Nuclear physics

This book provides readers with an introductory understanding of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC), a type of fusion meant to retain plasma using an electrostatic field. IEC provides a unique approach for plasma confinement, as it offers a number of spin-off applications, such as a small neutron source for Neutron Activity Analysis (NAA), that all work towards creating fusion power. The IEC has been identified in recent times as an ideal fusion power unit because of its ability to burn aneutronic fuels like p-B11 as a result of its non-Maxwellian plasma dominated by beam-like ions. This type of fusion also takes place in a simple mechanical structure small in size, which also contributes to its viability as a source of power. This book posits that the ability to study the physics of IEC in very small volume plasmas makes it possible to rapidly investigate a design to create a power-producing device on a much larger scale. Along with this hypothesis the book also includes a conceptual experiment proposed for demonstrating breakeven conditions for using p-B11 in a hydrogen plasma simulation.

This book also:

Offers an in-depth look, from introductory basics to experimental simulation, of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, an emerging method for generating fusion power

Discusses how the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement method can be applied to other applications besides fusion through theoretical experiments in the text

Details the study of the physics of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement in small-volume plasmas and suggests that their rapid reproduction could lead to the creation of a large-scale power-producing device

Perfect for researchers and students working with nuclear fusion, Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion: Fundamentals and Applications also offers the current experimental status of IEC research, details supporting theories in the field and introduces other potential applications that stem from IEC.

A comprehensive, unified treatment of present-day nuclear physics-the fresh edition of a classic text/reference.

"A fine and thoroughly up-to-date textbook on nuclear physics . . . most welcome." -Physics Today (on the First Edition).

What sets Introductory Nuclear Physics apart from other books on the subject is its presentation of nuclear physics as an integral part of modern physics. Placing the discipline within a broad historical and scientific context, it makes important connections to other fields such as elementary particle physics and astrophysics.

Now fully revised and updated, this Second Edition explores the changing directions in nuclear physics, emphasizing new developments and current research-from superdeformation to quark-gluon plasma. Author Samuel S.M. Wong preserves those areas that established the First Edition as a standard text in university physics departments, focusing on what is exciting about the discipline and providing a concise, thorough, and accessible treatment of the fundamental aspects of nuclear properties.

In this new edition, Professor Wong:
* Includes a chapter on heavy-ion reactions-from high-spin states to quark-gluon plasma
* Adds a new chapter on nuclear astrophysics
* Relates observed nuclear properties to the underlying nuclear interaction and the symmetry principles governing subatomic particles
* Regroups material and appendices to make the text easier to use
* Lists Internet links to essential databases and research projects
* Features end-of-chapter exercises using real-world data.

Introductory Nuclear Physics, Second Edition is an ideal text for courses in nuclear physics at the senior undergraduate or first-year graduate level. It is also an important resource for scientists and engineers working with nuclei, for astrophysicists and particle physicists, and for anyone wishing to learn more about trends in the field.
Theoretical physics has become a many-faceted science. For the young student it is difficult enough to cope with the overwhelming amount of new scientific material that has to be learned, let alone to obtain an overview of the entire field, which ranges from mechanics through electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, field theory, nuclear and heavy-ion science, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, and solid state theory to elementary-particle physics. And this knowledge should be acquired in just 8-10 semesters during which, in addition, a Diploma or Master's thesis has to be worked on or examinations prepared for. All this can be achieved only if the university teachers help to introduce the student to the new disciplines as early on as possible, in order to create interest and excitement that in turn set free essential new energy. Naturally, all inessential material must simply be eliminated. At the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt we therefore confront the student with theoretical physics immediately in the first semester. Theoretical Mechanics I and II, Electrodynamics, and Quantum Mechanics I - an Introduction are the basic courses during the first two years. These lectures are supplemented with many mathematical explanations and much support material. After the fourth semester of studies, graduate work begins and Quantum Mechanics II - Symme tries, Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, the Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions, and Quantum Chromodynamics are obligatory.
The book is the culmination of the authors' many years of teaching and research in atomic physics, nuclear and particle physics, and modern physics. It is also a crystallization of their intense passion and strong interest in the history of physics and the philosophy of science.The book gives students a broad perspective of the current understandings of the basic structures of matter from atoms, nucleus to leptons, quarks, and gluons along with the essential introductory quantum mechanics and special relativity. Fundamentals aside, the book retrospects the historical development and examines the challenging future directions of nuclear and particle physics. Interwoven within the content are up-to-date examples of very recent developments and future plans that show in detail how the techniques and ideas of atomic, nuclear, and particle physics have been used and are being used to solve important problems in basic and applied areas of physics, chemistry, and biology that are closely linked to the prevailing major societal problems in medicine, energy resources, new custom-made materials and environmental pollution, as well as areas that encroach the broad cultural and historical interest. The uncertain path of success and failure, opportunities seized and missed, and the axiom of probability and scientists' intuition in the unfolding human drama of scientific discovery are vividly presented. Throughout the highly perceptive book, readers, especially the students are encouraged to reflect on problems and ask questions.
Nuclear physics began one century ago during the “miraculous decade” - tween 1895 and 1905 when the foundations of practically all modern physics were established. The period started with two unexpected spino?s of the Crooke’s vacuum tube: Roentgen’s X-rays (1895) and Thomson’s electron (1897), the ?rst elementary particle to be discovered. Lorentz and Zeemann developed the the theory of the electron and the in?uence of magnetism on radiation. Quantum phenomenology began in December, 1900 with the - pearance of Planck’s constant followed by Einstein’s 1905 proposal of what is now called the photon. In 1905, Einstein also published the theories of relativity and of Brownian motion, the ultimate triumph of Boltzman’s s- tistical theory, a year before his tragic death. For nuclear physics, the critical discovery was that of radioactivity by Becquerel in 1896. By analyzing the history of science, one can be convinced that there is some rationale in the fact that all of these discoveries came nearly sim- taneously, after the scienti?cally triumphant 19th century. The exception is radioactivity, an unexpected baby whose discovery could have happened s- eral decades earlier. Talentedscientists,theCuries,Rutherford,andmanyothers,tookthe- servationofradioactivityandconstructedtheideasthatarethesubjectofthis book. Of course, the discovery of radioactivity and nuclear physics is of much broader importance. It lead directly to quantum mechanics via Rutherford’s planetary atomic model and Bohr’s interpretation of the hydrogen spectrum. This in turn led to atomic physics, solid state physics, and material science.
A new edition of the New York Times bestseller—now a three-part Nova special: a fascinating and thought-provoking journey through the mysteries of space, time, and matter. Now with a new preface (not in any other edition) that will review the enormous public reception of the relatively obscure string theory—made possible by this book and an increased number of adherents amongst physicists—The Elegant Universe "sets a standard that will be hard to beat" (New York Times Book Review). Brian Greene, one of the world's leading string theorists, peels away the layers of mystery surrounding string theory to reveal a universe that consists of eleven dimensions, where the fabric of space tears and repairs itself, and all matter—from the smallest quarks to the most gargantuan supernovas—is generated by the vibrations of microscopically tiny loops of energy.

Today physicists and mathematicians throughout the world are feverishly working on one of the most ambitious theories ever proposed: superstring theory. String theory, as it is often called, is the key to the Unified Field Theory that eluded Einstein for more than thirty years. Finally, the century-old antagonism between the large and the small-General Relativity and Quantum Theory-is resolved. String theory proclaims that all of the wondrous happenings in the universe, from the frantic dancing of subatomic quarks to the majestic swirling of heavenly galaxies, are reflections of one grand physical principle and manifestations of one single entity: microscopically tiny vibrating loops of energy, a billionth of a billionth the size of an atom. In this brilliantly articulated and refreshingly clear book, Greene relates the scientific story and the human struggle behind twentieth-century physics' search for a theory of everything.

Through the masterful use of metaphor and analogy, The Elegant Universe makes some of the most sophisticated concepts ever contemplated viscerally accessible and thoroughly entertaining, bringing us closer than ever to understanding how the universe works.
The original edition of Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics was used with great success for single-semester courses on nuclear and particle physics offered by American and Canadian universities at the undergraduate level. It was also translated into German, and used overseas. Being less formal but well-written, this book is a good vehicle for learning the more intuitive rather than formal aspects of the subject. It is therefore of value to scientists with a minimal background in quantum mechanics, but is sufficiently substantive to have been recommended for graduate students interested in the fields covered in the text.In the second edition, the material begins with an exceptionally clear development of Rutherford scattering and, in the four following chapters, discusses sundry phenomenological issues concerning nuclear properties and structure, and general applications of radioactivity and of the nuclear force. This is followed by two chapters dealing with interactions of particles in matter, and how these characteristics are used to detect and identify such particles. A chapter on accelerators rounds out the experimental aspects of the field. The final seven chapters deal with elementary-particle phenomena, both before and after the realization of the Standard Model. This is interspersed with discussion of symmetries in classical physics and in the quantum domain, bringing into full focus the issues concerning CP violation, isotopic spin, and other symmetries. The final three chapters are devoted to the Standard Model and to possibly new physics beyond it, emphasizing unification of forces, supersymmetry, and other exciting areas of current research.The book contains several appendices on related subjects, such as special relativity, the nature of symmetry groups, etc. There are also many examples and problems in the text that are of value in gauging the reader's understanding of the material.
New Edition: Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics (Revised Edition)This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern particle physics accessible to anyone with a true passion for wanting to know how the universe works. We are introduced to the known particles of the world we live in. An elegant explanation of quantum mechanics and relativity paves the way for an understanding of the laws that govern particle physics. These laws are put into action in the world of accelerators, colliders and detectors found at institutions such as CERN and Fermilab that are in the forefront of technical innovation. Real world and theory meet using Feynman diagrams to solve the problems of infinities and deduce the need for the Higgs boson.Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics offers an incredible insight from an eyewitness and participant in some of the greatest discoveries in 20th century science. From Einstein's theory of relativity to the elusive Higgs particle, this book will fascinate and educate anyone interested in the world of quarks, leptons and gauge theories.This book also contains many thumbnail sketches of particle physics personalities, including contemporaries as seen through the eyes of the author. Illustrated with pictures, these candid sketches present rare, perceptive views of the characters that populate the field.The Chapter on Particle Theory, in a pre-publication, was termed “superbly lucid” by David Miller in Nature (Vol. 396, 17 Dec. 1998, p. 642).
Our journey in search of the origin of matter — and, by extension, the origin of the Universe itself — has taken us deeper and deeper inside atoms. First to come into view was the atomic nucleus, and still further downscale the individual protons and neutrons that constitute the nucleus. At least for three decades, nucleons (protons and neutrons) were considered to be our final destination. Then, peering into them, we detected shadows of yet another layer of matter that lurks inside. Unable so far to crack open a nucleon and bring out one of these shadowy objects for observation and measurement, we can only guess what they are. We have named them quarks. We believe that two types of quarks — one named “up” and the other “down” — make up the proton and the neutron. Quarks are held together by a force dubbed the chromo force, represented by particles named gluons, which are just as unseen as quarks. So it is the quarks and gluons that lie at the bottom of all known matter!In this important book, the major developments in atomic, nuclear, particle and quark physics over the past one hundred years are presented in a style that is both accessible to the layperson and of value to the expert. It provides a brief history of particles, charting the discovery of electrons and photons, antimatter, atomic nuclei, strong and weak forces, and quarks and gluons. In particular, it traces the concept of “conserved charges”, a phenomenon that is consistently manifested in each of these milestone developments in modern physics.
This well-known introductory textbook gives a uniform presentation of nuclear and particle physics from an experimental point of view.

The first part, Analysis, is devoted to disentangling the substructure of matter. This part shows that experiments designed to uncover the substructures of nuclei and nucleons have a similar conceptual basis, and lead to the present picture of all matter being constructed from a small number of elementary building blocks and a small number of fundamental interactions.

The second part, Synthesis, shows how the elementary particles may be combined to build hadrons and nuclei. The fundamental interactions, which are responsible for the forces in all systems, become less and less evident in increasingly complex systems. Such systems are in fact dominated by many-body phenomena. A section on neutrino oscillations and one on nuclear matter at high temperatures bridge the field of "nuclear and particle physics" and "modem astrophysics and cosmology.

The seventh revised and extended edition includes new material, in particular the experimental verification of the Higgs particle at the LHC, recent results in neutrino physics, the violation of CP-symmetry in the decay of neutral B-mesons, the experimental investigations of the nucleon's spin structure and outstanding results of the HERA experiments in deep-inelastic electron- and positron-proton scattering. The concise text is based on lectures held at the University of Heidelberg and includes numerous exercises with worked answers. It has been translated into several languages and has become a standard reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses.

The definitive history of nuclear weapons and the Manhattan Project. From the turn-of-the-century discovery of nuclear energy to the dropping of the first bombs on Japan, Richard Rhodes’s Pulitzer Prize–winning book details the science, the people, and the sociopolitical realities that led to the development of the atomic bomb.

This sweeping account begins in the 19th century, with the discovery of nuclear fission, and continues to World War Two and the Americans’ race to beat Hitler’s Nazis. That competition launched the Manhattan Project and the nearly overnight construction of a vast military-industrial complex that culminated in the fateful dropping of the first bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Reading like a character-driven suspense novel, the book introduces the players in this saga of physics, politics, and human psychology—from FDR and Einstein to the visionary scientists who pioneered quantum theory and the application of thermonuclear fission, including Planck, Szilard, Bohr, Oppenheimer, Fermi, Teller, Meitner, von Neumann, and Lawrence.

From nuclear power’s earliest foreshadowing in the work of H.G. Wells to the bright glare of Trinity at Alamogordo and the arms race of the Cold War, this dread invention forever changed the course of human history, and The Making of The Atomic Bomb provides a panoramic backdrop for that story.

Richard Rhodes’s ability to craft compelling biographical portraits is matched only by his rigorous scholarship. Told in rich human, political, and scientific detail that any reader can follow, The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a thought-provoking and masterful work.
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