North Korea remains one of the hot spots in 21st century politics. This is one country still subscribing to the traditional Marxist ideology and unwilling to join China, Vietnam, the former Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries in pursuing an open economy based on trade and capitalist practices. The country remains poor and isolated, but has the fifth largest army in the world, and allegedly a few nuclear weapons and the ability to launch them as far as Japan. In this paper, I will make a brief analysis of North Korea’s military capabilities, including its nuclear program and its security implications in Northern Asia and the world, and discuss the characteristics of the country’s faltering economy, which serves as a limit for North Korea’s military buildup and constraints many of the country’s strategies, but probably will not collapse the regime.
Iran and its nuclear efforts have been repeatedly in the news, as well as US threats that Iran will be punished if it does not comply with UN Security Council resolutions. This state of affairs has been going on for at least a couple of years. However, during this period of time, Iran shamelessly has continued its nuclear program. The United States continues tied up in Iraq, and probably will be unable to attack Iran given the American public growing distaste with the war in Iraq. In this paper I will analyze the present situation in Iran, and raise the hypothesis that there is little that the United States can do to avoid Iran from developing one or two viable nuclear weapons by as early as 2012.
This paper assess and evaluates the ECOWAS peacekeeping efforts in West Africa, specifically its successes and failures in Liberia, Sierrra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea and Guinea Bissau, using a simplified version of the evaluative framework created by Diehl and Druckman, to accommodate for the type of data that is available for these operations. The paper demonstrates that ECOWAS failed to restore peace and security in all its peacekeeping operations and that there is a lot that the sub-regional organization has to learn to deal effectively with its own conflicts. Nigeria provided most of the financial support and troops for the operations in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Cote d’Ivoire, but decided to play a more limited role in the ECOWAS interventions in Guinea and Guinea-Bissau after being severely criticized for its hegemonic role by several ECOWAS members. ECOWAS might be able to play an important role in preserving the security of the region, but only after learning from its mistakes in past operations.
This paper discusses the border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia, the decision of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, and the difficulties that both parties are having implementing the decision. This conflict may qualify as an intractable conflict. Conflict “is a difference within a person, or between two or more people, that touches them in a significant way” (LeBaron and Pillay, 2006, p. 12). Conflict hurts the most “when their interdependence is so essential that they cannot do away with it despite the difficulties of remaining interdependent, such as for friends or lovers” (LeBaron & Pillay, 2006, p. 88). Such is the case between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
In this e-book, I will discuss the major reasons why some Arabs are so militant and angry against the West and specifically against the United States. I will try to make the point that although religion is without doubt an important reason, that there are other cultural, political and economic reasons which also are of vital importance, and which have also been mentioned by the Arabs themselves.
Since 1949, NATO’s membership has increased from 12 founding members to 28 countries today after six rounds of enlargement (NATO Enlargement, no date, p. 1). According to Article 10 of the Washington Treaty which created NATO, membership in the organization is open to any “European state in a position to further the principles of the Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic Area” (NATO, 2008, p. 2). On April 2-4, 2008 at the Bucharest Summit of NATO, the allied leaders invited Albania and Croatia to start accession talks; assured the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia that it will be invited once a solution to the issue of the country’s name has been reached with Greece because all members of the alliance have to agree before a new member is admitted (Deutsche Welle, 2008, p. 1); invited Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to start Intensified Dialogues; and agreed that Georgia and Ukraine will become members in future. This paper is an analysis of the most important players.
A synthesis of peace education and its overlapping and interrelated fields and reflections about the origins of peace education; the theoretical, conceptual and pedagogical perspectives of various strands of peace education; a historic framework of peace education; education for dismantling a culture of war; education for living with justice and compassion; education for promoting human rights and responsibilities; education for building cultural respect, reconciliation and solidarity; education for living in harmony with the earth; education for inner peace.
North Korea ranks among the world’s most centrally planned and isolated economies. The resulting economic distortions and the government’s reluctance to publicize economic data limit the amount of reliable information available. State-owned industry still produces nearly all manufacturing goods and the regime continues to emphasize heavy and military industries at the expense of light and consumer industries under the songun (military first ideology). Although the country has a Constitution and theoretically an executive, a legislative and a judiciary system, in practice the system is a one-man dictatorship, enforced through the political machinery of the only party – the Korean’s Workers’ Party – and the military elite. In the 1992-1998 massive famine may have killed as many as 10% of the population. The estimated GNP per capita in 2006 was about $ 1038, approximately the same as Honduras, Guyana, and Cameroon. However, North Korea spends 20-25% of its GNP in the military sector.
This paper makes a contribution to research on the European anti-money laundering law by analyzing the manner in which the anti-money laundering legal regime in Europe. Such regulations are not implemented with the same rigor throughout the entire European Union and that this anti-money laundering mechanism is only as strong as its implementation in the weakest Member State. It also discusses the fines imposed the governmental authorities on the banks and financial institutions for their failure to apply the anti-money laundering rules and directives and concludes that as presently implemented such fines are not having the intended effects, but resulting in the affected institutions creating reserves to pay for such fines as if it were another cost of doing business. Lastly, the paper recommends measures which the EU can use to strengthen the anti-money laundering mechanism such as increasing substantially the fines imposed on banks and financial institutions which fail to implement the regulations.
This is a collection of essays about a variety of issues in the social sciences: child abuse, child pornography, education, computers in schools, Descartes, Erasmus, Metacognition, Skinner, health care in Latin American nations, Public relations in the public sector, Racism and Sociobiology, The challenges of delivering online courses for populations in poverty, the family in Russian literature, the Hmong population in Minnesota, Psi and Zen Budhism, diplomacy's changes in the last century, how do markets work, real competition in the different cases of monopolies, reflections about the Constitution of Liberty, Reflections of the Ambassador of a Small Country, among others.
This is a study about the multiple efforts made throughout the years to eliminate the study of evolution in American public schools and how after being unsuccessful with this strategy then attempted to give equal time to the so-called intelligent design pseudo theory.
This paper will discuss the military build-up of China, the issues that could potentially lead the U.S. and China into a military confrontation in the future and whether the U.S. should be prepared for this eventuality. First, the paper will review, discuss and synthesize the writings of some scholars who have written about these issues. Second, the paper will analyze these findings and third, make some concluding comments and recommendations.
This ebook contains two essays: One is about how the American Indians in the United States have been able to maintain their cultures and traditions in a predominantly non-Indian world. The second essay is about the importance of land in the relations between the American Indians and the Europeans in North America
In 1975, 15 of the 16 countries in West Africa got together and formed the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) with a long list of laudable economic goals for the region. In this e-book, I will briefly describe this economic regional organization and the main assumptions which led to its creation; discuss this region’s economy and its successful and unsuccessful attempts at economic integration, offer an unbiased evaluation of the organization so far, and speculate about its future.
This is a collection of essays about topics in international politics, among others Avoiding Nuclear Terrorism, What is the likelihood of a nuclear attack against the United States in the next decade?, Hezbollah abandoning terrorism, neoimperialism, the water issue in the Middle East, democratic peace, neoimperialism and others.
Probably no other contemporary war since Vietnam has been more controversial than the recent invasion of Iraq in March 2003 by a US-led coalition. The coalition was formed by some 40 nations, although the only countries that provided troops in addition to the United States and the United Kingdom were Australia, Poland and Denmark, and six of the members of the coalition were such small countries that they did not have an army. This ‘Coalition of the willing’ invaded Iraq on the mistaken belief that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction and was helping terrorist organizations including Al Qaeda. The Coalition also argued that Iraq was terrorizing its population and that the invasion would bring democracy to Iraq and eventually to the Middle East. In this paper, the invasion of Iraq is analyzed according to the principles of the just war doctrine.
Since China destroyed one of its own satellites in January 2007 with a kinetic kill missile, there has been concerns about how much threat the present development of the Chinese space program represents for the United States. To answer this question, this paper makes an analysis of the history and present capabilities of the People's Republic of China, compares the Chinese space program with the US, and evaluates the specific threat of the Chinese antiballistic missile systems. The Chinese space program will then be put in perspective by comparing it to NASA, and the Chinese future space plans are appraised. Finally, the declared position of China is considered and its collaboration with international partners is discussed. The author concludes that the Chinese threat has been exaggerated and recommends cooperation between the US and China.