Cognitive psychology

The landmark book that has revolutionized the way we understand leadership and decision making -- from #1 bestselling author Malcolm Gladwell.

In his breakthrough bestseller The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell redefined how we understand the world around us. Now, in Blink, he revolutionizes the way we understand the world within.
Blink is a book about how we think without thinking, about choices that seem to be made in an instant--in the blink of an eye--that actually aren't as simple as they seem. Why are some people brilliant decision makers, while others are consistently inept? Why do some people follow their instincts and win, while others end up stumbling into error? How do our brains really work--in the office, in the classroom, in the kitchen, and in the bedroom? And why are the best decisions often those that are impossible to explain to others?
In Blink we meet the psychologist who has learned to predict whether a marriage will last, based on a few minutes of observing a couple; the tennis coach who knows when a player will double-fault before the racket even makes contact with the ball; the antiquities experts who recognize a fake at a glance. Here, too, are great failures of "blink": the election of Warren Harding; "New Coke"; and the shooting of Amadou Diallo by police.
Blink reveals that great decision makers aren't those who process the most information or spend the most time deliberating, but those who have perfected the art of "thin-slicing"--filtering the very few factors that matter from an overwhelming number of variables.
David Groome with Nicola Brace, Graham Edgar, Helen Edgar, Michael Eysenck, Tom Manly, Hayley Ness, Graham Pike, Sophie Scott, and Elizabeth Styles.

An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology: Processes and Disorders is a comprehensive introductory textbook for undergraduate students. The third edition of this well-established text has been completely revised and updated to cover all the key areas of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, thinking and language. Uniquely, alongside chapters on normal cognitive function, there are chapters on related clinical disorders (agnosia, amnesia, thought disorder and aphasia) which help to provide a thorough insight into the nature of cognition.

Key features:

Completely revised and updated throughout to provide a comprehensive overview of current thinking in the field Accessibly written and including new authors, including Sophie Scott, Tom Manly, Hayley Ness, and Elizabeth Styles, all established experts in their field A new chapter on Emotion and Cognition, written by Michael Eysenck, the leading authority in the field Greater coverage of neuropsychological disorders, with additional material from the latest brain imaging research that has completely revolutionized neuropsychology Specially designed textbook features, chapter summaries, further reading, and a glossary of key terms A companion website featuring an extensive range of online resources for both teachers and students.

Written to cover all levels of ability using helpful figures and illustrations, An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology has sufficient depth to appeal to the most able students while the clear and accessible text, written by experienced teachers, will help students who find the material difficult. It will appeal to any student on an undergraduate psychology degree course, as well as to medical students and those studying in related clinical professions such as nursing.

Who are you? When you start to explore this question, you find out how elusive it really is. Are you a physical body? A collection of experiences and memories? A partner to relationships? Each time you consider these aspects of yourself, you realize that there is much more to you than any of these can define. The Untethered Soul, spiritual teacher Michael Singer explores the question of who we are and arrives at the conclusion that our identity is to be found in our consciousness, the fact of our ability to observe ourselves, and the world around us. By tapping into traditions of meditation and mindfulness, Singer shows how the development of consciousness can enable us all to dwell in the present moment and let go of painful thoughts and memories that keep us from achieving happiness and self-realization.

This book, copublished with the Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS), offers a frank and friendly discussion of consciousness and how we can develop it. In part one, he examines the notion of self and the inner dialogue we all live with. Part two examines the experience of energy as it flows through us and works to show readers how to open their hearts to the energy of experience that permeates their lives. Ways to overcome tendencies to close down to the rest of the world are the subject of part three. Enlightenment, the embrace of universal consciousness, is the subject of part four. And finally, in part five, Singer returns to daily life and the pursuit of unconditional happiness. Throughout, the book maintains a light and engaging tone, free from heavy dogma and prescriptive religious references. The easy exercises that figure in each chapter help readers experience the ideas that Singer presents.

Visit www.untetheredsoul.com for more information.

This text presents the basic concepts of modern cognitive psychology in a succinct and accessible manner. Empirical results, theoretical developments, and current issues are woven around basic concepts to produce coherent accounts of research areas. Barsalou's primary goal is to equip readers with a conceptual vocabulary that acquaints them with the general approach of cognitive psychology and allows them to follow more technical discussions elsewhere. In meeting this goal, he discusses the traditional work central to modern thinking and reviews current work relevant to cognitive science.

Besides focusing on research and theory in cognitive psychology, Barsalou also addresses its fundamental assumptions. Because the cognitive approach to psychology is somewhat subtle, often misunderstood, and sometimes controversial, it is essential for a text on cognitive psychology to address the assumptions that underlie it. Therefore, three of the eleven chapters address the "meta- assumptions" that govern research and theory in cognitive psychology. These meta-chapters provide a deeper understanding of the content areas and a clearer vision of what cognitive psychologists are trying to accomplish. The remaining eight "content" chapters cover the central topics in cognitive psychology.

This book will be of value to a variety of audiences. Ideal for researchers in computer science, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology, and neuroscience who wish to acquaint themselves with cognitive psychology, it may also be used as a text for courses in cognitive science and cognitive psychology. Lay readers who wish to learn about the cognitive approach to scientific psychology will also find the volume useful.
This volume presents a theoretical framework for understanding consciousness and learning. Drawing on work in cognitive psychology and philosophy, this framework begins with the observation that to be conscious is literally to have a point of view. From this starting point, the book develops a descriptive scheme that allows perceptual, symbolic, and emotional awareness to be discussed in common theoretical terms, compatible with a computational view of the mind. A central theme is our experience of ourselves as agents, consciously controlling activities situated in environments. In contrast to previous theories of consciousness, the experienced cognition framework emphasizes the changes in conscious control as individuals acquire skills.

The book is divided into four parts. The first introduces the central themes and places them in the context of information-processing theory and empirical research on cognitive skill. The second develops the theoretical framework, emphasizing the unity of perceptual, symbolic, and emotional awareness and the relation of conscious to nonconscious processes. The third applies the experienced cognition framework to a variety of topics in cognitive psychology, including working memory, problem solving, and reasoning. It also includes discussions of everyday action, skill, and expertise, focusing on changes in conscious control with increasing fluency. The last concludes the book by evaluating the recent debate on the "cognitive unconscious" and implicit cognition from the perspective of experienced cognition, and considering the prospects for a cognitive psychology focused on persons.

This book addresses many of the issues raised in philosophical treatments of consciousness from the point of view of empirical cognitive psychology. For example, the structure of conscious mental states is addressed by considering how to describe them in terms of variables suitable for information-processing theory. Understanding conscious states in this way also provides a basis for developing empirical hypotheses, for example, about the relation of emotion and cognition, about the apparent "mindlessness" of skilled activity, and about the nature and role of goals in guiding activity. Criticisms of the computational view of mind are addressed by showing that the role of first-person perspectives in cognition can be described and investigated in theoretical terms compatible with a broadly-conceived information-processing theory of cognition.
Human beings are primates, and primates are political animals. Our brains, therefore, are designed not just to hunt and gather, but also to help us get ahead socially, often via deception and self-deception. But while we may be self-interested schemers, we benefit by pretending otherwise. The less we know about our own ugly motives, the better - and thus we don't like to talk or even think about the extent of our selfishness. This is "the elephant in the brain." Such an introspective taboo makes it hard for us to think clearly about our nature and the explanations for our behavior. The aim of this book, then, is to confront our hidden motives directly - to track down the darker, unexamined corners of our psyches and blast them with floodlights. Then, once everything is clearly visible, we can work to better understand ourselves: Why do we laugh? Why are artists sexy? Why do we brag about travel? Why do we prefer to speak rather than listen? Our unconscious motives drive more than just our private behavior; they also infect our venerated social institutions such as Art, School, Charity, Medicine, Politics, and Religion. In fact, these institutions are in many ways designed to accommodate our hidden motives, to serve covert agendas alongside their "official" ones. The existence of big hidden motives can upend the usual political debates, leading one to question the legitimacy of these social institutions, and of standard policies designed to favor or discourage them. You won't see yourself - or the world - the same after confronting the elephant in the brain.
In the roughly two decades since Aaron T. Beck published the now classic "Cognitive Therapy of Depression," and Michael J. Mahoney declared the "Cognitive Revolution," much has happened. What was proposed as the "cognitive revolution" has now become the zeitgeist, and Cognitive Therapy (CT) has grown exponentially with each passing year. A treatment model that was once seen as diffe rent, strange, or even alien, is now commonplace. In fact, many people have allied themselves with CT claiming that they have always done CT. Even my psychoanalytic colleagues have claimed that they often use CT. "After all," they say, "Psychoanalysis is a cognitive therapy." Cognitive Therapy (or Cognitive Psychotherapy) has become a kaleidoscope model of treatment, with influences coming from many sources. Some of these contributory streams have been information pro cessing, behavior therapy, Constructivist psychology, and dynamic psychotherapy. Each of these sources have added color, shading, and depth to the CT model. What was originally uni dimensional in terms of the CT focus on depression has become multidimensional as the CT model has been applied to virtually every patient population, treatment setting, and therapy context. CT must now be seen as a general model of psychotherapy that, with modifications, can be applied to the broad range of clinical problems and syndromes. What has tied these various applications of CT together is the emphasis on a strong grounding in cogni tive theory, a commitment to empirical support, and a dedication to broadening the model.
Sipke D. Fokkema Amsterdam, Free University From June 13th - 17th, 1977 the NATO International Conference on Cognitive Psychology and Instruction, organized by the editors of this volume, took place at the Free University of Amsterdam. During this period approximately 150 psychologists representing 15 countries assembled for an exchange of scientific experiences and ideas. The broad aim of the conference, as indicated by its title, was to explore the extent to which theoretical and methodological developments in cognitive psychology might provide useful knowledge with regard to the design and management of instruction. From a great variety of submitted papers the organizers attempted to select those that represented major problem areas being scientifically studied in several countries. For the organization of this book we chose to categorize the contributions according to the following general areas: I. Learning II. Comprehension and Information Structure III. Perceptual and Memory Processes in Reading IV. Problem Solving and Components of Intelligence V. Cognitive Development VI. Approaches to Instruction The final paper in the volume is an extensive review and summary by Glaser, Pellegrino, and Lesgold, that examines the state Qf cognitive psychology (mainly as reflected in the contributions in this volume) with regard to instructional purposes. Each of the sections of the book also begins with a brief overview of the specific topics considered by the individual contributors within that section.
"The question for me is how can the human mind occur in the physical universe. We now know that the world is governed by physics. We now understand the way biology nestles comfortably within that. The issue is how will the mind do that as well."--Allen Newell, December 4, 1991, Carnegie Mellon University The argument John Anderson gives in this book was inspired by the passage above, from the last lecture by one of the pioneers of cognitive science. Newell describes what, for him, is the pivotal question of scientific inquiry, and Anderson gives an answer that is emerging from the study of brain and behavior. Humans share the same basic cognitive architecture with all primates, but they have evolved abilities to exercise abstract control over cognition and process more complex relational patterns. The human cognitive architecture consists of a set of largely independent modules associated with different brain regions. In this book, Anderson discusses in detail how these various modules can combine to produce behaviors as varied as driving a car and solving an algebraic equation, but focuses principally on two of the modules: the declarative and procedural. The declarative module involves a memory system that, moment by moment, attempts to give each person the most appropriate possible window into his or her past. The procedural module involves a central system that strives to develop a set of productions that will enable the most adaptive response from any state of the modules. Newell argued that the answer to his question must take the form of a cognitive architecture, and Anderson organizes his answer around the ACT-R architecture, but broadens it by bringing in research from all areas of cognitive science, including how recent work in brain imaging maps onto the cognitive architecture.
This book brings together a cutting edge international team of contributors to critically review the current knowledge regarding the effectiveness of training interventions designed to improve cognitive functions in different target populations. There is substantial evidence that cognitive and physical training can improve cognitive performance, but these benefits seem to vary as a function of the type and the intensity of interventions and the way training-induced gains are measured and analyzed. This book further fulfills the need for clarification of the mechanisms underlying cognitive and neural changes occurring after training.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of empirical findings and methodological approaches of cognitive training research in different cognitive domains (memory, executive functions, etc.), types of training (working memory training, video game training, physical training, etc.), age groups (from children to young and older adults), target populations (children with developmental disorders, aging workers, MCI patients etc.), settings (laboratory-based studies, applied studies in clinical and educational settings), and methodological approaches (behavioral studies, neuroscientific studies). Chapters feature theoretical models that describe the mechanisms underlying training-induced cognitive and neural changes.
Cognitive Training: An Overview of Features and Applications will be of interest to researchers, practitioners, students, and professors in the fields of psychology and neuroscience.
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