Cognition

The conference from which this book derives took place in Tsukuba, Japan in March 2004. The fifth in a continuing series of conferences, this one was organized to examine dynamic processes in "lower order" cognition from perception to attention to memory, considering both the behavioral and the neural levels. We were fortunate to attract a terrific group of con tributors representing five countries, which resulted in an exciting confer ence and, as the reader will quickly discover, an excellent set of chapters. In Chapter 1, we will provide a sketchy "road map" to these chapters, elu cidating some of the themes that emerged at the conference. The conference itself was wonderful. We very much enjoyed the vari ety of viewpoints and issues that we all had the opportunity to grapple with. There were lively and spirited exchanges, and many chances to talk to each other about exciting new research, precisely what a good confer ence should promote. We hope that the readers of this book will have the same experience—moving from careful experimental designs in the cogni tive laboratory to neural mechanisms measured by new technologies, from the laboratory to the emergency room, from perceptual learning to changes in memory over decades, all the while squarely focusing on how best to explain cognition, not simply to measure it. Ultimately, the goal of science is, of course, explanation. We also hope that the reader will come away absolutely convinced that cognition is a thoroughly dynamic, interactive system.
This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb’s Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and analytic techniques used to understand human cognitive development. The relevance of cognition is illustrated through engaging applications. Each chapter reflects the current state of the field in cognitive development and features an introduction, an overview of the field, a chapter summary, and numerous classical and contemporary references. As a whole, this highly anticipated text illuminates substantive phenomena in cognitive developmental science and its relevance to everyday life.

Students and instructors will also appreciate the book’s online resources. For each chapter, the website features: chapter outlines; a student reading guide; a glossary of key terms and concepts; and suggested readings with hotlinks to journal articles. Only instructors are granted access to the test bank with multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions; PowerPoints with all of the text’s figures and tables; and suggestions for classroom discussion/assignments.

The book opens with an introduction to cognitive development as well as an overview of developmental science in general—its history and theory, the cultural orientation to thinking about human development, and the manner in which empirical research is designed, conducted, and analyzed. Part 2 focuses on the field’s major substantive areas: neuroscience and genetics, physical and motor development, perception, and cognitive and language development.

Intended for advanced undergraduate and/or beginning graduate courses on cognitive development taught in departments of psychology, human development and family studies, and education, researchers in these areas will appreciate this book’s cutting-edge coverage.

This volume presents different perspectives on a dual model of impression formation -- a theory about how people form impressions about other people by combining information about a person with prior knowledge found in long-term memory. This information is of real importance to graduate students and advanced undergraduates in cognitive and social psychology, experimental psychology, social cognition and perception. Each volume in the series will contain a target article on a recent theoretical development pertinent to current study followed by critical commentaries offering varying theoretical viewpoints. This productive dialogue concludes with a reply by the target article author.

The first volume of the series presents an evaluation of theoretical advances in social cognition and information processing from new and different perspectives. Volume 2 presents a new conceptualization of personality and social cognition by Cantor and Kihlstrom which addresses both new and old issues.

The volumes in this series will interest and enlighten graduate and advanced undergraduates in cognitive and social psychology, experimental psychology, social cognition and perception. The first volume of the series presents an evaluation of theoretical advances in social cognition and information processing from new and different perspectives. Each volume in the series will contain a target article on a recent theoretical development pertinent to current study followed by critical commentaries offering varying theoretical viewpoints. This productive dialog concludes with a reply by the target article author.

The information provided in Volume 1 promises to enrich graduate and advanced undergraduates in cognitive and social psychology, experimental psychology, social cognition and perception.

This first volume of the series evaluates the theoretical advances made in social cognition and information processing from new and different perspectives. This unique and lively interchange between the target article author and the critics will enrich and enlighten psychologists from many disciplines. Each volume in the series will contain a target article on a recent theoretical development pertinent to current study followed by critical commentaries offering varying theoretical viewpoints. This productive dialog concludes with a reply by the target article author.

The first volume of the series presents an evaluation of theoretical advances in social cognition and information processing from new and different perspectives. Volume 2 presents a new conceptualization of personality and social cognition by Cantor and Kihlstrom which addresses both new and old issues.

All volumes in this series will interest and enlighten graduate and advanced undergraduates in cognitive and social psychology, experimental psychology, social cognition and perception.
The fourth edition of Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found – and where they are not.

Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and illuminating developments in our understanding of cognitive sex differences. Modern neuroscience has transformed our understanding of the mind and behavior in general, but particularly the way we think about cognitive sex differences. But neuroscience is still in its infancy and has often been misused to justify sex role stereotypes. There has also been the publication of many exaggerated and unreplicated claims regarding cognitive sex differences. Consequently, throughout the book there is recognition of the critical importance of good research; an amiable skepticism of the nature and strength of evidence behind any claim of sex difference; an appreciation of the complexity of the questions about cognitive sex differences; and the ability to see multiple sides of an issues, while also realizing that some claims are well-reasoned and supported by data and others are politicized pseudoscience. The author endeavors to present and interpret all the relevant data fairly, and in the process reveals how there are strong data for many different views.

The book explores sex differences from many angles and in many settings, including the effect of different abilities and levels of education on sex differences, pre-existing beliefs or stereotypes, culture, and hormones. Sex differences in the brain are explored along with the stern caveat to "mind the gap" between brain structures and behaviors. Readers should come away with a new understanding of the way nature and nurture work together to make us unique individuals while also creating similarities and differences that are often (but not always) tied to our being female and male.

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities, Fourth Edition, can be used as a textbook or reference in a range of courses and will inspire the next generation of researchers. Halpern engages readers in the big societal questions that are inherent in the controversial topic of whether, when , and how much males and females differ psychologically. It should be required reading for parents, teachers, and policy makers who want to know about the ways in which males and females are different and similar.

Is it possible to learn something without being aware of it?
How does emotion influence the way we think?
How can we improve our memory?

Fundamentals of Cognition, third edition, provides a basic, reader-friendly introduction to the key cognitive processes we use to interact successfully with the world around us. Our abilities in attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, thinking, and reasoning are all vitally important in enabling us to cope with everyday life. Understanding these processes through the study of cognitive psychology is essential for understanding human behaviour.

This edition has been thoroughly updated and revised with an emphasis on making it even more accessible to introductory-level students. Bringing on board Professor Marc Brysbaert, a world-leading researcher in the psychology of language, as co-author, this new edition includes:

developed and extended research activities and "In the Real World" case studies to make it easy for students to engage with the material; new real-world topics such as discussions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the reading problems of individuals with dyslexia, why magic tricks work, and why we cannot remember the Apple logo accurately; a supporting companion website containing multiple choice questions, flashcards, sample essay answers, instructor resources, and more.

The book provides a perfect balance between traditional approaches to cognition and cutting-edge cognitive neuroscience and cognitive neuropsychology. Covering all the key topics within cognition, this comprehensive overview is essential reading for all students of cognitive psychology and related areas such as clinical psychology.

This volume presents a theoretical framework for understanding consciousness and learning. Drawing on work in cognitive psychology and philosophy, this framework begins with the observation that to be conscious is literally to have a point of view. From this starting point, the book develops a descriptive scheme that allows perceptual, symbolic, and emotional awareness to be discussed in common theoretical terms, compatible with a computational view of the mind. A central theme is our experience of ourselves as agents, consciously controlling activities situated in environments. In contrast to previous theories of consciousness, the experienced cognition framework emphasizes the changes in conscious control as individuals acquire skills.

The book is divided into four parts. The first introduces the central themes and places them in the context of information-processing theory and empirical research on cognitive skill. The second develops the theoretical framework, emphasizing the unity of perceptual, symbolic, and emotional awareness and the relation of conscious to nonconscious processes. The third applies the experienced cognition framework to a variety of topics in cognitive psychology, including working memory, problem solving, and reasoning. It also includes discussions of everyday action, skill, and expertise, focusing on changes in conscious control with increasing fluency. The last concludes the book by evaluating the recent debate on the "cognitive unconscious" and implicit cognition from the perspective of experienced cognition, and considering the prospects for a cognitive psychology focused on persons.

This book addresses many of the issues raised in philosophical treatments of consciousness from the point of view of empirical cognitive psychology. For example, the structure of conscious mental states is addressed by considering how to describe them in terms of variables suitable for information-processing theory. Understanding conscious states in this way also provides a basis for developing empirical hypotheses, for example, about the relation of emotion and cognition, about the apparent "mindlessness" of skilled activity, and about the nature and role of goals in guiding activity. Criticisms of the computational view of mind are addressed by showing that the role of first-person perspectives in cognition can be described and investigated in theoretical terms compatible with a broadly-conceived information-processing theory of cognition.
David Groome with Nicola Brace, Graham Edgar, Helen Edgar, Michael Eysenck, Tom Manly, Hayley Ness, Graham Pike, Sophie Scott, and Elizabeth Styles.

An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology: Processes and Disorders is a comprehensive introductory textbook for undergraduate students. The third edition of this well-established text has been completely revised and updated to cover all the key areas of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, thinking and language. Uniquely, alongside chapters on normal cognitive function, there are chapters on related clinical disorders (agnosia, amnesia, thought disorder and aphasia) which help to provide a thorough insight into the nature of cognition.

Key features:

Completely revised and updated throughout to provide a comprehensive overview of current thinking in the field Accessibly written and including new authors, including Sophie Scott, Tom Manly, Hayley Ness, and Elizabeth Styles, all established experts in their field A new chapter on Emotion and Cognition, written by Michael Eysenck, the leading authority in the field Greater coverage of neuropsychological disorders, with additional material from the latest brain imaging research that has completely revolutionized neuropsychology Specially designed textbook features, chapter summaries, further reading, and a glossary of key terms A companion website featuring an extensive range of online resources for both teachers and students.

Written to cover all levels of ability using helpful figures and illustrations, An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology has sufficient depth to appeal to the most able students while the clear and accessible text, written by experienced teachers, will help students who find the material difficult. It will appeal to any student on an undergraduate psychology degree course, as well as to medical students and those studying in related clinical professions such as nursing.

One of the world’s leading neuroscientists teams up with an accomplished writer to debunk the popular left-brain/right-brain theory and offer an exciting new way of thinking about our minds. The second edition, with expanded practical applications, highlights how readers can harness the theory to succeed in their own lives.

For the past fifty years, popular culture has led us to believe in the left-brain vs. right-brain theory of personality types. Right-brain people, we’ve been told, are artistic, intuitive, and thoughtful, while left-brain people tend to be more analytical, logical, and objective. It would be an illuminating theory if it did not have one major drawback: It is simply not supported by science.

Dr. Stephen M. Kosslyn, who Steven Pinker calls “one of the world’s great cognitive neuroscientists,” explains with cowriter G. Wayne Miller an exciting new theory of the brain. Presenting extensive research in an inviting and accessible way, Kosslyn and Miller describe how the human brain uses patterns of thought that can be identified and understood through four modes of thinking: Mover, Perceiver, Stimulator, and Adaptor. These ways of thinking and behaving shape your personality, and with the scientifically developed test provided in the book, you’ll quickly be able to determine which mode best defines your own usual style. Once you’ve identified your usual mode of thought, the practical applications are limitless, from how you work with others when you conduct business, to your personal relationships, to your voyage of self-discovery.
Have you ever . . . Invested time in something that, in hindsight, just wasn't worth it? Paid too much in an eBay auction? Continued to do something you knew was bad for you? Sold stocks too late, or too early? Taken credit for success, but blamed failure on external circumstances? Backed the wrong horse?

These are examples of what the author calls cognitive biases, simple errors all of us make in day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to identify them, we can avoid them and make better choices: whether in dealing with personal problems or business negotiations, trying to save money or earn profits, or merely working out what we really want in life—and strategizing the best way to get it.

Already an international bestseller, The Art of Thinking Clearly distills cutting-edge research from behavioral economics, psychology, and neuroscience into a clever, practical guide for anyone who's ever wanted to be wiser and make better decisions. A novelist, thinker, and entrepreneur, Rolf Dobelli deftly shows that in order to lead happier, more prosperous lives, we don't need extra cunning, new ideas, shiny gadgets, or more frantic hyperactivity—all we need is less irrationality.

Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision making—at work, at home, every day. From why you shouldn't accept a free drink to why you should walk out of a movie you don't like, from why it's so hard to predict the future to why you shouldn't watch the news, The Art of Thinking Clearly helps solve the puzzle of human reasoning.

The New York Times bestselling Freakonomics changed the way we see the world, exposing the hidden side of just about everything. Then came SuperFreakonomics, a documentary film, an award-winning podcast, and more.

Now, with Think Like a Freak, Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner have written their most revolutionary book yet. With their trademark blend of captivating storytelling and unconventional analysis, they take us inside their thought process and teach us all to think a bit more productively, more creatively, more rationally—to think, that is, like a Freak.

Levitt and Dubner offer a blueprint for an entirely new way to solve problems, whether your interest lies in minor lifehacks or major global reforms. As always, no topic is off-limits. They range from business to philanthropy to sports to politics, all with the goal of retraining your brain. Along the way, you’ll learn the secrets of a Japanese hot-dog-eating champion, the reason an Australian doctor swallowed a batch of dangerous bacteria, and why Nigerian e-mail scammers make a point of saying they’re from Nigeria.

Some of the steps toward thinking like a Freak:

First, put away your moral compass—because it’s hard to see a problem clearly if you’ve already decided what to do about it. Learn to say “I don’t know”—for until you can admit what you don’t yet know, it’s virtually impossible to learn what you need to. Think like a child—because you’ll come up with better ideas and ask better questions. Take a master class in incentives—because for better or worse, incentives rule our world. Learn to persuade people who don’t want to be persuaded—because being right is rarely enough to carry the day. Learn to appreciate the upside of quitting—because you can’t solve tomorrow’s problem if you aren’t willing to abandon today’s dud.

Levitt and Dubner plainly see the world like no one else. Now you can too. Never before have such iconoclastic thinkers been so revealing—and so much fun to read.

Until very recently, our knowledge about the neural basis of cognitive aging was based on two disciplines that had very little contact with each other. Whereas the neuroscience of aging investigated the effects of aging on the brain independently of age-related changes in cognition, the cognitive psychology of aging investigated the effects of aging on cognition independently of age-related changes in the brain. The lack of communication between these two disciplines is currently being addressed by an increasing number of studies that focus on the relationships between cognitive aging and cerebral aging. This rapidly growing body of research has come to constitute a new discipline, which may be called cognitive neuroscience of aging. The goal of Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging is to introduce the reader to this new discipline at a level that is useful to both professionals and students in the domains of cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, neurology, and other, related areas. This book is divided into four main sections. The first section describes noninvasive measures of cerebral aging, including structural (e.g., volumetric MRI), chemical (e.g., dopamine PET), electrophysiological (e.g., ERPs), and hemodynamic (e.g., fMRI), and discusses how they can be linked to behavioral measures of cognitive aging. The second section reviews evidence for the effects of aging on neural activity during different cognitive functions, including perception and attention, imagery, working memory, long-term memory, and prospective memory. The third section focuses on clinical and applied topics, such as the distinction between healthy aging and Alzheimers disease and the use of cognitive training to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline. The last section describes theories that relate cognitive and cerebral aging, including models accounting for functional neuroimaging evidence and models supported by computer simulations. Taken together, the chapters in this volume provide the first unified and comprehensive overview of the new discipline of cognitive neuroscience of aging.
A proposal for a new way to do cognitive science argues that cognition should be described in terms of agent-environment dynamics rather than computation and representation.

While philosophers of mind have been arguing over the status of mental representations in cognitive science, cognitive scientists have been quietly engaged in studying perception, action, and cognition without explaining them in terms of mental representation. In this book, Anthony Chemero describes this nonrepresentational approach (which he terms radical embodied cognitive science), puts it in historical and conceptual context, and applies it to traditional problems in the philosophy of mind. Radical embodied cognitive science is a direct descendant of the American naturalist psychology of William James and John Dewey, and follows them in viewing perception and cognition to be understandable only in terms of action in the environment. Chemero argues that cognition should be described in terms of agent-environment dynamics rather than in terms of computation and representation. After outlining this orientation to cognition, Chemero proposes a methodology: dynamical systems theory, which would explain things dynamically and without reference to representation. He also advances a background theory: Gibsonian ecological psychology, “shored up” and clarified. Chemero then looks at some traditional philosophical problems (reductionism, epistemological skepticism, metaphysical realism, consciousness) through the lens of radical embodied cognitive science and concludes that the comparative ease with which it resolves these problems, combined with its empirical promise, makes this approach to cognitive science a rewarding one. “Jerry Fodor is my favorite philosopher,” Chemero writes in his preface, adding, “I think that Jerry Fodor is wrong about nearly everything.” With this book, Chemero explains nonrepresentational, dynamical, ecological cognitive science as clearly and as rigorously as Jerry Fodor explained computational cognitive science in his classic work The Language of Thought.

Major New York Times bestseller
Winner of the National Academy of Sciences Best Book Award in 2012
Selected by the New York Times Book Review as one of the ten best books of 2011
A Globe and Mail Best Books of the Year 2011 Title
One of The Economist's 2011 Books of the Year
One of The Wall Street Journal's Best Nonfiction Books of the Year 2011
2013 Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient
Kahneman's work with Amos Tversky is the subject of Michael Lewis's The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds

In the international bestseller, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Daniel Kahneman, the renowned psychologist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, takes us on a groundbreaking tour of the mind and explains the two systems that drive the way we think. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. The impact of overconfidence on corporate strategies, the difficulties of predicting what will make us happy in the future, the profound effect of cognitive biases on everything from playing the stock market to planning our next vacation—each of these can be understood only by knowing how the two systems shape our judgments and decisions.

Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, Kahneman reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking. He offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and our personal lives—and how we can use different techniques to guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble. Winner of the National Academy of Sciences Best Book Award and the Los Angeles Times Book Prize and selected by The New York Times Book Review as one of the ten best books of 2011, Thinking, Fast and Slow is destined to be a classic.

Exercise-Cognition Interaction: Neuroscience Perspectives is the only book on the market that examines the neuroscientific correlation between exercise and cognitive functioning. The upsurge in research in recent years has confirmed that cognitive-psychology theory cannot account for the effects of exercise on cognition, and both acute and chronic exercise effect neurochemical and psychophysiological changes in the brain that, in turn, affect cognitive functioning.

This book provides an overview of the research into these effects, from theoretical research through current studies that emphasize neuroscientific theories and rationales. It addition, users will find a thorough examination of the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive functioning in special populations, including the elderly, children, and those suffering from a variety of diseases, including schizophrenia, diabetes, and an array of neurological disorders.

With contributions from leading researchers in the field, this book will be the go-to resource for neuroscientists, psychologists, medical professionals, and other researchers who need an understanding of the role exercise plays in cognitive functioning.

Provides a comprehensive account of how exercise affects brain functioning, which in turn affects cognitionCovers both theory and empirical researchPresents a thorough examination of the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive functioning in special populations, including the elderly, children, and those suffering from a variety of diseasesExamines neurochemical, psychophysiological, and genetic factorsCovers acute and chronic exercise
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