Now, new third generation Al-Li alloys with significantly reduced lithium content and other improvements are promising a revival for Al-Li applications in modern aircraft and aerospace vehicles. Over the last few years, these newer Al-Li alloys have attracted increasing global interest for widespread applications in the aerospace industry largely because of soaring fuel costs and the development of a new generation of civil and military aircraft. This contributed book, featuring many of the top researchers in the field, is the first up-to-date international reference for Al-Li material research, alloy development, structural design and aerospace systems engineering.Provides a complete treatment of the new generation of low-density AL-Li alloys, including microstructure, mechanical behavoir, processing and applicationsCovers the history of earlier generation AL-Li alloys, their basic problems, why they were never widely used, and why the new third generation Al-Li alloys could eventually replace not only traditional aluminum alloys but more expensive composite materialsContains two full chapters devoted to applications in the aircraft and aerospace fields, where the lighter, stronger Al-Li alloys mean better performing, more fuel-efficient aircraft
Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Nickel-Base Alloys describes the fundamental metallurgical principles that control the microstructure and properties of welded Ni-base alloys. It serves as a practical how-to guide that enables engineers to select the proper alloys, filler metals, heat treatments, and welding conditions to ensure that failures are avoided during fabrication and service. Chapter coverage includes:Alloying additions, phase diagrams, and phase stability Solid-solution strengthened Ni-base alloys Precipitation strengthened Ni-base alloys Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys and nickel aluminides Repair welding of Ni-base alloys Dissimilar welding Weldability testing High-chromium alloys used in nuclear power applications
With its excellent balance between the fundamentals and practical problem solving, the book serves as an ideal reference for scientists, engineers, and technicians, as well as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in welding metallurgy.
The eighth edition of this classic text has been updated to provide a balanced coverage of properties, characterization, phase transformations, crystal structure, and corrosion not available in other texts, and includes updated illustrations along with extensive new real-world examples and homework problems.Renowned coverage of metals and alloys from one of the world's leading metallurgy educatorsCovers new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentationProvides the most thorough coverage of characterization, mechanical properties, surface engineering and corrosion of any textbook in its fieldIncludes new worked examples with real-world applications, case studies, extensive homework exercises, and a full online solutions manual and image bank
--Hans Camenzind, inventor of the 555 timer (the world's most successful integrated circuit), and author of Much Ado About Almost Nothing: Man's Encounter with the Electron (Booklocker.com)
"A fabulous book: well written, well paced, fun, and informative. I also love the sense of humor. It's very good at disarming the fear. And it's gorgeous. I'll be recommending this book highly."
--Tom Igoe, author of Physical Computing and Making Things Talk
Want to learn the fundamentals of electronics in a fun, hands-on way? With Make: Electronics, you'll start working on real projects as soon as you crack open the book. Explore all of the key components and essential principles through a series of fascinating experiments. You'll build the circuits first, then learn the theory behind them!
Build working devices, from simple to complex You'll start with the basics and then move on to more complicated projects. Go from switching circuits to integrated circuits, and from simple alarms to programmable microcontrollers. Step-by-step instructions and more than 500 full-color photographs and illustrations will help you use -- and understand -- electronics concepts and techniques.Discover by breaking things: experiment with components and learn from failure Set up a tricked-out project space: make a work area at home, equipped with the tools and parts you'll need Learn about key electronic components and their functions within a circuit Create an intrusion alarm, holiday lights, wearable electronic jewelry, audio processors, a reflex tester, and a combination lock Build an autonomous robot cart that can sense its environment and avoid obstacles Get clear, easy-to-understand explanations of what you're doing and why
1) provides detailed description of the chemistry used in mineral processing industry;
2) describes theoretical aspects of the action of flotation reagents
3) provides information on the use of reagents in over 100 operating plants treating Cu, Cu/Zn, Cu/Pb, Zn, Pb/Zn/Ag, Cu/Ni and Ni ores.
* Looks at the theoretical aspects of flotation reagents
* Examines the practical aspects of using chemical reagents in operating plants
* Provides guidelines for researchers and engineers involved in process design and development
Packed with contributions from the world’s leading experts, this volume brings in authoritative information from a number of sciences, including chemistry, physics, nanotechnology and metallurgy. The book presents a myriad of applications, ranging from electronics to medicine and optics. A comprehensive overview chapter provides historical perspectives of the element and each chapter describes potential further uses, including applications currently being developed.
Gold Applications in Use Today Include:
Now in its Seventh Edition, this renowned book is a standard reference for the mineral processing industry. Chapters deal with each of the major processing techniques, and coverage includes the latest technical developments in the processing of increasingly complex refractory ores, new equipment and process routes. This new edition has been prepared by the prestigious J K Minerals Research Centre of Australia, which contributes its world-class expertise and ensures that this will continue to be the book of choice for professionals and students in this field.
This latest edition highlights the developments and the challenges facing the mineral processor, particularly with regard to the environmental problems posed in improving the efficiency of the existing processes and also in dealing with the waste created. The work is fully indexed and referenced.
· The classic mineral processing text, revised and updated by a prestigious new team
· Provides a clear exposition of the principles and practice of mineral processing, with examples taken from practice
· Covers the latest technological developments and highlights the challenges facing the mineral processor
· New sections on environmental problems, improving the efficiency of existing processes and dealing with waste.
• It is the first comprehensive text ever written on the subject of duplex systems, which is the generic term for painted hot-dip galvanized steel.
• Both the traditional batch hot-dip galvanizing process and the modern sheet galvanizing processes are covered.
• The author offers a combination of practical information, which will enable the engineer to select the proper materials, and scientific background information.
• The practical guidelines are backed up and supported by an impressive amount of technical and scientific discussions and justifications.
• Modern surface analysis tools and recent applications are described.
• The world literature on the subject matter is covered and is up to date.
Duplex systems, which are based on the synergistic effect of galvanizing and painting, offer maximum protection against corrosion of steel surfaces in environments where galvanized steel alone cannot offer a sufficiently long resistance against rust formation. Since adhesion problems can be eliminated by the correct application of special paint products, and by sophisticated surface pretreatment and modern surface analyzing methods, duplex systems are nowadays used in a large number of industrial and domestic applications. Major savings can thus be achieved on materials and maintenance cost. Duplex systems serve also where colour is required, e.g. for aesthetic reasons, for enhancing visibility or for camouflaging.
The author of this book has an unsurpassed experience in this field and the many case histories of successful (and unsuccessful) use of duplex systems for corrosion prevention provide a wealth of practical information. Including 108 colour illustrations, the book will be useful to a large group of industries, such as the paint, metallurgical, galvanizing, building, automotive, electrical and chemical industries.
New in the Third Edition:
Computer-aided calculation of phase diagrams Recent developments in metallic glasses The Scheil method of calculating a CCT diagram from a TTT diagram Expanded treatment of the nucleation and growth of polygonal ferrite and bainite New case studies covering copper precipitation hardening of very low carbon bainitic steel and very fine carbide-free bainite Detailed treatment of strain-induced martensite provides a theoretical background to transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels
Unique Presentation Links Theory to Application
Adding new case studies, detailed examples, and exercises drawn from current applications, the third edition keeps the previous editions’ popular easy-to -follow style and excellent mix of basic and advanced information, making it ideal for those new to the field. The book’s unique presentation links basic understanding of theory with application in a gradually progressive yet exciting manner. Based on the author’s teaching notes, the book takes a pedagogical approach and provides examples for applications and problems that can be readily used for exercises.
PowerPoint© illustrations available with qualifying course adoptions
* Comprehensively covers the principles of corrosion engineering, methods of corrosion protection and corrosion processes and control in selected engineering environments
* Structured for corrosion science and engineering classes at senior undergraduate and graduate level, and is an ideal reference that readers will want to use in their professional work
* Worked examples, extensive end of chapter exercises and accompanying online solutions and written by an expert from a key pretochemical university
This textbook pioneered the approach whereby both properties and processing of reinforced and unreinforced plastics are covered in a single volume. It assumes no prior knowledge of plastics, and emphasises the practical aspects of the subject. In this third edition over half the book has been re-written and the remainder has been updated and re-organised. Early chapters give an introduction to the types of plastics which are currently available and describe how a designer goes about the selection of a plastic for a particular application. Later chapters lead the reader into more advanced aspects of mechanical design and analysis of polymer melt flow. All techniques developed are illustrated by numerous worked examples, and problems are given at the end of each chapter - the solutions to which form one of the appendices.
Thoroughly revised throughout, Ductile Design of Steel Structures, Second Edition, reflects the latest plastic and seismic design provisions and standards from the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) and the Canadian Standard Association (CSA). The book covers steel material, cross-section, component, and system response for applications in plastic and seismic design, and provides practical guidance on how to incorporate these principles into structural design.
Three new chapters address buckling-restrained braced frame design, steel plate shear wall design, and hysteretic energy dissipating systems and design strategies. Eight other chapters have been extensively revised and expanded, including a chapter presenting the basic seismic design philosophy to determine seismic loads. Self-study problems at the end of each chapter help reinforce the concepts presented. Written by experts in earthquake-resistant design who are active in the development of seismic guidelines, this is an invaluable resource for students and professionals involved in earthquake engineering or other areas related to the analysis and design of steel structures.
COVERAGE INCLUDES:Structural steel properties Plastic behavior at the cross-section level Concepts, methods, and applications of plastic analysis Building code seismic design philosophy Design of moment-resisting frames Design of concentrically braced frames Design of eccentrically braced frames Design of steel energy dissipating systems Stability and rotation capacity of steel beams
This guide is written in a reader-friendly and logical format by an experienced authority in quality and productivity enhancement, tooling design, metal feed system analysis, temperature management, and environmental regulation. While its scope is broad and covers the many facets of die casting, the book's main focus is on function, problem identification and solution, and strategic logic. Generously illustrated, it provides a comprehensive explanation of why high pressure die casting is reliable, predictable, and teachable.
This all-new, classical text is the first to explain the complex theory and sophisticated engineering concepts with relation to wire drawing in an accessible and universal way for practicing engineers.
Designed to facilitate the entry and training of new engineers and upgrade the professional practice of those already in the field in the face of increased product demands and tightening specifications, this essential resource by industry expert Roger Wright provides:A technical overview and introduction of engineering concepts related to wire drawing, suitable for beginners and practiced engineers looking to brush up on the theory behind the processAn interface with basic engineering education so as to provide an accessible introduction for engineers new to the fieldReal-world worked examples, problems and protocols based on true life engineering scenarios and challengesUnique coverage of the author's own pass design and risk prediction calculations, developed through decades of research and wire industry consulting
Whilst most competing titles are less practical in their approach and focus on either ferrous, non-ferrous or electrical, our book takes a universal approach more suited to the practicing engineer who needs knowledge of wire drawing across the board. Ideal for use as a complete insight into the process from start to finish or a dip-in resource for practical problem-solving, this versatile work-a-day guide, training tool and desk reference will help readers train their staff and adapt and improve processes at minimal cost for maximum performance.Provides a unique universal approach, covering ferrous and non-ferrous metalsAuthored by an internationally-recognized specialist in wire drawing with extensive academic and industry experienceReal-world worked examples, problems and protocols based on true life engineering scenarios and challenges allow engineers to easily apply the theory to their workplace to improve processes, productivity and efficiencyCompact, concise and practical in comparison to the large, competing handbook tomes that are overwhelming for beginners and impractical for day-to-day work useIdeal for use as a complete insight into the process from start to finish or as a dip-in resource for practical problem-solving, analysis and trouble-shooting
From the Pulitzer Prize–winning author of Truman, here is the national bestselling epic chronicle of the creation of the Panama Canal. In The Path Between the Seas, acclaimed historian David McCullough delivers a first-rate drama of the sweeping human undertaking that led to the creation of this grand enterprise.
The Path Between the Seas tells the story of the men and women who fought against all odds to fulfill the 400-year-old dream of constructing an aquatic passageway between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It is a story of astonishing engineering feats, tremendous medical accomplishments, political power plays, heroic successes, and tragic failures. Applying his remarkable gift for writing lucid, lively exposition, McCullough weaves the many strands of the momentous event into a comprehensive and captivating tale.
Winner of the National Book Award for history, the Francis Parkman Prize, the Samuel Eliot Morison Award, and the Cornelius Ryan Award (for the best book of the year on international affairs), The Path Between the Seas is a must-read for anyone interested in American history, the history of technology, international intrigue, and human drama.
Knowledge flow — A mobile learning platform provides Apps and Books.
Knowledge flow provides learning book of Engineering Mechanics. This book is for all engineering students, teachers and professionals across the world. This engineering mechanics book helps to understand basic concepts of engineering mechanics and book covers all the important chapters about engineering mechanics like force, friction, laws and centre of gravity etc.
1. Introduction to Engineering Mechanics
2. Laws of Mechanics
4. Equilibrium of Force Systems
5. Analysis of Trusses
7. Centre of Gravity and Centroid
8. Moment of Inertia and Radius of Gyration
To find more education books, visit here http://knowledgeflow.in/books.
* Covers all aspects of modern cleaning technologies, helping readers to understand basics of cleaning, equipment used, techniques and possible changes to come within the industry.
* Includes environmental regulations and the basis for modern cleaning technologies, ensuring the reader is up to date on cleaning chemicals and their affects.
* Covers testing for cleanliness, ensuring cleaning operatives, technicians and end users understand how to achieve the demands required within the industrial cleaning process and an environment of continuing change.
This new edition is an ideal resource for professional digital system designers, programmers, application developers, and system software developers. It will also be of interest to undergraduate students in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Electrical Engineering courses in Computer Organization, Computer Design, ranging from Sophomore required courses to Senior Electives.Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors AssociationIncludes new examples, exercises, and material highlighting the emergence of mobile computing and the cloudCovers parallelism in depth with examples and content highlighting parallel hardware and software topics Features the Intel Core i7, ARM Cortex-A8 and NVIDIA Fermi GPU as real-world examples throughout the book Adds a new concrete example, "Going Faster," to demonstrate how understanding hardware can inspire software optimizations that improve performance by 200 timesDiscusses and highlights the "Eight Great Ideas" of computer architecture: Performance via Parallelism; Performance via Pipelining; Performance via Prediction; Design for Moore's Law; Hierarchy of Memories; Abstraction to Simplify Design; Make the Common Case Fast; and Dependability via RedundancyIncludes a full set of updated and improved exercises
Diamond-impregnated tools are used increasingly in industries where wear-resistant drills or cutting tools are required. The cobalt matrix in which the diamond is embedded is manufactured by pressing and sintering, techniques commonly used in powder metallurgy, but the process is complex and intricate. This book provides a comprehensive account of all you need to know about the role of powder metallurgy in the production of diamond-impregnated tools, giving metal powder manufacturers a better understanding of the requirements of diamond tool producers and end users, leading to the development of superior products.
This book will... 1. Clarify the science and properties involved in powder metallurgy and the production of diamond tools 2. Explain the manufacturing process 3. Help improve your machining and finishing techniques, leading to better results 4. Optimise your tool use and wear, helping you to save time and money 5. Help you to consider new applications, optimising your equipment and resourcesAuthor is a leading authority on diamond tools and has published extensively on the subjectA comprehensive account of all you need to know about the role of powder metallurgy in the production of diamond-impregnated tool componentsAn important reference for manufacturers of powdered diamond and cobalt for the tool industry, tool designers and manufacturers, users of diamond-impregnated tools, metallurgists, designers, R&D Departments, specifiers and consultants
Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the existing experimental, theoretical, and operational evidence about the blast furnace. This text then examines the blast furnace from the outside, including its size, production rate, products, raw materials, operation, and costs. Other chapters consider the primary objective of the blast furnace to produce molten iron of constant composition. This book discusses as well the operation of the furnace from the point of view of what happens to the raw materials after they enter the furnace. The final chapter deals with the linear programming methods by using the known physical constraints on industrial furnaces.
This book is a valuable resource for engineers.
Comprised of six chapters, this book begins with an introduction to martensite and martensitic transformation, with emphasis on the basic properties of martensite in steels such as carbon steels. The next two chapters deal with the crystallography of martensite and discuss the martensitic transformation behavior of the second-order transition; lattice imperfections in martensite; and close-packed layer structures of martensites produced from ? phase in noble-metal-base alloys. Thermodynamical problems and kinetics are also analysed, together with conditions for the nucleation of martensite and problems concerning stabilization of austenite. The last chapter discusses the theory of the mechanism underlying martensitic transformation.
This monograph will be of interest to metallurgists and materials scientists.
Advanced Automotive Fault Diagnosis covers the fundamentals of vehicle systems and components and explains the latest diagnostic techniques employed in effective vehicle maintenance and repair. Diagnostics, or fault finding, is an essential part of an automotive technician’s work, and as automotive systems become increasingly complex there is a greater need for good diagnostics skills. For students new to the subject, this book will help to develop these skills, but will also assist experienced technicians in further improving their performance and keeping up with recent industry developments. In full colour and including examples of the latest technology, this is the guide that no student enrolled on an automotive maintenance and repair course should be without.
Also by Tom Denton:
Automobile Mechanical and Electrical Systems
Automobile Electrical and Electronic Systems, Fourth Edition
This is a quick read, which you can easily scan through and find easy to read, short facts about the world around us, as well as some quotes from well known faces in science.
Topics in the book include;
Earth & Environment
Animals & Nature
Technology & Engineering
This book is 100% free - if you're being asked for payment details, that's Google Play asking for it (possibly to verify your age) and not us. We receive no money from this book.
This Google FAQ (at the bottom) mentions this: https://support.google.com/googleplay/answer/2851613?hl=en-GB
Applications of the latest steels by automotive OEM and supplier plants will proliferate during the next 10 years due to mass reduction, improved safety requirements, mandated gas mileages and customer demands. Currently vehicle applications have not nearly exhausted the breadth of AHSS grades available that can achieve lightweighting targets at less cost and five to 20 times less production emissions than alternative low density materials. This rapid increase in demand requires users of AHSS to quickly accumulate both basic understanding and application knowledge. AHSS Guidelines Version 5.0 gathers that knowledge and experience in two volumes. Volume I includes metallurgy, forming and joining.
Following the series of UltraLight programs* a decade ago, which influenced the growth of High-Strength Steels (HSS) and AHSS vehicle applications around the globe, WorldAutoSteel formed a special working group of expert members from major steel companies globally to create the first AHSS Guidelines. The publication explains how and why AHSS steels are different from traditional higher strength steels in terms of formability capabilities, fabrication, and joining. Over the last decade the size of each revised document increased as more knowledge was accumulated. The last document (Version 4.1) was published in June 2009.
During the last five years, additional research and press shop experiences have resulted in even greater understanding of these unique steels. AHSS Guidelines Version 5.0 was created to capture this additional knowledge, as well as lessons learned from the FutureSteelVehicle (FSV) program. This update doubles the size of the previous volume, with a vast amount of new hands-on experience from the design and manufacturing of AHSS vehicle applications.
Technical editors for AHSS Guidelines Version 5 are Stuart Keeler, Sc.D. Mechanical Metallurgy, who has served in this role since the first publication, and Menachem Kimchi, M.Sc. Welding Engineering, who contributed a wealth of joining information to Version 5.0.
Peter Beeley was a foundry manager before he became a senior lecturer in metallurgy, and subsequently maintained continuous links with the castings industry and associated research activities and publications.
His book is designed to serve as a bridge between the study of the basic principles of metal founding and their application in the producing and user industries. A particular aim of Foundry Technology is to assist engineers and engineering students in appreciating the role of castings in design and materials selection. Orthodox and specialized casting processes, and both ferrous and non-ferrous founding are considered on a comparative basis, and the place of castings in design is critically examined and related to other products.
The revised edition takes account of the main changes in casting processes and products since the publication of the original edition in 1972. While retaining treatments of basic aspects of molding, solidification, cast structures and feeding, newer developments in modeling and rapid prototyping are reviewed, together with quality, environmental, health and other issues of growing importance.New edition of well-known bookFully updated with latest technology
The book now includes new chapters on materials for sports equipment (golf, tennis, bicycles, skiing, etc.) and biomaterials (replacement joints, heart valves, tissue repair, etc.) - two of the most exciting and rewarding areas in current materials research and development. As in its predecessor, numerous examples are given of the ways in which knowledge of the relation between fine structure and properties has made it possible to optimise the service behaviour of traditional engineering materials and to develop completely new and exciting classes of materials. Special consideration is given to the crucial processing stage that enables materials to be produced as marketable commodities. Whilst attempting to produce a useful and relatively concise survey of key materials and their interrelationships, the authors have tried to make the subject accessible to a wide range of readers, to provide insights into specialised methods of examination and to convey the excitement of the atmosphere in which new materials are conceived and developed.
Now due to those advances, the time has come to retool tribology's master text. In addition to offering tribologists the facts, figures, and equations they need everyday, Volume I Application and Maintenance, Second Edition positions itself at the forefront of the field to address the latest technology related to application and maintenance procedures, as well as changes in our understanding of how lubrication principles impact implementation.
Completely reorganized to aid the reader in identifying chapters and topics of interest, every one of the chapters retained from the first edition has either been fully updated and revised, or completely rewritten by a peer-recognized team of experts who are currently active in a wide variety of industry segments. With the addition of several new subject areas, it now boasts a total of 37 chapters.
This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the fundamentals of thermodynamics (functions, relationships, and behavior of solutions), followed by a discussion on methods of obtaining thermodynamic data from tables and graphs and by experiment. The kinetics of heterogeneous reactions in metallurgy are examined next, with particular reference to heterogeneous catalysis and mass transfer between immiscible liquid phases. The following chapters focus on the extraction of metals from oxides, sulfides, and halides; the production of iron and steel; the structure and properties of slags; slag/metal reactions; and equilibria in iron and steel production. The final chapter consists entirely of solved problems.
This monograph will be of interest to metallurgists and materials scientists.
After having worked in the filed of industrial compressors, pumps, material handling equipment, dynamometer field and software industry I decided to write this book which will help the people working in the automotive industry, engine and vehicle testing, people working in the dynamometer and instrumentation industry and electrical motor industry. The book will be of interest to the studenrs of mechanical and automobile engineering. The book will be of great value to the incumbents entering in the automotive and dynamometer fields.
Presented in the familiar, illustrated format of the popular 101 THINGS I LEARNED® series, 101 THINGS I LEARNED® IN ENGINEERING SCHOOL offers an informative resource for students, general readers, and even experienced engineers, who will discover within many provocative new insights into familiar principles.
The second edition of a bestseller, Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems provides the necessary understanding of the breadth and depth of human factors issues that influence the design, implementation, and evaluation of products and systems. Emphasizing the close relationship between basic theory and application, the authors delineate a framework for the research process, present an integrated view of the current state of knowledge, and examine how these factors can be applied to system design. The new edition addresses such concepts as situation awareness and highlights topics of interest, with a special focus on computer applications and human-computer interaction.
See what’s new in the Second Edition
New topics, such as situational awareness, that capture the tremendous changes in human factors and ergonomics Tightly integrates basic research and application, strengthening the link between knowledge and practice Each chapter includes a separate box that discusses a topic of current interest related to human interaction with computers and recent technology
Demonstrating a general approach to solving a broad range of system problems, the book provides coverage of the theoretical foundation on which the discipline of human factors is built. Structured around human information processing, it covers the full range of contemporary human factors and ergonomics, then shows you how to apply them.
The book describes the architecture of the Cortex-M0 processor and the programmers model, as well as Cortex-M0 programming and instruction set and how these instructions are used to carry out various operations. Furthermore, it considers how the memory architecture of the Cortex-M0 processor affects software development; Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC) and the features it supports, including flexible interrupt management, nested interrupt support, vectored exception entry, and interrupt masking; and Cortex-M0 features that target the embedded operating system. It also explains how to develop simple applications on the Cortex-M0, how to program the Cortex-M0 microcontrollers in assembly and mixed-assembly languages, and how the low-power features of the Cortex-M0 processor are used in programming. Finally, it describes a number of ARM Cortex-M0 products, such as microcontrollers, development boards, starter kits, and development suites.
This book will be useful to both new and advanced users of ARM Cortex devices, from students and hobbyists to researchers, professional embedded- software developers, electronic enthusiasts, and even semiconductor product designers.The first and definitive book on the new ARM Cortex-M0 architecture targeting the large 8-bit and 16-bit microcontroller marketExplains the Cortex-M0 architecture and how to program it using practical examplesWritten by an engineer at ARM who was heavily involved in its development