Polymer

An Updated Edition of the Classic Text

Polymers constitute the basis for the plastics, rubber, adhesives, fiber, and coating industries. The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Physical Polymer Science acknowledges the industrial success of polymers and the advancements made in the field while continuing to deliver the comprehensive introduction to polymer science that made its predecessors classic texts.

The Fourth Edition continues its coverage of amorphous and crystalline materials, glass transitions, rubber elasticity, and mechanical behavior, and offers updated discussions of polymer blends, composites, and interfaces, as well as such basics as molecular weight determination. Thus, interrelationships among molecular structure, morphology, and mechanical behavior of polymers continue to provide much of the value of the book.

Newly introduced topics include:
* Nanocomposites, including carbon nanotubes and exfoliated montmorillonite clays
* The structure, motions, and functions of DNA and proteins, as well as the interfaces of polymeric biomaterials with living organisms
* The glass transition behavior of nano-thin plastic films

In addition, new sections have been included on fire retardancy, friction and wear, optical tweezers, and more.

Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, Fourth Edition provides both an essential introduction to the field as well as an entry point to the latest research and developments in polymer science and engineering, making it an indispensable text for chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, and polymer science and engineering students and professionals.
Structure formation in crystallizing polymers, as occurring during processing, has not been treated so far in a coherent form. This fact explains, why this monograph is written as the ?rst book devoted to this subject. A quarter of a century ago the underdevelopment of this subject was obvious. Trial and error dominated. In fact, other apposite subjects as polymer melt rheology or heat transfer, had reached high levels. A great number of books has been devoted to them. Mold ?lling of amorphous polymers and the solidi?cation of these polymers by vitri?cation can nowadays be simulated numerically with a high degree of accuracy. In the solidi?ed sample even residual stresses and corresponding birefringence effects can accurately be 1 calculated . However, semicrystalline polymers, which form the majority of industrial po- mers, have been excluded from these considerations for good reasons. In fact, great uncertainties existed about the formation of quality determining crystalline str- tures. In particular, polyole?ns suffered from this shortcoming. In 1983 this fact instigated the polymer research group at the Johannes Kepler University in Linz to start with pertinent activities. The urgency of this kind of studies becomes evident, if advantages and hitches of these polymers are considered. 1. Versatility of processing: Injection molding into a great variety of shapes and sizes, from thin walled beakers to garden chairs, not to forget pipe and pro?le extrusion, cable coating, ?ber spinning, ?lm blowing. 2. Product qualities: Ductility, low density, good electric insulation, corrosion resistance, surface quality.
This revised and updated Second Edition of Polymer Synthesis II continues in the tradition of Volume I in presenting detailed laboratory instructions for the preparation of various polymers. Each chapter is organized by functional groups, and each chapter not only presents preparative methods, but also includes a brief introductory summary, reviews of the very latest journal articles and patents, and safety hazards and precautions. Procedures have been chosen on the basis of safety considerations and ease of being carried out with standard laboratory equipment. This comprehensive treatment of each polymer group makes Polymer Synthesis II an indispensable guide for industrial and academic chemists as well as for students in the field.

Key Features
* This revised edition:
* Covers each polymer class, heavily referencing these with patent literature to illustrate commercial applications
* Provides new and updated information for each functional group, including:
* Curing agents for epoxy resins
* Polymerization of vinyl ethers and copolymers
* Polyvinyl silfides
* Polymerization of vinyl pyrrolidone and copolymers
* Features expanded data tables and updated references
* Presents numerous citations to new catalysts for each polymer preparation involving ureas
* Includes a new section--Complex Formulation--involving the preparation of polyacrylic acid and its copolymers
* Contains many new preparations, including:
* Preparation of t-butyl acrylate copolymers using the Teyssie Method
* Template polymerization of vinylimidazole on polymethacrylic acid
* Polymerization of aqueous acrylic acid using AIBN
* Preparation of polyketals by transketalization
* Copolymerization of maleic anhydride with ethyl vinyl ether
* Complex and template polymerizations
Extensively revised and updated to keep abreast of recent advances, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide a broad-based, high-information text at an introductory, reader-friendly level that illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of polymer science. Adding or amending roughly 50% of the material, this new edition strengthens its aim to contribute a comprehensive treatment by offering a wide and balanced selection of topics across all aspects of the chemistry and physics of polymer science, from synthesis and physical properties to applications.

Although the basics of polymer science remain unchanged, significant discoveries in the area of control over molecular weight, macromolecular structure and architecture, and the consequent ability to prepare materials with specific properties receive extensive mention in the third edition. Expanded chapters include controlled radical polymerizations, metallocene chemistry, and the preparation of block and graft copolymers, as well as multiarmed and dendritic structures. Reflecting the growth of polymer applications in industry, the book presents detailed examples to illustrate polymer use in electronic, biological, and medical settings. The authors introduce new understandings of rheological behavior and replace old and outmoded methods of polymer characterization with new and up-to-date techniques. Also new to this edition are a series of problems at the end of each chapter that will test whether the reader has understood the various points and in some cases expand on that knowledge. An accompanying solutions manual is also available for qualifying course adoptions.

Offering the highest quality, comprehensive coverage of polymer science in an affordable, accessible format, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide undergraduate and graduate students and professors with the most complete and current coverage of modern polymer science.
Successful characterization of polymer systems is one of the most important objectives of today's experimental research of polymers. Considering the tremendous scientific, technological, and economic importance of polymeric materials, not only for today's applications but for the industry of the 21st century, it is impossible to overestimate the usefulness of experimental techniques in this field. Since the chemical, pharmaceutical, medical, and agricultural industries, as well as many others, depend on this progress to an enormous degree, it is critical to be as efficient, precise, and cost-effective in our empirical understanding of the performance of polymer systems as possible. This presupposes our proficiency with, and understanding of, the most widely used experimental methods and techniques.
This book is designed to fulfill the requirements of scientists and engineers who wish to be able to carry out experimental research in polymers using modern methods. Each chapter describes the principle of the respective method, as well as the detailed procedures of experiments with examples of actual applications. Thus, readers will be able to apply the concepts as described in the book to their own experiments.
Addresses the most important practical techniques for experimental research in the growing field of polymer scienceThe first well-documented presentation of the experimental methods in one consolidated sourceCovers principles, practical techniques, and actual examplesCan be used as a handbook or lab manual for both students and researchersPresents ideas and methods from an international perspectiveTechniques addressed in this volume include: Light ScatteringNeutron Scattering and X-Ray ScatteringFluorescence SpectroscopyNMR on PolymersRheologyGel Experiments
With their broad range of properties, polymer blends are widely used in adhesion, colloidal stability, the design of composite and biocompatible materials, and other areas. As the science and technology of polymer blends advances, an increasing number of polymer blend systems and applications continue to be developed. Functional Polymer Blends: Synthesis, Properties, and Performance presents the latest synthesis and characterization methodologies for generating polymer blend systems. This one-stop resource brings together both experimental and theoretical material, much of which has previously only been available in research papers.

Featuring contributions by eminent international experts, the book:

Reviews polymer blend systems Details miscibility enhancements in polymer blends through multiple hydrogen binding interactions Presents the component dynamics in polymer blend systems Discusses concepts of shape memory polymer blends Considers ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) copolymer toughened polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends Provides theoretical insights through molecular dynamics simulation studies for binary blend miscibility Reports on the conformation and topology of cyclic linear polymer blends (CLBs) Addresses strain hardening in polymer blends with fibril morphology Explores the modification of polymer blends by irradiation techniques Examines the directed assembly of polymer blends using nanopatterned chemical surfaces

Combining background and advanced information on technologies, methods, and applications, this practical reference is a must-have for researchers and industry professionals as well as students in materials science, chemistry, and chemical and surface engineering.

In this data book, both conventional Py-GC/MS where thermal energy alone is used to cause fragmentation of given polymeric materials and reactive Py-GC/MS in the presence of organic alkaline for condensation polymers are compiled. Before going into detailed presentation of the data, however, acquiring a firm grip on the proper understanding about the situation of Py-GC/MS would promote better utilization of the following pyrolysis data for various polymers samples.

This book incorporates recent technological advances in analytical pyrolysis methods especially useful for the characterization of 163 typical synthetic polymers. The book briefly reviews the instrumentation available in advanced analytical pyrolysis, and offers guidance to perform effectually this technique combining with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Main contents are comprehensive sample pyrograms, thermograms, identification tables, and representative mass spectra (MS) of pyrolyzates for synthetic polymers. This edition also highlights thermally-assisted hydrolysis and methylation technique effectively applied to 33 basic condensation polymers.

Coverage of Py-GC/MS data of conventional pyrograms and thermograms of basic 163 kinds of synthetic polymers together with MS and retention index data for pyrolyzates, enabling a quick identificationAdditional coverage of the pyrograms and their related data for 33 basic condensation polymers obtained by the thermally-assisted hydrolysis and methylation techniqueAll compiled data measured under the same experimental conditions for pyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to facilitate peak identificationSurveyable instant information on two facing pages dedicated to the whole data of a given polymer sample
Emphasis is on a broad description of the general methods and processes for the synthesis, modification and characterization of macromolecules. These more fundamental chapters will be supplemented by selected and detailed experiments. In addition to the preparative aspects, the book also gives the reader an impression on the relation of chemical constitution and morphology of Polymers to their properties, as well as on their application areas. Thus, an additional textbook will not be needed in order to understand the experiments.

The 5th edition contains numerous changes: In recent years, so-called functional polymers which have special electrical, electronic, optical and biological properties, have gained more and more in interest. This textbook was therefore supplemented by recipes which describe the synthesis of these materials in a new chapter "Functional polymers". Together with new experiments in chapter 3,4 and 5 the book now contains more than 120 recipes that describe a wide range of macromolecules.

From the reviews of recent editions:

"This is an excellent book for all polymer chemists engaged in synthesis research studies and education. It is educationally sound and has excellent laboratory synthetic examples. The fundamentals are well done for the teaching of students and references are resonably up-to-date. As in previous issues, there are sections dealing with an introduction; structure and nomenclature; methods and techniques for synthesis, characterization, processing and modification of polymers.

....The authors have noted the following changes from previous editions- a new section on correlations of structure, morphology and properties; revision and enlargement of other property and characterization procedures; additional new experiments such as controlled radical polymerization; enzymatic polymerizations; microelmulsions; and electrical conducting polymers.

This is a high quality textbook at a reasonable price and should be considered as a suitable reference for all engaged in synthetic areas of polymer research." (Eli M. Pearce, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY, USA)

This comprehensive textbook describes the synthesis, characterization and technical and engineering applications of polymers. Offering a broad and balanced introduction to the basic concepts of macromolecular chemistry and to the synthesis and physical chemistry of polymers, it is the ideal text for graduate students and advanced Masters students starting out in polymer science. Building on the basic principles of organic chemistry and thermodynamics, it provides an easily understandable and highly accessible introduction to the topic. Step by step, readers will obtain a detailed and well-founded understanding of this vibrant and increasingly important subject area at the intersection between chemistry, physics, engineering and the life sciences.Following an approach different from many other textbooks in the field, the authors, with their varying backgrounds (both from academia and industry), offer a new perspective. Starting with a clear and didactic introduction, the book discusses basic terms and sizes and shapes of polymers and macromolecules. There then follow chapters dedicated to polymers in solutions, molar mass determination, and polymers in the solid state, incl. (partially) crystalline or amorphous polymers as well as their application as engineering materials. Based on this information, the authors explain the most important polymerization methods and techniques. Often neglected in other textbooks, there are chapters on technical polymers, functional polymers, elastomers and liquid crystalline polymers, as well as polymers and the environment. An overview of current trends serves to generate further interest in present and future developments in the field.This book is the English translation of the successful German textbook "Polymere", which was awarded the Chemical Industry in Germany’s 2015 literature Prize (“Literaturpreis des Fonds der Chemischen Industrie”) for its innovative, novel approach, and its good accessibility and readability, while at the same time providing comprehensive coverage of the field of polymer science.
Natural polymers, such as proteins, starch, cellulose, hevea rubber, and gum which have been available for centuries, have been applied as materials for food, leather, sizings, fibers, structures, waterproofing, and coatings. During the past century, the use of both natural and syn thetic polymers has been expanded to include more intricate applications, such as membranes, foams, medicinals, conductors, insulators, fibers, films, packaging and applications requiring high modulus at elevated temperatures. The topics in this symposium which are summarized in this book are illustrative of some of the myriad applications of these ubiquitous mater ials. As stated in forecast in the last chapter in this book, it is cer tain that revolutionary applications of polymers will occur during the next decades. Hopefully, information presented in other chapters in this book will catalyze some of these anticipated applications. It is appropriate that these reports were presented at an American Chemical Society Polymer Science and Engineering Division Award Symposium honoring Dr. O.A. Battista who has gratifying to note that Phillips Pet roleum Company, which has paved the way in applications of many new poly mers, is the sponsor of this important award. We are all cheerfully expressing our thanks to this corporate spon sor and to Distinguished Professor Raymond B. Seymour of the University of Southern Mississippi who served as the organizer of this symposium and editor of this important book.
Very few polymer mechanics problems are solved with only pen and paper today, and virtually all academic research and industrial work relies heavily on finite element simulations and specialized computer software. Introducing and demonstrating the utility of computational tools and simulations, Mechanics of Solid Polymers provides a modern view of how solid polymers behave, how they can be experimentally characterized, and how to predict their behavior in different load environments.

Reflecting the significant progress made in the understanding of polymer behaviour over the last two decades, this book will discuss recent developments and compare them to classical theories. The book shows how best to make use of commercially available finite element software to solve polymer mechanics problems, introducing readers to the current state of the art in predicting failure using a combination of experiment and computational techniques. Case studies and example Matlab code are also included.

As industry and academia are increasingly reliant on advanced computational mechanics software to implement sophisticated constitutive models – and authoritative information is hard to find in one place - this book provides engineers with what they need to know to make best use of the technology available.

Helps professionals deploy the latest experimental polymer testing methods to assess suitability for applicationsDiscusses material models for different polymer typesShows how to best make use of available finite element software to model polymer behaviour, and includes case studies and example code to help engineers and researchers apply it to their work
Polymer nanocomposites revolutionized research in the composites area by achieving the nanoscale dispersion of the inorganic filler (clay platelets) in the polymer matrices after suitable surface modifications of the filler phase. A large number of polymer matrices were tried and nanocomposites with varying degrees of successes were achieved with these polymer systems. The majority of the synthesis are carried out by melt blending which frequently result in the full exfoliation of the filler. However, advanced techniques provide a number of advantages as compared to the melt blending and lead to more uniform composites with enhanced properties. There are a number of recent advances in these methods such as the use of reactive surfactants, modified initiators, advanced clay surface modifications, use of a variety of fillers, inverse polymerization, and miniemulsion polymerization methods which have further led the generation of advanced exfoliated nanocomposites. Until now, most of the published research has been scattered throughout the literature. This book provides a single comprehensive source of information about one of the most important facets of polymer nanocomposites technology: synthesis in emulsion and suspension. These polymerization methods lead to the generation of the well delaminated polymer nanocomposites with a wide range of polymer matrices. This book serves as both a professional reference for experienced researchers and a valuable text for newcomers to the field. It makes the reader aware of the potential commercial use of these recent developments.
The definitive reference on the properties and applications of polyolefin blends

Polyolefins account for more than half of total plastics consumption in the world. In recent years, usage of and research on polyolefin blends have increased significantly due to new applications in medicine, packaging, and other fields and the development of novel polyolefins. With a special emphasis on nano- and micro-structures of crystals and phase morphology, Polyolefin Blends condenses and consolidates current information on polyolefins so that the reader can compare, select, and integrate a material solution. Focusing exclusively on the fundamental aspects as well as applications of polyolefin blends, this authoritative reference:
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Features an introductory chapter that serves as a guide to polyolefin blends
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Includes chapters covering formulation design, processing, characterization, modeling and simulation, engineering performance properties, and applications
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Covers polyolefin/polyolefin blends and polyolefin/non-polyolefin blends
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Discusses miscibility, phase behavior, functionalization, compatibilization, microstructure, crystallization, hierarchical morphology, and physical and mechanical properties
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Covers new research trends including in-situ reactor blending and reactive processing, such as compatibilization/functionalization in the melt
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Contains practical examples from open literature sources and commercial products

With chapters contributed by leading experts from several countries, this is a must-have reference for scientists and engineers conducting research on polyolefin blends and for professionals in medical, packaging, and other commodity fields. It is also an excellent text for graduate students studying polymer science and polymer processing.
The purpose of this publication is two-fold. In the first place it is intended to review progress in the development of practical stabilising systems for a wide range of polymers and applications. A complemen tary and ultimately more important objective is to accommodate these practical developments within the framework of antioxidant theory, since there can be little question that further major advances in the practice of stabilisation technology will only be possible on a firm mechanistic foundation. With the continual increase in the number of commercial anti oxidants and stabilisers, often functioning by mechanisms not even considered ten years ago, there is a need for a general theory which will allow the potential user to predict the performance of a particular antioxidant structure under specific practical conditions. Any such predictive tool must involve a simplified kinetic approach to inhibited oxidation and, in Chapter 1, Denisov outlines a possible mechanistic approach with the potential to predict the most useful antioxidant to use and the limits of its usefulness. In Chapter 2, Schwetlick reviews the current state of knowledge on the antioxidant mechanisms of the phosphite esters with particular emphasis on their catalytic peroxidolytic activity. Dithiophosphate v vi PREFACE derivatives show a similar behaviour but for quite different reasons and, in Chapter 3, AI-Malaika reviews information available from analytical studies, particularly using 31p_NMR spectroscopy, to elucid ate the complex chemistry that leads to the formation of the antioxidant -active agents.
Thermal analysis is an old technique. It has been neglected to some degree because developments of convenient methods of measurement have been slow and teaching of the understanding of the basics of thermal analysis is often wanting. Flexible, linear macromolecules, also not as accurately simply called polymers, make up the final, third, class of molecules which only was identified in 1920. Polymers have neverbeenfullyintegratedintothedisciplinesofscienceandengineering. Thisbook is designed to teach thermal analysis and the understanding of all materials, flexible macromolecules, as well as those of the small molecules and rigid macromolecules. The macroscopic tool of inquiry is thermal analysis, and the results are linked to microscopic molecular structure and motion. Measurements of heat and mass are the two roots of quantitative science. The macroscopic heat is connected to the microscopic atomic motion, while the macroscopic mass is linked to the microscopic atomic structure. The macroscopic unitsofmeasurementofheatandmassarethejouleandthegram,chosentobeeasily discernable by the human senses. The microscopic units of motion and structure are 12 10 the picosecond (10 seconds) and the ångstrom (10 meters), chosen to fit the atomic scales. One notes a factor of 10,000 between the two atomic units when expressed in “human” units, second and gram—with one gram being equal to one cubic centimeter when considering water. Perhaps this is the reason for the much better understanding and greater interest in the structure of materials, being closer to human experience when compared to molecular motion.
Continuing the tradition of its previous editions, the third edition of Introduction to Polymer Chemistry provides a well-rounded presentation of the principles and applications of natural, synthetic, inorganic, and organic polymers. With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this third edition offers detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, biomacromolecules, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, blends, caulks, composites, and ceramics.

Using simple fundamentals, the book demonstrates how the basic principles of one polymer group can be applied to all of the other groups. It covers reactivities, synthesis and polymerization reactions, techniques for characterization and analysis, energy absorption and thermal conductivity, physical and optical properties, and practical applications. This edition addresses environmental concerns and green polymeric materials, including biodegradable polymers and microorganisms for synthesizing materials. Case studies woven within the text illustrate various developments and the societal and scientific contexts in which these changes occurred.

Now including new material on environmental science, Introduction to Polymer Chemistry, Third Edition remains the premier book for understanding the behavior of polymers. Building on undergraduate work in foundational courses, the text fulfills the American Chemical Society Committee on Professional Training (ACS CPT) in-depth course requirement.

The 75th Anniversary Celebration of the Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering of the American Chemical Society, in 1999 sparked this third edition of Applied Polymer Science with emphasis on the developments of the last few years and a serious look at the challenges and expectations of the 21st Century.


This book is divided into six sections, each with an Associate Editor responsible for the contents with the group of Associate Editors acting as a board to interweave and interconnect various topics and to insure complete coverage. These areas represent both traditional areas and emerging areas, but always with coverage that is timely. The areas and associated chapters represent vistas where PMSE and its members have made and are continuing to make vital contributions. The authors are leaders in their fields and have graciously donated their efforts to encourage the scientists of the next 75 years to further contribute to the well being of the society in which we all live.


Synthesis, characterization, and application are three of the legs that hold up a steady table. The fourth is creativity. Each of the three strong legs are present in this book with creativity present as the authors were asked to look forward in predicting areas in need of work and potential applications. The book begins with an introductory history chapter introducing readers to PMSE. The second chapter introduces the very basic science, terms and concepts critical to polymer science and technology. Sections two, three and four focus on application areas emphasizing emerging trends and applications. Section five emphasizes the essential areas of characterization. Section six contains chapters focusing of the synthesis of the materials.

Thoroughly revised edition of the classic text on polymer processing


The Second Edition brings the classic text on polymer processing thoroughly up to date with the latest fundamental developments in polymer processing, while retaining the critically acclaimed approach of the First Edition. Readers are provided with the complete panorama of polymer processing, starting with fundamental concepts through the latest current industry practices and future directions. All the chapters have been revised and updated, and four new chapters have been added to introduce the latest developments.

Readers familiar with the First Edition will discover a host of new material, including:
* Blend and alloy microstructuring
* Twin screw-based melting and chaotic mixing mechanisms
* Reactive processing
* Devolatilization--theory, mechanisms, and industrial practice
* Compounding--theory and industrial practice
* The increasingly important role of computational fluid mechanics
* A systematic approach to machine configuration design

The Second Edition expands on the unique approach that distinguishes it from comparative texts. Rather than focus on specific processing methods, the authors assert that polymers have a similar experience in any processing machine and that these experiences can be described by a set of elementary processing steps that prepare the polymer for any of the shaping methods. On the other hand, the authors do emphasize the unique features of particular polymer processing methods and machines, including the particular elementary step and shaping mechanisms and geometrical solutions.

Replete with problem sets and a solutions manual for instructors, this textbook is recommended for undergraduate and graduate students in chemical engineering and polymer and materials engineering and science. It will also prove invaluable for industry professionals as a fundamental polymer processing analysis and synthesis reference.
Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) are used to predict molecular affinities, solubility, and solubility-related phenomena. Revised and updated throughout, Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User's Handbook, Second Edition features the three Hansen solubility parameters for over 1200 chemicals and correlations for over 400 materials including polymers, inorganic salts, and biological materials.

To update his groundbreaking handbook with the latest advances and perspectives, Charles M. Hansen has invited five renowned experts to share their work, theories, and practical applications involving HSPs. New discussions include a new statistical thermodynamics approach for confirming existing HSPs and how they fit into other thermodynamic theories for polymer solutions. Entirely new chapters examine the prediction of environmental stress cracking as well as absorption and diffusion in polymers. Highlighting recent findings on interactions with DNA, the treatment of biological materials also includes skin tissue, proteins, natural fibers, and cholesterol. The book also covers the latest applications of HSPs, such as ozone-safe “designer” solvents, protective clothing, drug delivery systems, and petroleum applications.

Presenting a comprehensive survey of the theoretical and practical aspects of HSPs, Hansen Solubility Parameters, Second Edition concludes with a detailed discussion on the necessary research, future directions, and potential applications for which HSPs can provide a useful means of prediction in areas such as biological materials, controlled release applications, nanotechnology, and self-assembly.

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