This practical guide presents a systematic, ongoing process for collecting information, making decisions, and taking action in order to improve instruction and raise student achievement. The authors illustrate a collaborative inquiry-action cycle within a real-world context and offer questions and exercises to guide individual reflection and group discussion. Thoroughly grounded in research, this book helps administrators:Identify areas for instructional improvement Determine community-supported solutions and build stakeholder commitment Articulate an action plan based on multiple data sources Take steps that support teacher development Systematically evaluate program results
Book Features:A focus on important special education legal issues occurring in schools today. Field-tested lesson plans that can be adopted by schools nationwide because they are based on federal law. Everything needed to teach the lessons, including materials, scripts, interactive activities, and discussion questions. Measurable objectives and assessments to ensure the participants have learned the intended content of the lesson.
“School boards spend far too much money on special education litigation—funds that could better be used to provide educational services to children. This book provides a workable framework for school administrators to give their staff the knowledge needed to make legally-correct decisions and avoid costly litigation.”
—Allan Osborne, Former Principal, Snug Harbor Community School, Quincy, MA
Morally compelling moments demand a reflexivity (‘research praxis’) – that is, informed action, the back-and-forth between reasoning and action. Methodological wisdom emerges during the cyclical process of inquiry that is doing, thinking about the doing through a moral lens, and doing again. This book invites us to deepen our understanding of everyday ethics, and contributes to the ongoing discourse about research as moral practice, conducted by such reflexive practitioners.
This book was originally published as a special issue of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education.
This invaluable resource brings to life the process of making and enacting educational policy. The authors present a conceptual framework for developing effective and ethical school policies and help educational leaders evaluate, interpret, and analyze the regulations that govern their schools. Organized by key topics such as English Language Learners, inclusion, and bullying, the text incorporates vignettes, research, and relevant theories to illustrate how readers can:Create a dialogue that represents the needs of all stakeholders Define relevant policies that are ethically sound Integrate legally mandated policies with schoolwide resolutions
Darling-Hammond is the Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, a chief education advisor to President Obama, Co-Director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education, and Founding Director of the School Redesign Network at Stanford.
Teamwork is crucial to the success of any business, and as acclaimed author and speaker Ron Clark illustrates, the members of any team are the key to unlocking success. Imagine a company as a bus filled with people who either help or hinder a team’s ability to move it forward: drivers (who steer the organization), runners (who consistently go above and beyond for the good of the organization), joggers (who do their jobs without pushing themselves), walkers (who are just getting pulled along), and riders (who hinder success and drag the team down). It’s the team leader’s job to recognize how members fall into these categories, encourage them to keep the “bus” moving by working together, and know when it’s time to kick the riders off.
In the tradition of Who Moved My Cheese? and Fish!, Move Your Bus is an accessible and uplifting business parable that illustrates Clark’s expert strategies to maximize the performance of each member of a team. These easy to implement techniques will inspire employees and team leaders alike to work harder and smarter and drive the organization to succeed.
The Essential 55 will be the perfect book for parents and teachers to slip into their own backpacks, to read on the train or at lunch, and to highlight the sections that resonate for them. And with an author who is truly a partner in getting his message to the masses, we just can't lose.
Digital leadership is a strategic mindset and set of behaviors that leverages resources to create a meaningful, transparent, and engaging school culture. It takes into account recent changes such as ubiquitous connectivity, open-source technology, mobile devices, and personalization to dramatically shift how schools have been run and structured for over a century. Leading in education becomes exponentially powerful when using technology to your advantage.
Eric Sheninger—“Principal Twitter”—shares his Pillars of Digital Leadership to help readers
The time is now, whether you are a building level or teacher leader, to boldly move schools forward in the digital age.
Ken Robinson is one of the world’s most influential voices in education, and his 2006 TED Talk on the subject is the most viewed in the organization’s history. Now, the internationally recognized leader on creativity and human potential focuses on one of the most critical issues of our time: how to transform the nation’s troubled educational system. At a time when standardized testing businesses are raking in huge profits, when many schools are struggling, and students and educators everywhere are suffering under the strain, Robinson points the way forward. He argues for an end to our outmoded industrial educational system and proposes a highly personalized, organic approach that draws on today’s unprecedented technological and professional resources to engage all students, develop their love of learning, and enable them to face the real challenges of the twenty-first century. Filled with anecdotes, observations and recommendations from professionals on the front line of transformative education, case histories, and groundbreaking research—and written with Robinson’s trademark wit and engaging style—Creative Schools will inspire teachers, parents, and policy makers alike to rethink the real nature and purpose of education.
* "Culture-busting" strategies to help teachers adopt positive attitudes, outlooks, and behaviors;
* A framework for pinpointing the type of culture you have, the type that you want, and the actions you need to take to bridge the two;
* Tips for hiring, training, and retaining teachers who will actively work to improve your school's culture; and
* Instructions on how to create and implement a successful School Culture Rewiring Team.
Though often invisible to the naked eye, a school's culture influences everything that takes place under its roof. Whether your school is urban or rural, prosperous or struggling, School Culture Rewired is the ultimate guide to making sure that the culture in your school is guided first and foremost by what's best for your students.
“There is nothing as practical as a good theory, experts often say. Complex Instruction is surely one terrific theory, and Designing Groupwork is certainly one terrific book.”
—From the Foreword by Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education, Stanford University
“Hugely respectful, this book doesn’t simply tell educators what to do, but explains why and how their practice of groupwork can be both deeply educative and powerfully equitable.”
—Jeannie Oakes, director, Educational Opportunity and Scholarship, Ford Foundation, and Presidential Professor Emerita, UCLA
“Designing Groupwork has become a well-thumbed mainstay on teachers’ and teacher educators’ book shelves. The new edition updates a classic text for those who want both theory and practice on using this tool for daily lessons in diverse classrooms.”
—Larry Cuban, Professor Emeritus of Education, Stanford University
“One of the most useful and well-researched books on the topic. One of the best resources for teachers seeking to build communities of learners within their classroom walls. Designing Groupwork has earned its place in the library of anyone seeking to create high-achieving, equitable classrooms.”
—Horace (of second edition)
In this book, Susan E. Chase examines these contradictory experiences of power and subjection, drawing on interviews with professional women of various ethnic and racial backgrounds who head schools in rural, small-town, and urban districts across the United States. Chase focuses on the tension, implicit in the language these women use, between ostensibly gender- and race-neutral discourse about professional work and contentious, gendered, and racialized discourse about inequality. Through close analysis of their stories of success, she shows how these women have developed a range of narrative strategies for articulating and coping with their ambiguous empowerment.
Innovative in conception and interdisciplinary in approach, this study contributes to our understanding of how general social processes--the reproduction of culture, the construction of self-understandings--are embodied in the everyday practice of storytelling. It also invites us to listen in new ways to what professional women have to say about their lives.
Aimed at all levels of school leadership, the book is for any principal, superintendent, or educator who wants to be a transformational leader. The book includes 30 video clips of top-tier leaders in action. These videos bring great schools to you, and support a deeper understanding of both the components of success and how it looks as a whole. There are also many helpful rubrics, extensive professional development tools, calendars, and templates.Explores the core principles of effective leadership Author's charter school, North Star Academy in Newark, New Jersey, received the highest possible award given by the U.S. Department of Education; the National Blue Ribbon
Print version includes an instructive DVD with 30 video clips to show how it looks in real life. E-book customers: please note that details on how to access the content from the DVD may be found in the e-book Table of Contents. Please see the section: "How to Access DVD Contents"
Bambrick-Santoyo has trained more than 1,800 school leaders nationwide in his work at Uncommon Schools and is a recognized expert on transforming schools to achieve extraordinary results.
-Daniel H. Pink, author of DRIVE and A WHOLE NEW MIND
“Schools that Learn is a magnificent, grand book that pays equal attention to the small and the big picture - and what's more integrates them. There is no book on education change that comes close to Senge et al's sweeping and detailed treatment. Classroom, school, community, systems, citizenry---it's all there. The core message is stirring: what if we viewed schools as a means of shifting society for the better!"
-Michael Fullan, author of Change Leader and Learning Places
A new edition of the groundbreaking book that brings organizational learning and systems thinking into classrooms and schools, showing how to keep our nation’s educational system competitive in today’s world.
Revised and updated - with more than 100 pages of new material – for the first time since its initial publication in 2000 comes a new edition of the seminal work acclaimed as one of the best books ever written about education and schools.
A unique collaboration between the celebrated management thinker and Fifth Discipline author Peter Senge and a team of renowned educators and organizational change leaders, Schools that Learn describes how schools can adapt, grow, and change in the face of the demands and challenges of our society, and provides tools, techniques and references for bringing those aspirations to life.
The new revised and updated edition offers practical advice for overcoming the many challenges that face our communities and educational systems today. It shows teachers, administrators, students, parents and community members how to successfully use principles of organizational learning, including systems thinking and shared vision, to address the challenges that face our nation's schools. In a fast-changing world where school populations are increasingly diverse, children live in ever-more-complex social and media environments, standardized tests are applied as overly simplistic "quick fixes," and advances in science and technology continue to accelerate, the pressures on our educational system are inescapable. Schools That Learn offers a much-needed way to open dialogue about these problems – and provides pragmatic opportunities to transform school systems into learning organizations.
Drawing on observations and advice from more than 70 writers and experts on schools and education, this book features:
-Methods for implementing organizational learning and explanations of why they work
-Compelling stories and anecdotes from the “field” - classrooms, schools, and communities
-Charts, tables and diagrams to illustrate systems thinking and other practices
-Guiding principles for how to apply innovative practices in all types of school systems
-Individual exercises useful for both teachers and students
-Team exercises to foster communication within the classroom, school, or community group
-New essays on topics like educating for sustainability, systems thinking in the classroom, and “the great game of high school.”
-New recommendations for related books, articles, videotapes and web sites
Schools That Learn is the essential guide for anyone who cares about the future of education and keeping our nation’s schools competitive in our fast-changing world.
The author examines what it means to be an effective, caring leader who develops meaningful bonds with staff members to establish common core values. This updated edition of a bestseller demonstrates the relationship between caring leadership and moral and ethical choices and expands on the power of caring leadership to transform schools. This revised edition provides veteran and aspiring leaders with:Two new chapters on the art of caring leadership Real-world examples that illustrate what leaders encounter each day Expanded reflective exercises in each chapter
One of the nation’s leading experts on staff motivation, teacher leadership, and principal effectiveness, Todd Whitaker has written over 20 powerful books for educators of every level. Discover what you can do differently.
Different from supervisory and mentoring conversations, coaching conversations shift responsibility for instructional improvement from the school leader to the entire school community. With these proven, practical coaching-conversation techniques, school leaders can engage their school communities to work collaboratively toward total transformation. This research-based handbook helps school leaders:Develop open, reflective conversations with staff members Motivate staff Adopt new habits for working with teachers, staff, and students Utilize the power of committed listening and non-judgmental feedback Create positive changes in how people think and interact
Despite this grim prognosis, he refused to be sidelined. He endured years of grueling physical therapy, learned to walk again with the aid of a cane, graduated from college, had a successful career in the insurance and financial industry--even qualifying for Million Dollar Round Table (MDRT), a 100% commission-driven award that fewer than 8% of agents worldwide achieve yearly. Later, Scott became a world-class motivational speaker.
Vision, Mindset and Grit--three powerful words that describe Scott Burrows--will also inspire you to achieve your absolute best. This book is more than the story of Scott's determination to overcome enormous obstacles and rebuild his life. It is a testament to his intention to inspire others and help them triumph over adversity as well. He has shared his message of hope and success with audiences throughout the world and motivated them to make positive changes in their own lives.
Why do some leaders double their team’s effectiveness, while others seem to drain the energy right out of the room? Using insights gained from more than 100 interviews with school leaders, this book pinpoints the five disciplines that define how Multipliers bring out the best across their schools. By practicing these disciplines, you’ll learn how to:Attract top teachers to your school Create an intense environment that demands people’s best thinking Drive sound decisions by constructing debate and decision-making forums Give your team a sense of ownership for responsibilities and results
This inspirational resource is a must for leaders who want to connect personal values, vision, and satisfaction to life and work. In this simple, straightforward leadership coaching guide, the authors provide seven keys to gaining fulfillment in your life and work: This inspirational resource is a must for leaders who want to connect personal values, vision, and satisfaction to life and work. In this simple, straightforward leadership coaching guide, the authors provide seven keys to gaining fulfillment in your life and work: Discovering your Purpose Possessing Vision Finding Meaningful Work Energizing Relationships Creating Peace Reviewing, Renewing, and Recommitting Forming Discipline
The authors of this illuminating book identify a comprehensive set of practices and conditions that were key factors for improvement, including school leadership, the professional capacity of the faculty and staff, and a student-centered learning climate. In addition, they analyze the impact of social dynamics, including crime, critically examining the inextricable link between schools and their communities. Putting their data onto a more human scale, they also chronicle the stories of two neighboring schools with very different trajectories. The lessons gleaned from this groundbreaking study will be invaluable for anyone involved with urban education.
Educators need different kinds of supports and challenges over the different stages of their lives. Drago-Severson’s developmental model of learning-oriented school leadership draws from multiple knowledge domains to help school and district leaders understand how to support professional growth. This volume:Details four Pillar Practices for growth—teaming, providing leadership roles, collegial inquiry, and mentoring Presents research from practicing leaders across the nation Includes resources to assist you in applying this learning-oriented model to your school and school system
This hands-on guidebook explains essential statistical and assessment information to help principals make critical and sustainable choices to promote student learning. Broad-based strategies include collecting and analyzing various types of data about student achievement, professional development, allocation of resources, family involvement, and community standards. Part of theLeadership for Learning series, this resource:Supports school leaders in developing and sustaining continuous improvement Links data-based decision making with issues of accountability and shared mission and goals Includes numerous examples and cases, a glossary, school improvement template, sample forms, and data tools
The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools serves as a bridge between research and practice by providing a cohesive, proven, and usable model of effective instruction. Compatible with other professional development programs, this model shows how to apply educational and cognitive neuroscience principles into classroom settings through a pedagogical framework. The model’s six components are:
(1) Establish the emotional connection to learning
(2) Develop the physical learning environment
(3) Design the learning experience
(4) Teach for the mastery of content, skills, and concepts
(5) Teach for the extension and application of knowledge
(6) Evaluate learning
The topic of management by wandering around is not new, but the authors’ approach is fresh and timely. This current rendition based on the original work by Frase and Hetzel gives new and seasoned administrators smart, practical advice about what to do in critical school leadership circumstances. This text cites more than 20 well-constructed research studies that show how management by wandering around produces desirable outcomes, including:Higher student achievement Improved school culture Higher teacher efficacy
Topics covered include developing meeting agendas, supervising instruction, dealing with marginal teachers, and creating safe campuses.
Andy Hargreaves and Dennis Shirley present a concise framework for successful and sustainable reform that integrates teacher professionalism, community engagement, government policy, and accountability. Drawing from research on traditional methods and new findings from around the globe, the authors offer an absorbing and insightful analysis of three major efforts of the past 25 years, outline the strengths and limitations of each model, and offer a fourth way for achieving dramatic improvement built on:Six Pillars of Purpose that support change Three Principles of Professionalism that drive change Four Catalysts of Coherence that sustain change
This tenth-anniversary, second edition features eight new chapters and a revised and updated original text.
The book focuses on the why, how and what of distributed leadership by offering a practical insight into what it looks like in schools. It argues that our new system leaders are already in schools and that the main challenge is to develop them and maximise their collective capacity to make a difference. Drawing on the ‘Developing Leaders Programme’, which aimed to develop young leaders in schools, it provides practical examples and case-study evidence of distributed leadership in action. The main aims of the book are to:provide a clear account of more widely distributed leadership offer evidence about its positive impact on organisational and individual learning give case-study exemplars and practical illustrations of how it works in practice.
The book also considers the leadership of networks and the new forms of partnership schools are engaged in. It looks at how lateral capacity is built and the part distributed leadership plays in generating leadership capacity between schools. It will be of interest to headteachers, aspiring school leaders, teachers and educational professionals.
Read this book to find out why so many across the country have embraced these powerful rules.
· Set the electric tone on day one
· Teach your children how to study—don’t expect it to come naturally
· Don’t constantly stress about test scores
· Not every child deserves a cookie
· Lift up your teachers. No, really, lift them up!
· If kids like you all the time, you’re doing something wrong
· Don’t be a penny parent
Be different. Be bold. Join in.
This best-selling handbook is the definitive resource for prospective principals who want to boost student performance and demonstrate outstanding school leadership. Thoroughly updated to address the completely revamped TExES exam, this new edition details:The domains and competencies of successful school leadership The leadership philosophy on which TexES is constructed A sample test and important areas to focus on What to do in the weeks, days, and even the night before the test An extensive list of additional resources to supplement each domain
You’ll uncover how to...
Incorporate ends-based teachingto ensure that the instructional focus is on the ultimate goal of each standard and not just on the basic skills;
Encourage grappling with contentthrough structured techniques such as problem-based learning, questioning, and simulations;
Use cognitive progression,by understanding how the brain learns, to produce real results.
Harness the power of languagein all disciplines, not just in English language arts;
Build executive functionin the brain rather than focusing on academic function alone;
Increase retentionby using learning and practice activities in different ways and by differentiating instruction; and
Becomea true facilitator, not just a responder to students’ questions.
Throughout the book, you’ll find a variety of practical examples from across the curriculum, as well as "Your Turn" opportunities to help you try the ideas in your own classroom.
The future may not be easily defined, but it can be shaped by teachers who are right now preparing the next generation of world citizens.
Distributed leadership—engaging the many rather than the few in school improvement—has long been a promising theory. It’s time to make it a reality. This book shows why harnessing educators’ collective expertise leads to better student outcomes, and details the collaborative processes to make distributed leadership happen. Insights include:How to translate the research on distributed leadership into tangible results for your school Methods for building the social capital necessary for sustainable institutional change How to distribute leadership widely and wisely through professional collaboration
This expanded and thoroughly updated edition of the popular anthology contains the articles, book excerpts, and seminal reports that define and drive the field of educational leadership today. Filled with critical insights from bestselling authors, education research, and expert practitioners, this comprehensive volume features six primary areas of concern: The Principles of Leadership; Moral and Trustworthy Leadership; Culture and Change; Leadership for Learning; Diversity and Leadership; The Future of Leadership.Offers a practical guide for timeless and current thinking on educational leadership Includes works by Peter Senge and Tom Sergiovanni From Jossey-Bass publishers, a noted leader in the fields of education and leadership
This important resource includes relevant and up-to-date articles for leaders today on gender, diversity, global perspectives, standards/testing, e-learning/technology, and community organizing.
This book was written as a stand-alone graduate textbook and serves as a guide and support for creating and managing quality school leader internship programs. It provides step-by-step guidance for interns, their supervisors, and their faculty on how to initiate an internship and evaluate interns' work.
In this updated third edition, the authors have aligned the internship to the revised ISLLC standards, making this book critical for the over 500 leadership preparation programs nationwide and the thousands of school districts that support leadership candidates.
Including over one hundred stimulating activities incorporating storytelling, theater, writing, visual arts, music, and movement, this detailed guide uses the Creative Community Model to:Bridge gaps and unite people across generations and culturesBuild vibrant, creative learning communities with youth and/or adultsFully engage participants and volunteersDevelop social and emotional intelligenceTake a deeper, more meaningful approach to learning
Drawing on nearly two decades of experience providing transformative programs to empower youth and adults across North America and around the world, Catch the Fire is a powerful and valuable resource and a much-needed reminder that art is for everyone!
Peggy Taylor and Charlie Murphy are co-founders of PYE Global: Partners for Youth Empowerment and developers of the Creative Community Model, a process for building creative, heart-centered learning communities with youth and adults from diverse cultures and socio-economic backgrounds. Peggy is co-author of Chop Wood, Carry Water: A Guide to Finding Spiritual Fulfillment in Everyday Life which sold over 250,000 copies worldwide.
“Reimagining school and creating more schools like the iSchool must be our highest national priority. All students need to graduate from high school and college ‘innovation-ready,’ as well as prepared for the complex challenges of continuous learning and citizenship in the 21st century. Time is running short. I urge you to read this book with urgency.”
—From the Foreword by Tony Wagner, expert in residence at the Harvard University Innovation Lab, founder and co-director of the Change Leadership Group at the Harvard Graduate School of Education
"Public education mistakenly relies on a 19-century model to teach kids in the 21st century. Moss Brown and Berger decided to change this by opening the iSchool in New York City and creating a whole new approach to how schools work. They succeeded wildly, and having walked the walk, they now talk the talk so others can follow on the trail they blazed.”
—Joel Klein, former Chancellor of the New York City Department of Education (2002–2011)
“Those who strive to create or transform a school will learn much from the shining example of these two fearless principals. As learning contexts change with the rising tides of technology, Moss and Berger focus above all on human and intellectual growth in schools. Their NYC iSchool offers hope for increasing imagination, equity, and depth in the face of the gathering storm of standardization.”
—Kathleen Cushman, co-founder of What Kids Can Do and author ofThe Motivation Equation
“Moss Brown and Berger launched one of the first schools to blend personalized instruction and community-connected engaging projects. Anyone interested in a picture of next-generation learning and the inside story of creating a great school should read this book.”
—Tom Van der Ark, CEO of Getting Smart
Mary Moss Brown and Alisa Berger are the founding co-principals of the NYC iSchool and are currently working as the founding partners in Novare Schools, a consulting group that focuses on school leader coaching, school design, innovation, and transformation.
Whether you are a teacher or school leader, you will come away from this book with step-by-step advice and fresh ideas to try immediately. Being a connected educator has never been easier or more important than it is right now!
The time has come to change the context of school leadership!
The role of the principal is pivotal to systemic school change. That is the fundamental message in The Moral Imperative of School Leadership, which extends the discussion begun in Fullan's earlier publication, What’s Worth Fighting for in the Principalship? The author examines the moral purpose of school leadership and its critical role in "changing the context" in which the role is embedded. In this bold step forward, Fullan calls for principals to become agents as well as beneficiaries of the processes of school change. Concepts explored in-depth include:Why "changing the context" should be the main agenda for the principalship Why barriers to the principalship exist Why the principal should be seen as the COO (chief operating officer) of a school Why the role of the principal should figure more prominently within the system
To succeed in the global economy, students need to function as entrepreneurs: resourceful, flexible and creative. Researcher and Professor Yong Zhao unlocks the secrets to cultivating independent thinkers who are willing and able to create jobs and contribute positively to the globalized society. This book shows how teachers, administrators and even parents can:Understand the entrepreneurial spirit and harness it Foster student autonomy and leadership Champion inventive learners with necessary resources Develop global partners and resources
Blended is the practical field guide for implementing blended learning techniques in K-12 classrooms. A follow-up to the bestseller Disrupting Class by Clayton M. Christensen, Michael Horn, and Curtis Johnson, this hands-on guide expands upon the blended learning ideas presented in that book to provide practical implementation guidance for educators seeking to incorporate online learning with traditional classroom time. Readers will find a step-by-step framework upon which to build a more student-centered system, along with essential advice that provides the expertise necessary to build the next generation of K-12 learning environments. Leaders, teachers, and other stakeholders will gain valuable insight into the process of using online learning to the greatest benefit of students, while avoiding missteps and potential pitfalls.
If online learning has not already rocked your local school, it will soon. Blended learning is one of the hottest trends in education right now, and educators are clamoring for "how-to" guidance. Blended answers the call by providing detailed information about the strategy, design, and implementation of a successful blended learning program.Discover a useful framework for implementing blended learning Unlock the benefits and mitigate the risks of online learning Find answers to the most commonly asked questions surrounding blended learning Create a more student-centered system that functions as a positive force across grade levels
Educators who loved the ideas presented in Disrupting Class now have a field guide to making it work in a real-world school, with expert advice for making the transition smoother for students, parents, and teachers alike. For educational leaders seeking more student-centered schools, Blended provides the definitive roadmap.
This book is about "teacherpreneurs"—highly accomplished classroom teachers who blur the lines of distinction between those who teach in schools and those who lead them. These teacherpreneurs embody the concept that teachers can teach as well as lead the transformation of teaching and learning. It’s about empowering expert teachers who can buoy the image of teaching and enforce standards among their ranks while all along making sure that their colleagues as well as education policymakers and the public know what works best for students.
The book follows a small group of teacherpreneurs in their first year. We join their journey toward becoming teacher leaders whose work is not defined by administrative fiat, but by their knowledge of students and drive to influence policies that allow them and their colleagues to teach more effectively. The authors trace the teacherpreneurs' steps—and their own—in the effort to determine what it means to define and execute the concept of "teacherpreneurism" in the face of tough demands and resistant organizational structures.