Breaking from previous scholarship that sees Johannes Kepler as the culmination of a long-evolving optical tradition that traced back to Greek antiquity via the Muslim Middle Ages, Smith presents Kepler instead as marking a rupture with this tradition, arguing that his theory of retinal imaging, which was published in 1604, was instrumental in prompting the turn from sight to light. Kepler’s new theory of sight, Smith reveals, thus takes on true historical significance: by treating the eye as a mere light-focusing device rather than an image-producing instrument—as traditionally understood—Kepler’s account of retinal imaging helped spur the shift in analytic focus that eventually led to modern optics.
A sweeping survey, From Sight to Light is poised to become the standard reference for historians of optics as well as those interested more broadly in the history of science, the history of art, and cultural and intellectual history.
In concise, high-def videos, various skills and techniques are demonstrated and explained. These cover topics for the novice, such as mounting and cleaning of optics, as well as for the more advanced learner, such as balanced detection, and lock-in amplifiers.
Various interactive widgets let you simulate the experience of aligning a laser beam to an optical system, aligning an interferometer to get fringes, or adjust a Fabry-Perot cavity while observing the mode spectrum. Other tools help you quickly find the Gaussian beam parameters of your laser from measured beam radii, and to calculate the position of a lens or pair of lenses to mode match a laser to a cavity.
Brox plumbs the class implications of light—who had it, who didn’t—through the many centuries when crude lamps and tallow candles constricted waking hours. She convincingly portrays the hell-bent pursuit of whale oil as the first time the human desire for light thrust us toward an environmental tipping point. Only decades later, gas street lights opened up the evening hours to leisure, which changed the ways we live and sleep and the world’s ecosystems.
Edison’s “tiny strip of paper that a breath would blow away” produced a light that seemed to its users all but divorced from human effort or cost. And yet, as Brox’s informative and hair-raising portrait of our current grid system shows, the cost is ever with us.
Brilliant is infused with human voices, startling insights, and—only a few years before it becomes illegal to sell most incandescent light bulbs in the United States—timely questions about how our future lives will be shaped by light.
If you sit as still as you can in a quiet room, you might be able to convince yourself that nothing is moving. But air currents are still wafting around you. Blood rushes through your veins. The atoms in your chair jiggle furiously. In fact, the planet you are sitting on is whizzing through space thirty-five times faster than the speed of sound.
Natural motion dominates our lives and the intricate mechanics of the world around us. In ZOOM, Bob Berman explores how motion shapes every aspect of the universe, literally from the ground up. With an entertaining style and a gift for distilling the wondrous, Berman spans astronomy, geology, biology, meteorology, and the history of science, uncovering how clouds stay aloft, how the Earth's rotation curves a home run's flight, and why a mosquito's familiar whine resembles a telephone's dial tone.
For readers who love to get smarter without realizing it, ZOOM bursts with science writing at its best.
Divided into four sections, the book covers fundaments of IR detection, IR thermal detectors, IR photon detectors, and focal plane arrays. It begins with a tutorial introduction to essential of different types of IR detectors and systems. The author explores the theory and technology of different thermal detectors and then moves on to the theory and technology of photon detectors. He concludes his treatment with a discussion of IR focal plane arrays where relations between performance of detector array and infrared system quality are considered.
New to the Second Edition:
Fundamentals of IR detection, radiometry, and flux-transfer issues needed for IR detector and system analysis Major achievements and trends in the development of IR detectors Novel uncooled detectors such as cantilever, antenna, and optically coupled detectors Type II superlattice detectors Quantum dot IR detectors Terahertz (THz) arrays and new generation of IR detectors, so-called third generation detectors
The author accomplishes the difficult task of making the information accessible to a wide readership. A comprehensive analysis of the latest developments in IR detector technology and basic insight into the fundamental processes important to evolving detection techniques, the book provides the most complete and up-to-date resource of its kind, including a summary of useful data, guide to the literature, and overview of applications.
Dr. Kock's lucid introduction to lasers and holography has now been revised and updated for a second edition. It begins with a clear discussion of wave patterns and coherence. Then the development of lasers is summarized, along with the phenomenon of wave diffraction. Finally, the important subjects of zone plates and the properties of holograms are skillfully described. A new, concluding chapter brings the story up to the present, with a survey of recent advances in such areas as viewing holograms, hologram computer memories, liquid surface holography, synthetic-aperture radar and sonar, large new lasers, fiber optics, etc.
Using language that can be readily understood by high school and junior high school students, Dr. Kock has written a brief, yet authoritative volume that should satisfy anyone's curiosity about this burgeoning field. The remarkable discoveries that have already occurred are only a prelude to an even more remarkable future. 84 illustrations, including 8 new to this edition. New preface. Suggested (1981) additional reading. Index.
Amateur astronomers are always contemplating the "next telescope up" and this will point the way to the most suitable instrument to which they should aspire. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescope – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and makes.
Jim Mullaney is an astronomy writer, lecturer and consultant who has published more than 500 articles and five books: he has also been an editor for Sky & Telescope, Astronomy, and Star & Sky magazines. One of the contributors to Carl Sagan’s award-winning Cosmos PBS-Television series, his work has received recognition from such notables as Sir Arthur Clarke, Johnny Carson, Ray Bradbury, Dr. Wernher von Braun, and one of his former students – NASA scientist/astronaut Dr. Jay Apt. He is probably the ideal person to write this book, containing as it does a directory of instruments offered by all the major manufacturers.
This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today’s market – truly an invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Also includes details on the the latest released telescope lines, e.g., the 10-, 12-, 14- and 16-inch aperture models of the Meade LX-R series.
Each topic is carefully introduced at three levels to aid student understanding. First, theoretical ideas and background information are discussed, then explanations of mathematical solutions follow and finally practical solutions are presented using MATLAB. The content includes:A compendium of equations and numerical data required by the modern colour and imaging scientist. Numerous examples of solutions and algorithms for a wide-range of computational problems in colour science. Example scripts using the MATLAB programming language.
This 2nd edition contains substantial new and revised material, including three innovative chapters on colour imaging, psychophysical methods, and physiological colour spaces; the MATLAB toolbox has been extended with a professional, optimized, toolbox to go alongside the current teaching toolbox; and a java toolbox has been added which will interest users who are writing web applications and/or applets or mobile phone applications.
Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition is an invaluable resource for students taking courses in colour science, colour chemistry and colour physics as well as technicians and researchers working in the area. In addition, it acts a useful reference for professionals and researchers working in colour dependent industries such as textiles, paints, print & electronic imaging.
Review from First Edition:
“…highly recommended as a concise introduction to the practicalities of colour science…” (Color Technology, 2004)
An adaptive lens is a lens whose shape has been changed to a different focal length by an external stimulus such as pressure, electric field, magnetic field, or temperature. Introduction to Adaptive Lenses is the first book ever to address all of the fundamental operation principles, device characteristics, and potential applications of various types of adaptive lenses.
This comprehensive book covers basic material properties, device structures and performance, image processing and zooming, optical communications, and biomedical imaging. Readers will find homework problems and solutions included at the end of each chapter—and based on the described device structures, they will have the knowledge to fabricate adaptive lenses for practical applications or develop new adaptive devices or concepts for advanced investigation.
Introduction to Adaptive Lenses includes chapters on:
Elastomeric membrane lenses
Liquid crystal lenses
This is an important reference for optical engineers, research scientists, graduate students, and undergraduate seniors.
Nonlinear optics is essentially the study of the interaction of strong laser light with matter. It lies at the basis of the field of photonics, the use of light fields to control other light fields and to perform logical operations. Some of the topics of this book include the fundamentals and applications of optical systems based on the nonlinear interaction of light with matter. Topics to be treated include: mechanisms of optical nonlinearity, second-harmonic and sum- and difference-frequency generation, photonics and optical logic, optical self-action effects including self-focusing and optical soliton formation, optical phase conjugation, stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering, and selection criteria of nonlinear optical materials.
· Covers all the latest topics and technology in this ever-evolving area of study that forms the backbone of the major applications of optical technology
· Offers first-rate instructive style making it ideal for self-study
· Emphasizes the fundamentals of non-linear optics rather than focus on particular applications that are constantly changing
The book covers topics such as Fourier spectrometry and field-widened interferometers; the applications of Fourier transform spectrometry; transmission studies on the different phases of matter; asymmetric interferometry; and the measurement of complex indices of refraction. Also included in the book are the areas of cryogenic instrumentation; Hadamard-Transform spectrometry and its related theory; measurement of infrared transient phenomena; and calibration techniques.
The text is applicable for both novices and practitioners in the field of spectrometry, as it can serve as a guide and handbook for the former and reference for the latter.
The book begins with a brief history of the effort to enable the device that generates light through modern organic LEDs and reviews the fundamentals and principles of light prior to a detailed explanation of how LEDs generate different colors. After forming this basic foundation, the book examines the key LEDs in lighting and communications. It then discusses the latest opportunities and advancements in high brightness (HB) LED technology, solid state lighting, and handheld electronic applications.
As we approach a new decade the role of LEDs is literally set to explode, with organic light emitting diodes emerging as a leading next generation technology for electronic displays and lighting. Challenges still exist, including light extraction, luminosity, and white light generation, not to mention non-technical obstacles such as IP disputes and the lack of standards. This book provides a foundation for resolving these issues and developing new applications for LEDs in the promising general illumination market.
This comprehensive reference provides up-to-date information on component and subsystem technologies, fundamental limitations, and approaches to reach those limits. It covers basic concepts and state-of-the-art technologies, emphasizing device technology, implementation techniques, and system trades. The authors discuss hardware technologies and their applications, and also explore ongoing research activities and those planned for the near future.
The analytical aspects of laser communication have been covered to a great extent in several books. However, a detailed approach to system design and development, including trades on subsystem choices and implications of the hardware selection for satellite and aircraft telecommunications, is missing. Highlighting key design variations and critical differences between them, this book distills decades’ worth of experience into a practical resource on hardware technologies.
In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. Doing what Schilling does best, he takes the reader on an adventure through both space and time. Photographs and amazing pictures line the pages of this book, offering the reader an escape from this world and an invitation to a world far beyond what the unaided human eye can detect.
This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of the fundamentals of holography, with particular reference to spatial and temporal coherence, diffraction at finite and infinite distances, and filtering of spatial frequencies. The reader is then introduced to the principles and applications of holography, focusing on the geometric optics and aberrations of holograms as well as interferometry and microscopy. The following chapters explore how images are produced and reconstructed using a hologram and explain how to detect the differences between two images. Three main types of synthetic holograms are also considered: binary holograms, holograms with several intensity levels, and the holograms called kinoforms. The last chapter is devoted to optical filtering and pattern recognition.
This monograph will be of value to physicists and researchers as well as to those interested in how holography works.
One of the nineteenth century's most significant papers, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," appears here, along with similarly influential expositions of Maxwell's dynamical theory of gases. The author's extensive range of interests is well represented, from his discussions of color blindness and the composition of Saturn's rings to his essays on geometrical optics, ether, and protecting buildings from lightning. His less technical writings are featured as well, including items written for the Encyclopedia Britannica and Nature magazine, book reviews, and popular lectures. Striking in their originality, these papers offer a wealth of stimulating and inspiring reading to modern students of mathematics and physics.
This book will be mandatory reading for anyone working on the foundations of modern devices such as free electron lasers, plasma accelerators, synchroton sources and other modern sources of bright, coherent radiation with high spectral density.
The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
The book is based on the materials taught by S. Fujita for several courses in Quantum Theory of Solids, Advanced Topics in Modern Physics, and Quantum Statistical Mechanics.
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In The Edge of Physics, a science writer journeys to the ends of the Earth—visiting remote and sometimes dangerous places—in search of the telescopes and detectors that promise to answer the biggest questions in modern cosmology.
Anil Ananthaswamy treks to the Atacama Desert in the Chilean Andes, one of the coldest, driest places on the planet, where not even a blade of grass can survive, and the spectacularly clear skies and dry atmosphere allow astronomers to gather brilliant images of galaxies billions of light-years away. He takes us inside the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere’s Very Large Telescope on Mount Paranal, where four massive domes open to the sky each night “like a dragon waking up.”
Ananthaswamy also heads deep inside an abandoned iron mine in Minnesota—where half-mile-thick rock shields physicists as they hunt for elusive dark matter particles. And to the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where engineers are drilling 1.5 miles into the clearest ice on the planet. They are building the world’s largest neutrino detector, which could finally help reconcile quantum physics with Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The stories of the people who work at these and other research sites make for a compelling new portrait of the universe—and our quest to understand it.
“From the top of Hawaii’s Mauna Kea to Switzerland’s Large Hadron Collider and more, Ananthaswamy paints a vivid picture of scientific investigations in harsh working conditions. . . . Even for readers who don’t know a neutrino from Adam, these interesting tales of human endeavor make The Edge of Physics a trip worth taking.” —Bookpage
“Ananthaswamy journeys to several geographically and scientifically extreme outposts, and returns not only with engaging portraits of the men and women who work there, but also a vibrant glimpse of how cutting-edge research is actually performed. Part history lesson, part travelogue, part adventure story, ‘The Edge of Physics’ is a wonder-steeped page-turner.” —Seed Magazine
“Ananthaswamy displays a writer’s touch for the fascinating detail.” —The Washington Post
Thermal Imaging Cameras: Characteristics and Performance expands our current understanding of thermal imaging and, most importantly, provides a sound quantitative basis for evaluating the suitability of various thermal imagers for particular applications. Utilizing a practical approach that keeps theory and mathematics to a minimum, the text reviews the important performance parameters for industrial, laboratory, and surveillance applications as well as how these parameters can be measured. The author, T. L. Williams, a distinguished expert on designing and testing thermal imaging systems and recipient of the Callendar Medal from the Institute of Measurement and Control, focuses on the standard form of imaging camera but also includes descriptions of the different specialized forms of thermal imagers useful to anyone working with these systems.
Providing detailed descriptions of the equipment and techniques that can be used for testing complete thermal imagers as well as in the testing of the main subunits of a thermal imager, this comprehensive reference will prove invaluable not only to those who use, test, and design thermal imagers, but also to anyone designing equipment or making measurements in the thermal band of wavelengths.
Beginning with a summary of the ITU-T standards defining CWDM, the book addresses the three essential component classes, optical fibers, transceivers, and WDM filters, which combine to form the basis for the CWDM transmission link. The following chapters include coverage of different architectures such as hubbed rings and meshed networks, and upgrade paths to overcome limitations of current CWDM systems. The book outlines the feasibility of optically amplified CWDM systems, investigates the challenges present with high-speed CWDM and bidirectional transmission, and finally elucidates the importance of CWDM for a wide range of applications.
Each chapter provides sufficient information to be used independently and contains references to relevant papers and articles for further study. The last sections of the book focus on applications and case studies where CWDM plays an ever-increasing role. They include extensive studies on networking, reach extension by amplification, and the latest concepts of transmission capacity upgrades using increased bit-rates or new channel plans. Filled with practical information, the book provides a clear understanding of recent developments in the dynamic field of CWDM.
• complete answer keys
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Author Sal Cangeloso shows you the working parts of a “simple” LED bulb and explains the challenges electronics companies face as they push LED lighting into the mainstream. You’ll learn how you can use LEDs now, and why solid state lighting will bring dramatic changes in the near future.Explore the drivers, phosphors, and integrated circuits in a typical LED bulb Understand the challenges in producing LED bulbs with acceptable brightness, color temperature, and power consumption Learn about non-bulb LED applications, including lamps, street lights, and signage Discover the market forces driving—and impeding—the adoption of LED lighting Compare LEDs to compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and electron-stimulated luminescence (ESL) bulbs Gaze into the future of intelligent lighting, including networked lighting systems
GO-TO Telescopes Under Suburban Skies provides literally hundreds more targets beyond those offered by the built-in ‘nightly tours’ that feature on the telescope’s computer handset (a feature incorporated by most manufacturers). Although most ‘go-to’ telescopes have enormous databases of objects they can find – usually running into tens of thousands – the tours (that’s suggested objects to look at) are always very limited. Once you’ve seen the planets and bright objects that the computer suggests, you’re on your own...
This new book answers the question, ‘What shall I observe next?’ in a way that is unique to ‘go-to’ telescopes. Unlike all existing books on deep sky observing, GO-TO Telescopes Under Suburban Skies doesn't waste space on RA/Dec co-ordinates or Star Maps and Finder Charts for suggested objects. It is designed expressly to be used alongside a ‘go-to’ telescope, using the NGC and SAO menus on the computer handset to quickly slew the telescope to each new target. This is unique, and makes the book much more information-rich than other observing guides.
Targets are arranged by season to maximise the chances of a given object being visible at the time of observing, and then are divided into four categories: three deep sky categories of increasing difficulty, and then one category of stars that covers things like coloured stars, multiple stars, and loose clusters/streams. The reader can quickly turn to the relevant season, and then work through the list of objects.
All existing books about practical deep-sky observing are biased towards non-‘go-to’ telescope owners and usually assume large-aperture instruments and/or dark, rural or desert skies. This book makes the more realistic assumption that the amateur astronomer has a relatively small telescope and is observing from a backyard in a suburban area.
Instead of devoting page after page to maps and co-ordinates, GO-TO Telescopes Under Suburban Skies leaves the computer to locate targets by using NGC and SAO catalog numbers, and so has the space to suggest many more fascinating deep-sky targets and provide detailed observing lists and information about what's being viewed.
Fiber Optic Essentials provides professionals and students new to the field of fiber optics with a high-level knowledge of principles, theories and applications. This primer can also be used as a succinct overview of optics for those with some engineering and physics background. Individuals involved with optics in non-traditional capacities such as in marketing and legal departments will find this volume introduces basic concepts completely in an easy to read format.
Casimer and Carolyn DeCusatis have provided a concise resource with compact chapters and minimal equations conveying this complex topic in a straightforward and clear-cut style. Included in this book are chapters on fibers, cables, connectors, transmitters, modulators, noise, and optical link design. Concluding this reference are three indispensable appendices covering extensive definitions, acronyms (including initials and commonly used slang), measurement conversions and physical constants. This author team has produced a book that has truly shed light on this difficult subject.Comprehensively covers basic fiber optic 'facts'Explains how optics relate to everyday lifeDetails fiber optic communication standardsChapter included on medical applicationsTimeline traces the history of optics with major milestones
The first chapter outlines the evolution of DSCs, their basic structure, and their major application classes. The next few chapters discuss high-quality optics that meet the requirements of better image sensors, the basic functions and performance parameters of image sensors, and detailed discussions of both CCD and CMOS image sensors. The book then discusses how color theory affects the uses of DSCs, presents basic image processing and camera control algorithms and examples of advanced image processing algorithms, explores the architecture and required performance of signal processing engines, and explains how to evaluate image quality for each component described. The book closes with a look at future technologies and the challenges that must be overcome to realize them.
With contributions from many active DSC experts, Image Sensors and Image Processing for Digital Still Cameras offers unparalleled real-world coverage and opens wide the door for future innovation.
Handbook of Optical Metrology: Principles and Applicationsbegins by discussing key principles and techniques before exploring practical applications of optical metrology. Designed to provide beginners with an introduction to optical metrology without sacrificing academic rigor, this comprehensive text: Covers fundamentals of light sources, lenses, prisms, and mirrors, as well as optoelectronic sensors, optical devices, and optomechanical elements Addresses interferometry, holography, and speckle methods and applications Explains Moiré metrology and the optical heterodyne measurement method Delves into the specifics of diffraction, scattering, polarization, and near-field optics Considers applications for measuring length and size, displacement, straightness and parallelism, flatness, and three-dimensional shapes
This new Second Edition is fully revised to reflect the latest developments. It also includes four new chapters—nearly 100 pages—on optical coherence tomography for industrial applications, interference microscopy for surface structure analysis, noncontact dimensional and profile metrology by video measurement, and optical metrology in manufacturing technology.