the drama of the front lines.”
-Richard Danzig, former secretary of the navy
The first major bioterror event in the United States-the anthrax attacks in October 2001-was a clarion call for scientists who work with “hot” agents to find ways of protecting civilian populations against biological weapons. In The Demon in the Freezer, his first nonfiction book since The Hot Zone, a #1 New York Times bestseller, Richard Preston takes us into the heart of Usamriid, the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, once the headquarters of the U.S. biological weapons program and now the epicenter of national biodefense.
Peter Jahrling, the top scientist at Usamriid, a wry virologist who cut his teeth on Ebola, one of the world’s most lethal emerging viruses, has ORCON security clearance that gives him access to top secret information on bioweapons. His most urgent priority is to develop a drug that will take on smallpox-and win. Eradicated from the planet in 1979 in one of the great triumphs of modern science, the smallpox virus now resides, officially, in only two high-security freezers-at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and in Siberia, at a Russian virology institute called Vector. But the demon in the freezer has been set loose. It is almost certain that illegal stocks are in the possession of hostile states, including Iraq and North Korea. Jahrling is haunted by the thought that biologists in secret labs are using genetic engineering to create a new superpox virus, a smallpox resistant to all vaccines.
Usamriid went into a state of Delta Alert on September 11 and activated its emergency response teams when the first anthrax letters were opened in New York and Washington, D.C. Preston reports, in unprecedented detail, on the government’s response to the attacks and takes us into the ongoing FBI investigation. His story is based on interviews with top-level FBI agents and with Dr. Steven Hatfill.
Jahrling is leading a team of scientists doing controversial experiments with live smallpox virus at CDC. Preston takes us into the lab where Jahrling is reawakening smallpox and explains, with cool and devastating precision, what may be at stake if his last bold experiment fails.
Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation?
Like Richard Dawkins' The Selfish Gene, which provided a new perspective on how evolution works, Life on the Edge alters our understanding of our world's fundamental dynamics. Bringing together first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science with unparalleled gifts of explanation, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics; the phenomena that lie at the heart of this most mysterious of sciences.
Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge engages by illustrating one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe.
Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden communicate the excitement of the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge.
– Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
Why do you fall in love with one person rather than another? In this fascinating and informative book, Helen Fisher, one of the world's leading experts on romantic love, unlocks the hidden code of desire and attachment. Each of us, it turns out, primarily expresses one of four broad personality types—Explorer, Builder, Director, or Negotiator—and each of these types is governed by different chemical systems in the brain. Driven by this biology, we are attracted to partners who both mirror and complement our own personality type.
Until now the search for love has been blind, but Fisher pulls back the curtain and reveals how we unconsciously go about finding the right match. Drawing on her unique study of 40,000 men and women, she explores each personality type in detail and shows you how to identify your own type. Then she explains why some types match up well, whereas others are problematic. (Note to Explorers: be prepared for a wild ride when you hitch your star to a fellow Explorer!) Ultimately, Fisher's investigation into the complex nature of romance and attachment leads to astonishing new insights into the essence of dating, love, and marriage.
Based on entirely new research—including a detailed questionnaire completed by seven million people in thirty-three countries—Why Him? Why Her? will change your understanding of why you love him (or her) and help you use nature's chemistry to find and keep your life partner.
This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including adult and embryonic stem cells and progenitor populations that may soon lead to new tissue engineering therapies for heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies is complemented by a series of new chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering. The result is a comprehensive textbook that we believe will be useful to students and experts alike.
New to this edition:
*Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves
*Expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems
Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
Interested in unraveling the physics of living things? Here's your starting point. Biophysics Demystified is the fast and easy way to understand this fascinating topic.
Written in a step-by-step format, this practical guide begins with an introduction to the science of biophysics, covering biophysical techniques and applications. Next, you'll learn the principles of physics, biology, and chemistry required to understand biophysics, including free energy, entropy, and statistical mechanics. Biomolecules and the forces that influence their structure and conformation are also covered, as are protein, nucleic acid, and membrane biophysics. Detailed examples and concise explanations make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help reinforce key concepts.
It's a no-brainer! You'll get:Molecular, subcellular, physiological, anatomical, and environmental biophysics The laws of thermodynamics as they apply to biophysical systems Forces affecting conformation in biological molecules The composition and structure of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids The fluid mosaic model
Simple enough for a beginner, but challenging enough for an advanced student, Biophysics Demystified makes this interdisciplinary subject easy to master.
The Olympics are the world's most prestigious stage for athletic competition. Fans both casual and hardcore tune in religiously every few years to watch as men and women push themselves to the limits of human performance. But what makes a champion? Is it genetics? Hours of training? A psychological advantage? Of all the athletes who dedicate their lives - and bodies - to achieving that perfect moment of triumph, why will one person or team win out over another? Science has some compelling answers, and in this book, The Science of Sports: Winning in the Olympics, Scientific American explores this topic from various angles. Beginning with Section 1: The Psychology of Winning, the book opens with a look inside the mind of an elite athlete and tackles questions of how to face a rivalry or maintain a positive attitude in the face of defeat. Other sections discuss the sticky issues surrounding genetic advantages and physical prowess, drugs and doping, injury and recovery, and - finally - the latest scientific advice for the rest of us mere mortals to be fit and healthy. You'll find both inspiration and answers in this indispensable book from the editors of Scientific American, the leading authority on science, technology and innovation.
*Contains thorough tutorial treatments, coupled with coverage of advanced topics
*Three of the four holders of the prestigious Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Medical Imaging Scientist Award are chapter contributors
*Include color artwork
One of the most diverse of modern scientific disciplines, biophysics applies methods and technologies from physics to the study of biological systems and phenomena, from the human nervous system to soil erosion to global warming. What are the best options for satisfying the world's growing energy demands? How can we feed the world's growing population? How can we contain, or reverse, global warming? How can we vouchsafe a plentiful supply of potable water for future generations? These are among the critical questions to which biophysicists work to provide answers.Biophysics courses are increasingly taken by students of biology, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, statistics, bioengineering, neuroscience, computer science, pharmacology, agriculture,and many more Provides a friendly, unintimidating overview of the material covered in a typical college-level biophysics course A one-stop reference, course supplement and exam preparation tool for university students currently enrolled in an introductory biophysics courses An indispensable resource for those studying the natural sciences, biological sciences, and physics, as well as math, statistics,computer science, pharmacology and many other disciplines The current job market for people well versed in biophysics is very strong, and biophysics is currently listed as one of the fast-growing occupations in the North America
This new edition discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques. The volume is organized into 18 chapters encompassing thermodynamics, electricity, optics, sound, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Each chapter provides a brief review of the background physics before focusing on the applications of physics to biology and medicine. Topics range from the role of diffusion in the functioning of cells to the effect of surface tension on the growth of plants in soil and the conduction of impulses along the nervous system. Each section contains problems that explore and expand some of the concepts. The text includes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body.
Physics in Biology and Medicine will be a valuable resource for students and professors of physics, biology, and medicine, as well as for applied health workers.Provides practical techniques for applying knowledge of physics to the study of living systemsPresents material in a straight forward manner requiring very little background in physics or biologyIncludes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body
This concise introductory paperback surveys and relates basic physics to living systems. It discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques.
This text is designed for premed students, doctors, nurses, physiologists, or other applied health workers, and other individuals who wish to understand the nature of the mechanics of our bodies.
- Provides practical techniques for applying knowledge of physics to the study of living systems
- Presents material in a straight forward manner requiring very little background in physics or biology
- Includes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics
The aim of The Nutritional Biochemistry of Chromium(III) is to examine the four most controversial areas of chromium nutrition and biochemistry:
- is chromium an essential element for humans and are chromium nutritional supplements of value?
- what biochemical role, if any, does chromium play in the body
- can large doses of chromium(III) be used to treat symptoms of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and related medical conditions
- is the use of chromium(III) supplements a health concern.
Scientific experts, who are recognized leaders in the field, weigh in with their opinions on both sides of these issues in this book.
A background review of the field from 1955-1995 by Vincent opens the book and concludes with a summary by Dr. Forrest Nielsen, Center Director of the USDA's Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center concludes the book.
* Point-counterpoint format, providing both sides of major issues
* Complete coverage of current issues, including nutrition, health, biochemical role and toxicology
* Authors are recognised experts and leaders in this field
As advances in algorithms and computer technology have bolstered the digital signal processing capabilities of real-time sonar, radar, and non-invasive medical diagnostics systems, cutting-edge military and defense research has established conceptual similarities in these areas. Now civilian enterprises can use government innovations to facilitate optimal functionality of complex real-time systems. Advanced Signal Processing details a cost-efficient generic processing structure that exploits these commonalities to benefit commercial applications.
Learn from a Renowned Defense Scientist, Researcher, and Innovator
The author preserves the mathematical focus and key information from the first edition that provided invaluable coverage of topics including adaptive systems, advanced beamformers, and volume visualization methods in medicine. Integrating the best features of non-linear and conventional algorithms and explaining their application in PC-based architectures, this text contains new data on:
Advances in biometrics, image segmentation, registration, and fusion techniques for 3D/4D ultrasound, CT, and MRI
Fully digital 3D/ (4D: 3D+time) ultrasound system technology, computing architecture requirements, and relevant implementation issues
State-of-the-art non-invasive medical procedures, non-destructive 3D tomography imaging and biometrics, and monitoring of vital signs
Cardiac motion correction in multi-slice X-ray CT imaging
Space-time adaptive processing and detection of targets interference-intense backgrounds comprised of clutter and jamming
With its detailed explanation of adaptive, synthetic-aperture, and fusion-processing schemes with near-instantaneous convergence in 2-D and 3-D sensors (including planar, circular, cylindrical, and spherical arrays), the quality and illustration of this text’s concepts and techniques will make it a favored reference.
The Clinical Engineering Handbook meets a long felt need for a comprehensive book on all aspects of clinical engineering that is a suitable reference in hospitals, classrooms, workshops, and governmental and non-governmental organization. The Handbook’s thirteen sections address the following areas: Clinical Engineering; Models of Clinical Engineering Practice; Technology Management; Safety Education and Training; Design, Manufacture, and Evaluation and Control of Medical Devices; Utilization and Service of Medical Devices; Information Technology; and Professionalism and Ethics. The Clinical Engineering Handbook provides the reader with prospects for the future of clinical engineering as well as guidelines and standards for best practice around the world. From telemedicine and IT issues, to sanitation and disaster planning, it brings together all the important aspects of clinical engineering.Clinical Engineers are the safety and quality faciltators in all medical facilitiesThe most definitive, comprehensive, and up-to-date book available on the subject of clinical engineeringOver 170 contributions by leaders in the field of clinical engineering
Many will be amazed to learn that all these questions, and many more, can be answered by a single point of discussion—mitochondria and bioenergetics. This legendary saga began over two billion years ago, when one bacterium entered another without being digested, ultimately creating the first mitochondrion.
Since then, for life to exist beyond single-celled bacteria, it’s the mitochondria that are responsible for this life-giving energy. Yet, current research has also revealed a dark side; many seemingly unconnected degenerative diseases have their roots in dysfunctional mitochondria. Modern research, however, has also endowed us with the knowledge on how to optimize its function, which is of critical importance to our health and longevity. By reading this book, you are about to dive into this epic story, and learn how to add years to your life, and life to your years.
Covering a wide range of applications, Introduction to Physics in Modern Medicine, Second Edition builds on the bestselling original. Based on a course taught by the author, the book provides medical personnel and students with an exploration of the physics-related applications found in state-of-the-art medical centers.
Requiring no previous acquaintance with physics, biology, or chemistry and keeping mathematics to a minimum, the application-dedicated chapters adhere to simple and self-contained qualitative explanations that make use of examples and illustrations. With an enhanced emphasis on digital imaging and computers in medicine, the text gives readers a fundamental understanding of the practical application of each concept and the basic science behind it.
This book provides medical students with an excellent introduction to how physics is applied in medicine, while also providing students in physics with an introduction to medical physics. Each chapter includes worked examples and a complete list of problems and questions.
That so much of the technology discussed in this book was the stuff of dreams just a few years ago, makes this book as fascinating as it is practical, both for those in medicine as well as those in physics who might one day discover that the project they are working on is basis for the next great medical application.
Covers hybrid scanners for cancer imaging and the interplay of molecular medicine with imaging technologies such as MRI, CT and PET
Looks at camera pills that can film from the inside upon swallowing and advances in robotic surgery devices
Explores Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, proton therapy, and other new forms of cancer treatmentReflects on the use of imaging technologies in developing countries
Developed at MIT in collaboration with award-winning high school teachers, BioBuilder teaches the foundational ideas of the emerging synthetic biology field, as well as key aspects of biological engineering that researchers are exploring in labs throughout the world. These lessons will empower teachers and students to explore and be part of solving persistent real-world challenges.Learn the fundamentals of biodesign and DNA engineeringExplore important ethical issues raised by examples of synthetic biologyInvestigate the BioBuilder labs that probe the design-build-test cycleTest synthetic living systems designed and built by engineersMeasure several variants of an enzyme-generating genetic circuitModel "bacterial photography" that changes a strain’s light sensitivityBuild living systems to produce purple or green pigmentOptimize baker’s yeast to produce ?-carotene
Development and use of robust analytical methods is critical for the ability to generate accurate analytical data. Sample preparation is an integral part of the analytical method. In a survey conducted by LC-GC1, responses indicated that approximately two-thirds of the time spent testing and analyzing samples was spent on the sample preparation portion of the method. In addition, issues related to sample preparation accounted for one-third of the errors generated while performing an analytical method.
A number of challenges exist in the sample preparation/extraction of pharmaceutical dosage forms for potency and purity analysis as well as isolation and identification of impurities and degradants. These challenges increase for complex dosage forms such as some controlled release formulations and other challenging formulations such as suspensions, ointments, transdermal patches, etc. Challenges in developing rapid and rugged sample preparation methods include complete dispersion of the dosage form to facilitate extraction and solubilization of the analytes of interest, dealing with extracted interfering components and addressing drug-excipient interactions. A number of factors must be considered and addressed in each of these areas.
The objective of Sample Preparation of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms is to provide an overview of the various sample preparation and extraction techniques available for pharmaceutical dosage forms. In addition to the review and discussion of specific techniques, sample preparation method development and trouble shooting strategies are discussed. Multiple examples and case studies are presented to highlight various potential issues and solutions.
Now, in his long-awaited follow-up, Behe presents far more than a challenge to Darwinism: He presents the evidence of the genetics revolution -- the first direct evidence of nature's mutational pathways -- to radically redefine the debate about Darwinism.
How much of life does Darwin's theory explain? Most scientists believe it accounts for everything from the machinery of the cell to the history of life on earth. Darwin's ideas have been applied to law, culture, and politics.
But Darwin's theory has been proven only in one sense: There is little question that all species on earth descended from a common ancestor. Overwhelming anatomical, genetic, and fossil evidence exists for that claim. But the crucial question remains: How did it happen? Darwin's proposed mechanism -- random mutation and natural selection -- has been accepted largely as a matter of faith and deduction or, at best, circumstantial evidence. Only now, thanks to genetics, does science allow us to seek direct evidence. The genomes of many organisms have been sequenced, and the machinery of the cell has been analyzed in great detail. The evolutionary responses of microorganisms to antibiotics and humans to parasitic infections have been traced over tens of thousands of generations.
As a result, for the first time in history Darwin's theory can be rigorously evaluated. The results are shocking. Although it can explain marginal changes in evolutionary history, random mutation and natural selection explain very little of the basic machinery of life. The "edge" of evolution, a line that defines the border between random and nonrandom mutation, lies very far from where Darwin pointed. Behe argues convincingly that most of the mutations that have defined the history of life on earth have been nonrandom.
Although it will be controversial and stunning, this finding actually fits a general pattern discovered by other branches of science in recent decades: The universe as a whole was fine-tuned for life. From physics to cosmology to chemistry to biology, life on earth stands revealed as depending upon an endless series of unlikely events. The clear conclusion: The universe was designed for life.
This book provides a roadmap to the broad and varied career development opportunities in bioengineering, biotechnology, and related fields. Eminent practitioners lay out career paths related to academia, industry, government and regulatory affairs, healthcare, law, marketing, entrepreneurship, and more.
Lifetimes of experience and wisdom are shared, including "war stories," strategies for success, avoidance of common pitfalls, and discussions of the authors’ personal views and motivations. Career Development in Bioengineering and Biotechnology is an indispensable guide to some of the most exciting career and professional growth opportunities in science, engineering, and beyond, and a "must read" for anyone interested in a career related to this burgeoning field.
From the Foreword by U.S. National Medal of Science Laureate and Institute Professor Robert Langer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: "This book provides a wealth of information and should serve as an excellent resource...The editors have gone to great effort to discuss a variety of critical topics in the burgeoning areas of bioengineering and biotechnology."
From the Introduction by Dr. Bruce Alberts, President Emeritus of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and Co-chair of the InterAcademy Council: "I am very impressed with the enormous dedication and skill that created this major, highly-original contribution – I know of nothing like it."
From the Editorial by Dr. Joachim Nagel, President, International Union for Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, and past president of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering: "This book provides all the answers and can be highly recommended as the ultimate guide to anyone interested in bioengineering and biotechnology. The book arrives at a crucial time, and catapults bioengineering and biotechnology to the forefront of disciplines and to a rightly held pinnacle of inspiration for engineers, scientists, and technologists."
From the Afterword by Dr. Shu Chien, President, Biomedical Engineering Society and past president of the American Physiological Society and of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering: "...this is truly an outstanding book that is the first of its kind...certainly a pioneering contribution."
Praise for the Book
"Bioengineering and Biotechnology are emerging as distinct disciplines amid the biological revolution and during a period of rapid globalization. These interesting times offer us unprecedented opportunities for professional and personal growth. This book covers many important areas of opportunity, including entrepreneurship, finance, law, and education, with a global perspective. The legacy of our times will include how well we used our rapidly advancing technologies to improve the world around us. This book provides a roadmap for the contributions of Bioengineering and Biotechnology in this quest."
-James E. Moore, PhD, Texas A&M University
"This book will be essential reading for all those seeking career guidance in bioengineering and biotechnology."
-Tony Bradshaw, PhD, Director bioProcessUK - BioIndustry Association (BIA), Chairman, The Royal Academy of Engineering/BIA Life Scientists' Career Seminars
"...the topics [are] quite extensive covering definitions, core curriculum, career opportunities, including a wide range of alternative career pathways as well as social and ethical issues. The material covered is unlike any of the standard publications related to these fields of activity... [the book] can be read at different stages of one's career."
-Joseph D. Bronzino, PhD, Trinity College
"...once I started reading it, [I] could not put it down. In less than three days, I read it all, absorbing the stories and details as if I was consummed by watching a high action movie... The breath and depth of the wisdom is phenomenal, and the stories shared by the writers are moving, inspiring, and shine of intelligence in seizing one's own passion and talents and turning them into stellar professional careers."
-Nathalie Gosset, MS, MBA, Head of Marketing, Alfred Mann Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California
"This is a functional book with immediate impact, and is very helpful to those who need and desperately want help in making a career choice."
- Jonathan Newman, Graduate Student in Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
"This is an exciting undertaking and very well thought through and balanced. I enjoyed very much reading the chapters I have reviewed. Congratulations to all contributors and the editors of this book."
- Gudrun Zahlmann, PhD, Director of Business Development, Siemens Medical Systems, Germany
"I am very excited about this book. As a bioengineering educator, I am always looking for information that can provide guidance for students as they prepare for their careers. The contributors in this book are so enthusiastic about their careers that many of the chapters made me want to switch careers on the spot! I believe that engineering students do not receive enough guidance on alternative career paths. This book will very much help fill the void."
- Judy Cezeaux, PhD, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Western New England College, Massachusetts, USA
This book first introduces the subject by presenting the advantages and disadvantages of welded structures, as well as the historical overview of the topic and predicted trends. Then, this text considers residual stresses, heat flow, distortion, fracture toughness, and brittle and fatigue fractures of weldments. This selection concludes by discussing the effects of distortion and residual stresses on buckling strength of welded structures and effects of weld defects on service behavior. This book also provides supplementary discussions on some related and selected subjects.
This text will be invaluable to metallurgists, welders, and students of metallurgy and welding.
This book is written in the same engaging conversational style as the published reference book The Immune Response: Basic and Clinical Principles and conveys the same fascinating appeal of immunology. The authors bring clarity, readability and continuity of voice to an audience that requires only a brief survey of the most fundamental concepts in basic and clinical immunology. Primer to The Immune Response is beautifully illustrated with over 200 superb figures and 36 full-color plates, and further enhanced by the inclusion of 60 tables and 6 Appendices. Included with purchase of the book is website access to a captivating “Immunomovie" that truly brings the immune response to pathogens to life. This new and unique immunology textbook compactly but elegantly covers both basic and clinical principles.Over 200 elegant 2-4 color illustrations36 full-color plates of basic and clinical items of interestTake-home message and “Did You Get It? self-test quiz at the end of each chapter6 Appendices that provide topic enrichment60-minute "Immunomovie" illustrating the immune response to bacterial, viral and parasitic infections
This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, stem cell niches, and blood components from stem cells. This research has already produced applications in disease modeling, toxicity testing, drug development, and clinical therapies. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies –such as brain-machine interfaces for controlling bionics and neuroprostheses– is complemented by a series of new and updated chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering, as well as a new section on the application of tissue-engineering techniques for food production. The result is a comprehensive textbook that will be useful to students and experts alike.Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valvesOffers expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systemsFull-color presentation throughout
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*A one-stop source for proven methods and protocols for synthesizing bioconjugates in the lab
*Step-by-step presentation makes the book an ideal source for researchers who are less familiar with the synthesis of bioconjugates
*More than 600 figures that visually describe the complex reactions associated with the synthesis of bioconjugates
*Includes entirely new chapters on the latest areas in the field of bioconjugation as follows:
Microparticles and nanoparticles
Silane coupling agents
Dendrimers and dendrons
Discrete PEG compounds
Buckyballs,fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes
Mass tags and isotope tags
Bioconjugation in the study of protein interactions
The forensic science procedures in this book are not merely educational, they’re the real deal. Each chapter includes one or more lab sessions devoted to a particular topic. You’ll find a complete list of equipment and chemicals you need for each session.Analyze soil, hair, and fibers Match glass and plastic specimens Develop latent fingerprints and reveal blood traces Conduct drug and toxicology tests Analyze gunshot and explosives residues Detect forgeries and fakes Analyze impressions, such as tool marks and footprints Match pollen and diatom samples Extract, isolate, and visualize DNA samples
Through their company, The Home Scientist, LLC (thehomescientist.com/forensics), the authors also offer inexpensive custom kits that provide specialized equipment and supplies you’ll need to complete the experiments. Add a microscope and some common household items and you’re good to go.
This book provides a comprehensive guide to the methodology involved in the development of cell lines and the cell engineering approach that can be employed to enhance productivity, improve cell function, glycosylation and secretion and control apoptosis. It presents an overall picture of the current topics central to expression engineering including such topics as epigenetics and the use of technologies to overcome positional dependent inactivation, the use of promoter and enhancer sequences for expression of various transgenes, site directed engineering of defined chromosomal sites, and examination of the role of eukaryotic nucleus as the controller of expression of genes that are introduced for production of a desired product. It includes a review of selection methods for high producers and an application developed by a major biopharmaceutical industry to expedite the cell line development process. The potential of cell engineering approch to enhance cell lines through the manipulation of single genes that play important roles in key metabolic and regulatory pathways is also explored throughout.
This expansive text pulls together the numerous fields of study encompassed by biogeochemistry to analyze the increasing demands of the growing human population on limited resources and the resulting changes in the planet's chemical makeup.
The book helps students extrapolate small-scale examples to the global level, and also discusses the instrumentation being used by NASA and its role in studies of global change. With extensive cross-referencing of chapters, figures and tables, and an interdisciplinary coverage of the topic at hand, this updated edition provides an excellent framework for courses examining global change and environmental chemistry, and is also a useful self-study guide.Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors AssociationCalculates and compares the effects of industrial emissions, land clearing, agriculture, and rising population on Earth's chemistrySynthesizes the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur, and suggests the best current budgets for atmospheric gases such as ammonia, nitrous oxide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfideIncludes an extensive review and up-to-date synthesis of the current literature on the Earth's biogeochemistry
This is a revised edition of a very successful book, which appeals to both academic and industrial markets.Illustrates the organic mechanism associated with each enzyme-catalyzed reactionMakes the connection between organic reaction mechanisms and enzyme mechanismsCompiles the latest information about molecular mechanisms of enzyme reactionsAccompanied by clearly drawn structures, schemes, and figuresIncludes an extensive bibliography on enzyme mechanisms covering the last 30 yearsExplains how enzymes can accelerate the rates of chemical reactions with high specificityProvides approaches to the design of inhibitors of enzyme-catalyzed reactionsCategorizes the cofactors that are appropriate for catalyzing different classes of reactionsShows how chemical enzyme models are used for mechanistic studiesDescribes catalytic antibody design and mechanismIncludes problem sets and solutions for each chapter Written in an informal and didactic style
In biomedical research, because of a dramatic increase in productivity, immunocytochemistry has emerged as a major technique. The proposed book will provide the first practical guide to planning, performing, and evaluating immunocytochemical experiments.
In today’s graduate education the emphasis is on doing research and not on formal class work. Graduate students therefore lack the background in many essential techniques necessary to perform research in fields in which they were not trained. As director of a university core microscopy facility which sees students and faculty from dozens of laboratories each year, Dr. Burry has surmised the vast majority of these novice microscope users need considerable help. In an attempt to educate users, Dr. Burry has initiated immunocytochemistry seminars and workshops which serve to train people in this powerful research tool. The proposed book is an outgrowth of these presentations and conversations with, by now, hundreds of people who have asked for help.
The philosophy which separates this book from other books in this field is that it is practical, rather than academic. In looking at other important immunocytochemistry titles, the predominant orientation is academic, with the author attempting to comprehensively discuss the topic. For example, one book with sample preparation lists ten fixatives which can be used; however, only two such fixatives are commonly used today. In this particular title, the detailed discussion of old methods might be seen as important in establishing the author as an expert. By contrast, the approach for Burry’s book would be to discuss methods based on what works in animal research laboratories today, and focus only on the most productive methods.
An additional distinction with this proposed book is the focus on animal research and not human pathology. There is a certification program for pathology technicians which requires them to learn a set body of material based on processing human tissue for examination by a pathologist. Many of the books on immunocytochemistry aim at this large pathology user base. Due to historical reasons, pathology laboratories process human tissues in a specific way and embed the tissue in paraffin, as has been done for over a century. In the last ten years, the power of immunocytochemistry in clinical diagnosis has become clear and has accordingly been adapted to pathology. However, the extensive processing needed for paraffin sections is not needed if the tissues are from research animals. Processing for animal-based tissues takes about a third of the time and results in higher quality images. The focus of this book is on processing these animal research tissues for immunocytochemistry. Today, there are no technique books which are aimed at this user base.
As a subject matter expert in the area of the proposed book, Dr. Burry will make recommendations and offer opinions. Because this field is new and is emerging, there are numerous advantages of specific methods over other, more generalized methods. The purpose of this book is to show a novice how to do immunocytochemistry without engaging in a discussion of possible advanced methods. For the advanced user, there are several good books which discuss the unusual methods, yet for the novice there are currently none.
Main Author :
Richard W. Burry, The Ohio State University (United States).
The Outline of the Book :
Each chapter supplies a set of important principals and steps necessary for good immunocytochemistry. The information is distilled down to include only the most important points and does not attempt to cover infrequently used procedures or reagents. At the end of most chapters is a section on trouble-shooting many of the common problems using the Sherlock Holmes method. Each chapter also includes specific protocols which can be used. The goal of each chapter is to present the reader with enough information to successfully design experiments and solve many of the problems one may encounter. Using immunocytochemical protocols without the understanding of their workings is not advised, as the user will need to evaluate his or her results to determine whether the results are reliable. Such evaluation is extremely important for users who need reliable images which will clearly answer important scientific questions.
Definitions (immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry)
Scope: animal research and not human pathology, paraffin sections, epitope retrieval, or immunohistochemistry
Focus: fluorescence and enzyme detection
Why do immunocytochemistry?
Immunocytochemistry "individual study" rather than "population study"
Example of a two-label experiment
What is included in these chapters?
Overview of the theory
Background with enough information to help solve common problems.
Advantages and disadvantages of different options
Opinions and suggestions
2. Fixation and Sectioning
Chemistry of fixation
Denaturing vs cross-linking fixatives
Application of fixative
Perfusion, drop-in, cultures, fresh-frozen
Selection of sample section type
Rapid freezing, cryostat, freezing microtome, vibratome
Storage of tissue
Isoforms, structure, reactivity
Polyclonal vs monoclonal
Antibodies as reagents
Antibody specificity and sources
Storage and handling
4. Labels for antibodies
Fluorescence, enzymes and particulates
Fluorescent labels - four generations
Selecting enzymes vs. fluorescence
Selecting a label- advantages and disadvantages
5. Methods of applying antibodies
Antibody amplification methods
6. Blocking and Permeability
Theory of blocking
Theory of detergents
7. Procedure- Single primary antibody
Sample, fixation, sectioning
8. Multiple primary antibodies - primary antibodies of different species
9. Multiple primary antibodies-primary antibodies of same species
Wide-field fluorescence microscope
Bright field—enzyme chromogen
Size, intensity, and pixels
Manipulation—what is ethical?
11. Planning and Troubleshooting
Scheme for discussion-making in planning experiments
Case studies with Sherlock Holmes detective work
12. So you want to do electron microscopic ICC?
Criteria in decision-making
Summary of the two techniques
* Helps readers to understand where models come from, so they don't use them blindly and
* Provides many visual and geometric models for understanding a largely mathematical method
* Allows readers to judge whether recently published models are of sufficiently high quality and detail to be useful in their own work
* Allows readers to study macromolecular structure independently and in an open-ended fashion on their own computers, without being limited to textbook or journals illustrations
* Provides access to web tools in a format that will not go out of date. Links will be updated and added as existing resources change location or are added