With the reform and opening up of the Chinese economy and progress in structural transition of Mongolia and the Russian Federation, new opportunities for economic cooperation among the North-East Asian countries are expected to increase. It is essential that an appropriate transport and logistics system including adequate maritime shipping and port services be developed to facilitate the efficient and safe flow of trade within the region. This study reviews recent development of shipping and ports in North-East Asia and identifies bottlenecks to shipping and port development in the subregion.
The advent of the ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (QMS) and the ISO 14000 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) standards has meant significant changes to the international business environment, in terms adopting sustainable practices in international trade. This study was designed by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to serve as a training guide for businesses in the ESCAP region on the implementation and functioning of EMS and QMS standards.
This publication contains comprehensive information on numerous facets of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) such as country profiles, projects, investment climate and opportunities, foreign investment procedures and customs, regulatory framework, support networks, travel, accommodations and more. Designed to stimulate interest in and attract investors to the region, the information is presented in the context of regional opportunities and strategies as opposed to individual countries. Also included are tables and figures demonstrating information such as exports and imports, GDP growth and foreign investments. As a result of the recent economic crisis in Asia, the last chapter in the book explores the key concepts of competitiveness and how firms in the subregion should respond to the emerging business challenges and trends. Countries in the GMS include Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province in China.
This publication contains papers presented at two seminars, held in Bangkok in June 2003, to discuss trade issues in the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, in relation to the Doha Development Agenda. Topics discussed include: proposals by the WTO, US and EU for agricultural reform, market access in industrial products, service sector negotiations, investment issues, WTO competition policy and developing countries, transparency in government procurement, trade facilitation, WTO accession, development strategies and experiences from the ESCAP region.
"Asia now has 71 per cent of the global population that is without access to improved sanitation and 58 per cent of those without access to safe drinking water. In the coming decades, a growing population and increased urbanization requires Asian countries to build the water, energy, waste management, and transport infrastructure that will support their needs. At the same time, "Green Growth" calls for continued economic growth while ensuring that resources are used sustainably. Yet, environmental infrastructure is insufficient, and as a result, environmental carrying capacities throughout the region are being overwhelmed. Many countries in Asia often face challenges of developing sustainable infrastructure due to institutional, technological, and financial insufficiency. What are the fundamental and essential factors to facilitate and accelerate this shift towards Green Growth? As home to some of the world's fastest growing economies, one of the most important issues for the region's policy makers to consider is that of sustainable infrastructure. New innovations and the incorporation of eco-efficient principles into the infrastructure development process play a critical role in improving environmental sustainability."--Provided by publisher.
This report focuses on the Building e-Community Centres for Rural Development Workshop co-organized by UNESCAP and Asian Development Bank Institute. which examined the various issues related to Community e-Centres in the Asia and the Pacific region. The purpose is to share good practices and provide models for successful development and operation of these centres. The first part of the book contains the conference proceedings, whilst the second part consists of country reports
A vast amount of data is available on the mineral resources of North-East Asia. A large number of institutes, universities and research organizations as well as national geological surveys are utilizing this data for purposes of mineral resources development, planning and management. However, there has been a long-standing need to make this data more accessible and better organized so that up-to-date maps of geologic and mineral resources can be generated efficiently and economically. This publication includes the studies and country papers presented at the Workshop on the Application of Geographic Information Systems for Mineral Resource Assessment in North-East Asia held at Changchun, China in May 1999. This workshop was a first step in promoting integrated mineral resource development in the North-East Asia sub-region. It will be a useful resource to relevant government entities, decision makers as well as other multinational and regional development agencies. This publication will also be use to geoscientists interested in the application of GIS for the assessment of mineral resources.
This study explores the current state of regional co-operation in the Asia-Pacific region, and the development policy challenges involved in managing the effects of increasing globalisation. It focuses on four key areas of trade, finance, transport and information and communications technology (ICT). Issues discussed include: whether the EU can provide an integration model for the region; regional co-operation arrangements such as ASEAN and SAARC; as well as a number of recent initiatives including the growing array of preferential trade agreements, the Asian Bond Market proposals; the Digital Solidarity Agenda; the Asian Highway; and the Trans-Asian railway.
This publication identifies a core set of illustrative and practical indicators on reproductive health in order to assess, monitor and evaluate reproductive health programmes, categorised in terms of input, process, output and process. Drawing on work previously undertaken in this area, the indicators, given with examples where possible, seek to provide useful tool for planners, policy makers and researchers involved in the implementation of reproductive health programmes at the national and sub-national levels.
This Study contains an update of the original "Report on Regional Needs and Recommendations: Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) on the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia". The Study aims to guide the policy and programming of the Fund as well as other initiatives in this area of work. There has been significant progress in particular in establishment of tsunami watch provider services in several countries in the region. Most initiatives to develop tsunami warning in the region have been adopting a multi-hazard approach, together with other related hazards. In this regard, early warning can be considered an important form of climate change adaptation, since climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters.
The Asian and Pacific region has some of the world's toughest laws against drug abuse and drug trafficking, yet drug use amongst young people is increasing, with the starting age as low as 12 years old in some countries. Issued jointly by UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and UN Office on Drugs and Crime, this publication examines how to plan and deliver effective treatment and rehabilitation programmes for adolescent substance users. Sections consider: treatment approaches to youth drug use, analysis of risk and protective factors, examples of successful intervention, treatment and aftercare programmes, and implications for programme development.
With folded geological map in back pocket (scale 1: 500 000). Timor-Leste was formerly known as East Timor
Several years following its breakout in mid-1997, the impact and devastating consequences of the regional economic crisis still linger on. In response to this crisis, the affected countries set up social safety nets to cushion the impact of the shock on their people. However, as experience shows, social safety nets could not be conjured from thin air. This publication is a summary of case studies conducted in 1999 with the aim of strengthening policies and programmes on social safety nets in the region, including the conceptualization and planning process. These case studies were conducted on four countries: Indonesia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. It is hoped that the studies and recommendations will provide inspiration and stimulus to all the member countries of ESCAP to establish social safety nets for the protection of their people from the devastations of any crisis that might strike in the years ahead.
First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Many nations have developed an e-government strategy, and are rapidly expanding the use of ICT in governance by establishing online public services and digital collaboration between government ministries. However, successful implementation of e-government remains a challenge. The Regional Workshop on Designing E-government for the Poor assisted the participants to gain a better understanding of e-government, and build capacity for the planning and implementing e-government for the poor. The Workshop was intended to assist the participants in defining priorities and specific actions for progressing to e-government. Some of the topics addressed at this Workshop included: e-government programmes for the poor; re-engineering internal processes of government/public administration; factors critical to the successful implementation of e-government including e-training of government officials; stakeholder participation in e-government projects; building community and government leadership; and security and privacy issues in e-government.
The principal policy issues and challenges facing the region over the next 12 months are concerned with the course of oil prices, the threat of global external payment imbalances unwinding precipitously, the impact of higher interest rates and the potential for the avian influenza to develop into a human pandemic. Longer-term issues relate to the ongoing challenge of poverty reduction, utilizing the benefits of home remittances to simultaneously improve social indicators and macroeconomic fundamentals, and re-energizing the trade liberalization agenda following the Sixth World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference, held in Hong Kong, China, in December 2005. Publishing Agency: United Nations (UN).
The Monterrey Consensus underscores the central role of international trade as well as private capital flows as engines for development. These articles provide analyses into the role of trade and investments and their interlinkages to financing for development in Asia and the Pacific. Special attention is given to the potential of the Doha Development Agenda and of regional trade agreements, special problems of least developed countries and the phase-out of quota-restrictions in textiles and clothing.
This publication is based on the project "Capacity-building of ESCAP member states for managing globalization". Country studies on Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan brought out the salient features, issues and problems of the globalization process. They also contain various proposals for the promotion of further economic restructuring and policy reforms including a detailed assessment markets and trade; investments; financial institutions and human resources development. Country specific conditions and circumstances; progress and remaining agenda of policy reform were also reviewed at length.
This third annual issue of the Technical Cooperation Yearbook reports on the contribution of ESCAP in assisting countries in Asia and the Pacific to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In recognition of the efforts underway to align the work of the United Nations system and that of its development partners towards the achievement of the MDGs by member States, the focus of this issue is 'partnerships'.
The Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2009 analyzes how three global crises of 2008 Great Recession in developed countries, food and fuel price volatility and climate change - threaten the development in the Asia-Pacific region. The publication also talks about subregional variations in performance and policy responses. It concludes with converging crises and redirecting policies to achieve inclusive and sustainable development, and summarizes the ways to move forward from crisis resilience to crisis resistance.
This publication contains examples of good practice, including case studies from China, India, Malaysia, Nepal and Thailand, relating to initiatives to expand ICT infrastructure capacity to promote access to ICT for all rural and poor people within the countries of the Asia and Pacific region. These case studies include descriptions of appropriate technology, financial mechanisms, related ICT policies and the role of key stakeholders.
In the ESCAP region, the urban population is expected to reach 2.23 billion by 2020, constituting 55 per cent of the region's total projected population and making it the largest urban population in the world. As rapid urbanization is expected to continue it offers both opportunities for, and challenges to local, national and regional socio-economic and environmental sustainability. This publication highlights international programmes which provide practical tools and instruments for capacity building at the city level, disseminate information on specific local initiatives and practices, and offer platforms for inter-city cooperation. Publishing Agency: United Nations (UN).
This issue of the Social policy paper series presents three papers. The first of these focuses on the progress made and constraints encountered in the regional implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration, adopted at the World Summit for Social Development; and the Agenda for Action on Social Development in the Agenda for Action in the ESCAP region. The second paper describes current approaches in defining the concepts of pvoerty and vulnerability, particularly in the context of development assistance programmes. The third and final paper discusses promoting social protection and some strategic options. It provides a brief description of the current approaches to social protection in the context of reducing poverty and vulnerability.
Liberalization of maritime services under WTO/GATS, implementation of IMO standards on maritime training and certification, the need for harmonization of regulations related to maritime policies and prevention of HIV/AIDS in the seafarer industry were among the topics covered in the proceedings of the forum. Country reports and technical papers as well as deliberations and recommendations are included in this Report.
Effective debt management has become an important issue in many developing countries and emerging market economies, particularly since the international debt crisis of 1982. This manual gives an in-depth overview and analysis of key areas of debt management including risk management, debt sustainability analysis and debt restructuring. It also highlights some best, practices for debt managers. Publishing Agency: United Nations (UN).
The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was held in Cairo in 1994, during which 179 states adopted the Programme of Action on population and development. This landmark 20-year strategy highlighted the integral linkages between population, development and poverty, focusing on the reproductive needs of individual men and women rather than on achieving broad demographic targets. It also recognised the need to empower women and an important end in itself and as a key to improve overall quality of life. One of the major goals of the Programme of Action is to make family planning services universally available as part of a broader approach to reproductive health and rights.
In the current international environment characterized by globalization and regionalization, transport and logistics system integration is a perquisite for countries to maintain competitiveness and has become a key factor for sustained employment creation and economic growth. The present study summarizes the major findings of a project that aims to assist the countries in North-East Asia in promoting an integrated approach to international transport and logistics planning and policy formulation.
An ICT-enabled procurement system and government adoption of e-commerce can transform business processes between the suppliers in the private sector and the Government. E-procurement promotes greater accountability of the Government, increases efficiency and cost-effectiveness and enables equal access to the public sector market. Developing countries can use e-procurement as a tool to achieve better governance and enhance economic development. The International Conference on E-procurement assisted the participants to gain a better understanding of e-procurement and e-government, and build capacity for the planning and implementing of an e-procurement system. The workshop was intended to assist the participants in defining priorities and specific actions for progressing to e-procurement. Some of the topics addressed at this conference included: re-engineering internal processes of government/public administration, factors critical to the successful implementation of e-procurement including e-training of government officials; stakeholder participation in e-government projects; building community and government leadership; and security and privacy issues in e-procurement. Participants were required to submit a proposal for implementing e-procurement in their countries, which could potentially be executed.
This study offers a pragmatic way to assist the Greater Mekong Subregion countries to define and determine their requirements for shaping e-business legislation and address such complex issues as: contract validity and enforceability; jurisdiction; privacy; consumer protection; security of transactions; intellectual property; and online fraud.
The present volume of Development Papers addresses the subjects of poverty alleviation and income and employment generation in selected Asian Countries. It is based on country assessment studies carried under the project on "Strengthening income and employment generation for vulnerable population groups in Central Asian countries during economic transition".--Publisher's description.
In the climate of great political uncertainty and economic slowdown, countries may be tempted to turn inwards by erecting protectionist barriers. Yet, there could not be a more important time to ensure that the openness of the world trading system is safeguarded and promoted. This compendium of papers considers some of the issues and promotes a greater understanding, which should lead to enhanced policy decision-making for a strengthened multilateral trading system and a peaceful future.
The objective of Electric Power in Asia and the Pacific is to assist planners and decision makers in countries and areas of the region by making available comparative information on economic, social and environmental aspects of the region's electric power sectors, including information on stakeholders in the countries in support of network- and partnership-building. The information included in this publication pertains to the years 2001 and 2002. The first part of the publication contains an analysis and overview of electric power development at the regional level considering electricity generation and consumption, electric power generating capacity, access to electricity, electricity prices, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with power generation. Selected statistical tables on fuel consumption, system losses, renewable energy capacity, export/import of electricity, and stand-alone units are also provided for some countries. The second part of the publication contains country or area profiles with information on energy sector development, major achievements, challenges, and stakeholders in the electricity sector.
This report contains background papers prepared for the fifth Asian and Pacific Population Conference, held in Bangkok in December 2002, organised by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and the UN Population Fund, focusing on the links between population, poverty and development, fertility levels and trends, trends in population ageing and policy responses.
Gender mainstreaming was established as a global strategy for the promotion of gender equality and women's rights at the 4th World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995. This publication contains the proceedings of the first regional symposium on gender streamlining, organised by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) at Bangkok in December 2001. Issues discussed include: poverty alleviation and the empowerment of women, institutional change and gender equality, government policy development, and educational issues.
The objectives of the study is to collect and analyse existing information on, child sexual abuse and child sexual exploitation; to identify common health problems and needs of sexually abused and exploited children. It explores the range of services available and the capacities and potential of the different agencies to provide these services. It describes the situation in five countries of South Asia: Bangladesh; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka.
E-government is now a central theme in information society at all levels: local, national, regional and even global. It can be defined as a transformation of public-sector internal and external relationships through use of information and communication technology (ICT) to promote greater accountability of the Government, increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness and create a greater constituency participation. Countries of the Asian and Pacific region engage in e-government, as they provide cost-effective government-related information via Web sites and most have already developed a national e-government strategy. This Regional Workshop on Implementing E-government was organized to prepare the countries in the Asian and Pacific region to take up this challenge and/or assist them to improve their e-government programmes.
This publication is based on the discussions of an expert group meeting, held in November 2002, which considered issues relating to the promotion of greater end-use energy efficiency in in the Asia and Pacific region, in support of a sustainable energy future. The meeting drew a number of conclusions (focusing on the four major energy-intensive sectors of industry, road transport, construction and buildings, and domestic electrical appliances) which will inform future policy development.
Long distance road transport workers are vulnerable to an array of health risks, including HIV/ AIDS. This report gives a detailed overview of the Health without Borders project, which aims to improve the health of long-distance transport workers by strengthening understanding of the health concerns of the target group., implementing interventions and advancing relevant policy framework.