher at Wilson High School and worked for 3 years for UCLA’s Summer Research Seminar.Veronica Garciais a former English teacher at Wilson High School in Los Angeles and currently an education doctoral candidate at the University of Southern California.Jorge Lopezis a social studies teacher at Roosevelt High School.

In the science classroom, there are some ideas that are as difficult for young students to grasp as they are for teachers to explain. Forces, electricity, light, and basic astronomy are all examples of conceptual domains that come into this category. How should a teacher teach them? The authors of this monograph reject the traditional separation of subject and pedagogic knowledge. They believe that to develop effective teaching for meaningful learning in science, we must identify how teachers themselves interpret difficult ideas in science and, in particular, what supports their own learning in coming to a professional understanding of how to teach science concepts to young children. To do so, they analyzed trainee and practising teachers’ responses to engaging with difficult ideas when learning science in higher education settings.

The text demonstrates how professional insight emerges as teachers identify the elements that supported their understanding during their own learning. In this paradigm, professional awareness derives from the practitioner interrogating their own learning and identifying implications for their teaching of science. The book draws on a significant body of critically analysed empirical evidence collated and documented over a five-year period involving large numbers of trainee and practising teachers. It concludes that it is essential to ‘problematize’ subject knowledge, both for learner and teacher.

The book’s theoretical perspective draws on the field of cognitive psychology in learning. In particular, the role of metacognition and cognitive conflict in learning are examined and subsequently applied in a range of contexts. The work offers a unique and refreshing approach in addressing the important professional dimension of supporting teacher understanding of pedagogy and critically examines assumptions in contemporary debates about constructivism in science education.

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