Derivative

Derivative with a New Parameter: Theory, Methods and Applications discusses the first application of the local derivative that was done by Newton for general physics, and later for other areas of the sciences.

The book starts off by giving a history of derivatives, from Newton to Caputo. It then goes on to introduce the new parameters for the local derivative, including its definition and properties. Additional topics define beta-Laplace transforms, beta-Sumudu transforms, and beta-Fourier transforms, including their properties, and then go on to describe the method for partial differential with the beta derivatives.

Subsequent sections give examples on how local derivatives with a new parameter can be used to model different applications, such as groundwater flow and different diseases. The book gives an introduction to the newly-established local derivative with new parameters, along with their integral transforms and applications, also including great examples on how it can be used in epidemiology and groundwater studies.

  • Introduce the new parameters for the local derivative, including its definition and properties
  • Provides examples on how local derivatives with a new parameter can be used to model different applications, such as groundwater flow and different diseases
  • Includes definitions of beta-Laplace transforms, beta-Sumudu transforms, and beta-Fourier transforms, their properties, and methods for partial differential using beta derivatives
  • Explains how the new parameter can be used in multiple methods
Derivatives are everywhere in the modern world and it is important for everyone in banking, investment and finance to have a good understanding of the subject. Derivatives Demystified provides a step-by-step guide to the subject, enabling the reader to have a solid, working understanding of key derivative products.

Adopting a highly accessible approach, the author explains derivative products in straightforward terms and without the complex mathematics that underlie the subject, focusing on practical applications, case studies and examples of how the products are used to solve real-world problems. Derivatives Demystified follows a sequence that is designed to show that, although there are many applications of derivatives, there are only a small number of basic building blocks, namely forwards and futures, swaps and options. The book shows how each building block is applied to different markets and to the solution of various risk management and trading problems.

This new edition will be fully revised to reflect the many changes the derivatives markets have seen over the last three years. New material will include a comprehensive history of derivatives, leading up to their use and abuse in the current credit crisis. It will also feature new chapters on regulation and control of derivatives, commodity derivatives, credit derivatives and structured products and new derivative markets including inflation linked and insurance linked products.

Derivatives Demystified is essential reading for everyone who operates in the financial markets or within the corporate environment who requires a good understanding of these important financial instruments.

A clear, practical guide to working effectively with derivative securities products

Derivatives Essentials is an accessible, yet detailed guide to derivative securities. With an emphasis on mechanisms over formulas, this book promotes a greater understanding of the topic in a straightforward manner, using plain-English explanations. Mathematics are included, but the focus is on comprehension and the issues that matter most to practitioners—including the rights and obligations, terms and conventions, opportunities and exposures, trading, motivation, sensitivities, pricing, and valuation of each product. Coverage includes forwards, futures, options, swaps, and related products and trading strategies, with practical examples that demonstrate each concept in action. The companion website provides Excel files that illustrate pricing, valuation, sensitivities, and strategies discussed in the book, and practice and assessment questions for each chapter allow you to reinforce your learning and gauge the depth of your understanding.

Derivative securities are a complex topic with many "moving parts," but practitioners must possess a full working knowledge of these products to use them effectively. This book promotes a truly internalized understanding rather than rote memorization or strict quantitation, with clear explanations and true-to-life examples.

  • Understand the concepts behind derivative securities
  • Delve into the nature, pricing, and offset of sensitivities
  • Learn how different products are priced and valued
  • Examine trading strategies and practical examples for each product

Pricing and valuation is important, but understanding the fundamental nature of each product is critical—it gives you the power to wield them more effectively, and exploit their natural behaviors to achieve both short- and long-term market goals. Derivatives Essentials provides the clarity and practical perspective you need to master the effective use of derivative securities products.

This book is mainly devoted to finite difference numerical methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) models of pricing a wide variety of financial derivative securities. With this objective, the book is divided into two main parts.

In the first part, after an introduction concerning the basics on derivative securities, the authors explain how to establish the adequate PDE boundary value problems for different sets of derivative products (vanilla and exotic options, and interest rate derivatives). For many option problems, the analytic solutions are also derived with details. The second part is devoted to explaining and analyzing the application of finite differences techniques to the financial models stated in the first part of the book. For this, the authors recall some basics on finite difference methods, initial boundary value problems, and (having in view financial products with early exercise feature) linear complementarity and free boundary problems. In each chapter, the techniques related to these mathematical and numerical subjects are applied to a wide variety of financial products. This is a textbook for graduate students following a mathematical finance program as well as a valuable reference for those researchers working in numerical methods in financial derivatives. For this new edition, the book has been updated throughout with many new problems added. More details about numerical methods for some options, for example, Asian options with discrete sampling, are provided and the proof of solution-uniqueness of derivative security problems and the complete stability analysis of numerical methods for two-dimensional problems are added.

Review of first edition:

“...the book is highly well designed and structured as a textbook for graduate students following a mathematical finance program, which includes Black-Scholes dynamic hedging methodology to price financial derivatives. Also, it is a very valuable reference for those researchers working in numerical methods in financial derivatives, either with a more financial or mathematical background." -- MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS

This book is an outgrowth of notes compiled by the author while teaching courses for undergraduate and masters/MBA ?nance students at Washi- ton University in St. Louis and the Institut fur ̈ H ̈ ohere Studien in Vienna. At onetime,acourseinOptionsandFutureswasconsideredanadvanced?nance elective, but now such a course is nearly mandatory for any ?nance major and is an elective chosen by many non-?nance majors as well. Moreover, students are exposed to derivative securities in courses on Investments, International Finance, Risk Management, Investment Banking, Fixed Income, etc. This - pansion of education in derivative securities mirrors the increased importance of derivative securities in corporate ?nance and investment management. MBA and undergraduate courses typically (and appropriately) focus on the use of derivatives for hedging and speculating. This is su?cient for many students. However, the seller of derivatives, in addition to needing to und- standbuy-sidedemands,isconfrontedwiththeneedtopriceandhedge.Mo- over,thebuyerofderivatives,dependingonthedegreeofcompetitionbetween sellers, may very likely bene?t from some knowledge of pricing as well. It is “pricing and hedging” that is the primary focus of this book. Through lea- ing the fundamentals of pricing and hedging, students also acquire a deeper understanding of the contracts themselves. Hopefully, this book will also be of use to practitioners and for students in Masters of Financial Engineering programs and, to some extent, Ph.D. students in ?nance.
Paul Wilmott on Quantitative Finance, Second Edition provides a thoroughly updated look at derivatives and financial engineering, published in three volumes with additional CD-ROM.

Volume 1: Mathematical and Financial Foundations; Basic Theory of Derivatives; Risk and Return.
The reader is introduced to the fundamental mathematical tools and financial concepts needed to understand quantitative finance, portfolio management and derivatives. Parallels are drawn between the respectable world of investing and the not-so-respectable world of gambling.

Volume 2: Exotic Contracts and Path Dependency; Fixed Income Modeling and Derivatives; Credit Risk
In this volume the reader sees further applications of stochastic mathematics to new financial problems and different markets.

Volume 3: Advanced Topics; Numerical Methods and Programs.
In this volume the reader enters territory rarely seen in textbooks, the cutting-edge research. Numerical methods are also introduced so that the models can now all be accurately and quickly solved.

Throughout the volumes, the author has included numerous Bloomberg screen dumps to illustrate in real terms the points he raises, together with essential Visual Basic code, spreadsheet explanations of the models, the reproduction of term sheets and option classification tables. In addition to the practical orientation of the book the author himself also appears throughout the book—in cartoon form, readers will be relieved to hear—to personally highlight and explain the key sections and issues discussed.

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

"The first port of call for anyone looking to truly understand derivatives markets, appreciate the role they play within the global financial system and develop the technical knowledge to trade."
Matthew Thompson, Chief Strategy & Business Development Officer, Dubai Mercantile Exchange

"An essential read for anyone serious about understanding the impact of derivatives and technology on the global financial market."
Kevin Thorogood, Global Head, Investment Banking/Energy Trading, Thunderhead Ltd

"We have used Francesca for training on derivatives in the past. She demonstrates a passion for these markets and for learning. In a fast changing world, the combination of technical learning and practical experience that Francesca applies is helpful in keeping abreast of market developments."
Rachael Hoey, Director, Business Development, CLS


YOUR ESSENTIAL COMPANION TO THE DERIVATIVES MARKETS

Mastering Derivatives Markets provides full up-to-the-minute explanations — with worked examples and screen shots — covering the basics of options, swaps and futures across the key asset classes: rates, currency, equity, commodity and credit.

This book is relevant to anyone working within the financial markets, from the new entrant to the seasoned trader looking for updates, and to non-trading personnel working in IT, legal, compliance, risk, credit and operations.

Please note that the 'look inside' feature is currently displaying the content of Mastering Derivatives Markets Third Edition, this will be updated soon.

Mastering Derivatives Markets Fourth Edition has been completely revised and features new chapters on:

  • The most up to date thinking in the market
  • OTC clearing
  • Regulation
  • Benchmarking
  • Electronic futures trading in the FX market
  • New insights into the commodities markets
  • Carbon trading and environmental products
“Jeff’s analysis is unique, at least among academic derivatives textbooks. I would definitely use this material in my derivatives class, as I believe students would benefit from analyzing the many dimensions of Jeff’s trading strategies. I especially found the material on trading the earnings cycle and discussion of how to insure against price jumps at known events very worthwhile.”

D R . R OBERT J ENNINGS , Professor of Finance, Indiana University Kelley School of Business

“This is not just another book about options trading. The author shares a plethora of knowledge based on 20 years of trading experience and study of the financial markets. Jeff explains the myriad of complexities about options in a manner that is insightful and easy to understand. Given the growth in the options and derivatives markets over the past five years, this book is required reading for any serious investor or anyone in the financial service industries.”

M ICHAEL P. O’H ARE , Head of Mergers & Acquisitions, Oppenheimer & Co. Inc.

“Those in the know will find this book to be an excellent resource and practical guide with exciting new insights into investing and hedging with options.”

J IM M EYER , Managing Director, Sasqua Field Capital Partners LLC

“Jeff has focused everything I knew about options pricing and more through a hyper-insightful lens! This book provides a unique and practical perspective about options trading that should be required reading for professional and individual investors.”

A RTHUR T ISI , Founder and CEO, EXA Infosystems; private investor and options trader

In The Volatility Edge in Options Trading , leading options trader Jeff Augen introduces breakthrough strategies for identifying subtle price distortions that arise from changes in market volatility. Drawing on more than a decade of never-before-published research, Augen provides new analytical techniques that every experienced options trader can use to study historical price changes, mitigate risk, limit market exposure, and structure mathematically sound high-return options positions. Augen bridges the gap between pricing theory mathematics and market realities, covering topics addressed in no other options trading book. He introduces new ways to exploit the rising volatility that precedes earnings releases; trade the monthly options expiration cycle; leverage put:call price parity disruptions; understand weekend and month-end effects on bid-ask spreads; and use options on the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) as a portfolio hedge. Unlike conventional guides, The Volatility Edge in Options Trading doesn’t rely on oversimplified positional analyses: it fully reflects ongoing changes in the prices of underlying securities, market volatility, and time decay. What’s more, Augen shows how to build your own customized analytical toolset using low-cost desktop software and data sources: tools that can transform his state-of-the-art strategies into practical buy/sell guidance.

An options investment strategy that reflects the markets’ fundamental mathematical properties

Presents strategies for achieving superior returns in widely diverse market conditions

Adaptive trading: how to dynamically manage option positions, and why you must

Includes precise, proven metrics and rules for adjusting complex positions

Effectively trading the earnings and expiration cycles

Leverage price distortions related to earnings and impending options expirations

Building a state-of-the-art analytical infrastructure

Use standard desktop software and data sources to build world-class decision-making tools

In this provocative look at one of the most important events of our time, renowned scholar Arjun Appadurai argues that the economic collapse of 2008—while indeed spurred on by greed, ignorance, weak regulation, and irresponsible risk-taking—was, ultimately, a failure of language. To prove this sophisticated point, he takes us into the world of derivative finance, which has become the core of contemporary trading and the primary target of blame for the collapse and all our subsequent woes. With incisive argumentation, he analyzes this challengingly technical world, drawing on thinkers such as J. L. Austin, Marcel Mauss, and Max Weber as theoretical guides to showcase the ways language—and particular failures in it—paved the way for ruin.

Appadurai moves in four steps through his analysis. In the first, he highlights the importance of derivatives in contemporary finance, isolating them as the core technical innovation that markets have produced. In the second, he shows that derivatives are essentially written contracts about the future prices of assets—they are, crucially, a promise. Drawing on Mauss’s The Gift and Austin’s theories on linguistic performatives, Appadurai, in his third step, shows how the derivative exploits the linguistic power of the promise through the special form that money takes in finance as the most abstract form of commodity value. Finally, he pinpoints one crucial feature of derivatives (as seen in the housing market especially): that they can make promises that other promises will be broken. He then details how this feature spread contagiously through the market, snowballing into the systemic liquidity crisis that we are all too familiar with now.

With his characteristic clarity, Appadurai explains one of the most complicated—and yet absolutely central—aspects of our modern economy. He makes the critical link we have long needed to make: between the numerical force of money and the linguistic force of what we say we will do with it.
This book analyzes in depth all major derivatives debacles of the last half century including the multi-billion losses and/or bankruptcy of Metallgesellschaft (1994), Barings Bank (1995), Long Term Capital Management (1998), Amaranth (2006), Société Générale (2008) , AIG (2008) and JP Morgan-Chase (2012). It unlocks the secrets of derivatives by telling the stories of institutions which played in the derivative market and lost big. For some of these unfortunate organizations it was daring but flawed financial engineering which brought them havoc. For others it was unbridled speculation perpetrated by rogue traders whose unchecked fraud brought their house down.Should derivatives be feared 'as financial weapons of mass destruction' or hailed as financial innovations which through efficient risk transfer are truly adding to the Wealth of Nations? By presenting a factual analysis of how the malpractice of derivatives played havoc with derivative end-user and dealer institutions, a case is made for vigilance not only to market and counter-party risk but also operational risk in their use for risk management and proprietary trading. Clear and recurring lessons across the different stories in this volume call not only for a tighter but also 'smarter' control system of derivatives trading and should be of immediate interest to financial managers, bankers, traders, auditors and regulators who are directly or indirectly exposed to financial derivatives.The book groups cases by derivative category, starting with the simplest and building up to the most complex — namely, Forwards, Futures, Options and Swaps in that order, with applications in commodities, foreign exchange, stock indices and interest rates. Each chapter deals with one derivative debacle, providing a rigorous and comprehensive but non-technical elucidation of what happened.What is new in the second edition? A new chapter on JP Morgan-Chase's London Whale, an in-depth discussion of credit-default swaps, and an update of the revamped regulatory framework with Basel 2.5 and Basel III against the backdrop of the Euro crisis, along with a revised and expanded discussion of the AIG debacle.
This book provides an introduction to the mathematical modelling of real world financial markets and the rational pricing of derivatives, which is part of the theory that not only underpins modern financial practice but is a thriving area of mathematical research. The central theme is the question of how to find a fair price for a derivative; defined to be a price at which it is not possible for any trader to make a risk free profit by trading in the derivative.
To keep the mathematics as simple as possible, while explaining the basic principles, only discrete time models with a finite number of possible future scenarios are considered. The theory examines the simplest possible financial model having only one time step, where many of the fundamental ideas occur, and are easily understood. Proceeding slowly, the theory progresses to more realistic models with several stocks and multiple time steps, and includes a comprehensive treatment of incomplete models. The emphasis throughout is on clarity combined with full rigour.
The later chapters deal with more advanced topics, including how the discrete time theory is related to the famous continuous time Black-Scholes theory, and a uniquely thorough treatment of American options. The book assumes no prior knowledge of financial markets, and the mathematical prerequisites are limited to elementary linear algebra and probability. This makes it accessible to undergraduates in mathematics as well as students of other disciplines with a mathematical component. It includes numerous worked examples and exercises, making it suitable for self-study.
In Volatility and Correlation 2nd edition: The Perfect Hedger and the Fox, Rebonato looks at derivatives pricing from the angle of volatility and correlation. With both practical and theoretical applications, this is a thorough update of the highly successful Volatility & Correlation – with over 80% new or fully reworked material and is a must have both for practitioners and for students.

The new and updated material includes a critical examination of the ‘perfect-replication’ approach to derivatives pricing, with special attention given to exotic options; a thorough analysis of the role of quadratic variation in derivatives pricing and hedging; a discussion of the informational efficiency of markets in commonly-used calibration and hedging practices. Treatment of new models including Variance Gamma, displaced diffusion, stochastic volatility for interest-rate smiles and equity/FX options.

The book is split into four parts. Part I deals with a Black world without smiles, sets out the author’s ‘philosophical’ approach and covers deterministic volatility. Part II looks at smiles in equity and FX worlds. It begins with a review of relevant empirical information about smiles, and provides coverage of local-stochastic-volatility, general-stochastic-volatility, jump-diffusion and Variance-Gamma processes. Part II concludes with an important chapter that discusses if and to what extent one can dispense with an explicit specification of a model, and can directly prescribe the dynamics of the smile surface.

Part III focusses on interest rates when the volatility is deterministic. Part IV extends this setting in order to account for smiles in a financially motivated and computationally tractable manner. In this final part the author deals with CEV processes, with diffusive stochastic volatility and with Markov-chain processes.

Praise for the First Edition:

“In this book, Dr Rebonato brings his penetrating eye to bear on option pricing and hedging.... The book is a must-read for those who already know the basics of options and are looking for an edge in applying the more sophisticated approaches that have recently been developed.”
—Professor Ian Cooper, London Business School

“Volatility and correlation are at the very core of all option pricing and hedging. In this book, Riccardo Rebonato presents the subject in his characteristically elegant and simple fashion...A rare combination of intellectual insight and practical common sense.”
—Anthony Neuberger, London Business School

In his monumental 1687 work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known familiarly as the Principia, Isaac Newton laid out in mathematical terms the principles of time, force, and motion that have guided the development of modern physical science. Even after more than three centuries and the revolutions of Einsteinian relativity and quantum mechanics, Newtonian physics continues to account for many of the phenomena of the observed world, and Newtonian celestial dynamics is used to determine the orbits of our space vehicles.

This authoritative, modern translation by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, the first in more than 285 years, is based on the 1726 edition, the final revised version approved by Newton; it includes extracts from the earlier editions, corrects errors found in earlier versions, and replaces archaic English with contemporary prose and up-to-date mathematical forms.

Newton's principles describe acceleration, deceleration, and inertial movement; fluid dynamics; and the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets. A great work in itself, the Principia also revolutionized the methods of scientific investigation. It set forth the fundamental three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity, the physical principles that account for the Copernican system of the world as emended by Kepler, thus effectively ending controversy concerning the Copernican planetary system.
 
The translation-only edition of this preeminent work is truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students.
A road map for implementing quantitative financial models

Financial Derivative and Energy Market Valuation brings the application of financial models to a higher level by helping readers capture the true behavior of energy markets and related financial derivatives. The book provides readers with a range of statistical and quantitative techniques and demonstrates how to implement the presented concepts and methods in Matlab®.

Featuring an unparalleled level of detail, this unique work provides the underlying theory and various advanced topics without requiring a prior high-level understanding of mathematics or finance. In addition to a self-contained treatment of applied topics such as modern Fourier-based analysis and affine transforms, Financial Derivative and Energy Market Valuation also:

• Provides the derivation, numerical implementation, and documentation of the corresponding Matlab for each topic

• Extends seminal works developed over the last four decades to derive and utilize present-day financial models

• Shows how to use applied methods such as fast Fourier transforms to generate statistical distributions for option pricing

• Includes all Matlab code for readers wishing to replicate the figures found throughout the book

Thorough, practical, and easy to use, Financial Derivative and Energy Market Valuation is a first-rate guide for readers who want to learn how to use advanced numerical methods to implement and apply state-of-the-art financial models. The book is also ideal for graduate-level courses in quantitative finance, mathematical finance, and financial engineering.

Supercharge options analytics and hedging using the power of Python

Derivatives Analytics with Python shows you how to implement market-consistent valuation and hedging approaches using advanced financial models, efficient numerical techniques, and the powerful capabilities of the Python programming language. This unique guide offers detailed explanations of all theory, methods, and processes, giving you the background and tools necessary to value stock index options from a sound foundation. You'll find and use self-contained Python scripts and modules and learn how to apply Python to advanced data and derivatives analytics as you benefit from the 5,000+ lines of code that are provided to help you reproduce the results and graphics presented. Coverage includes market data analysis, risk-neutral valuation, Monte Carlo simulation, model calibration, valuation, and dynamic hedging, with models that exhibit stochastic volatility, jump components, stochastic short rates, and more. The companion website features all code and IPython Notebooks for immediate execution and automation.

Python is gaining ground in the derivatives analytics space, allowing institutions to quickly and efficiently deliver portfolio, trading, and risk management results. This book is the finance professional's guide to exploiting Python's capabilities for efficient and performing derivatives analytics.

  • Reproduce major stylized facts of equity and options markets yourself
  • Apply Fourier transform techniques and advanced Monte Carlo pricing
  • Calibrate advanced option pricing models to market data
  • Integrate advanced models and numeric methods to dynamically hedge options

Recent developments in the Python ecosystem enable analysts to implement analytics tasks as performing as with C or C++, but using only about one-tenth of the code or even less. Derivatives Analytics with Python — Data Analysis, Models, Simulation, Calibration and Hedging shows you what you need to know to supercharge your derivatives and risk analytics efforts.

Through the eyes of an inventor of new markets, Good Derivatives: A Story of Financial and Environmental Innovation tells the story of how financial innovation – a concept that is misunderstood and under attack - has been a positive force in the last four decades. If properly designed and regulated, these “good derivatives” can open vast possibilities to address a variety of global problems. Filled with provocative ideas, fascinating stories, and valuable lessons, it will provide both an insightful interpretation of the last forty years in capital and environmental markets and a vision of world finance for the next forty years.

As a young economist at the Chicago Board of Trade, Richard Sandor helped create interest rate futures, a development that revolutionized worldwide finance. Later, he pioneered the use of emissions trading to reduce acid rain, one of the most successful environmental programs ever. He will provide unique insights into the process of creating these new financial products. Covering successes and failures, the story describes the tireless process of inventing, educating and creating support for these new inventions in places like Chicago, New York, London, Paris and how it is unfolding today in Mumbai, Shanghai and Beijing.

The book will tell the story of the creation of the Chicago Climate Exchange and its affiliated exchanges (European Climate Exchange, Chicago Climate Futures Exchange and Tianjin Climate Exchange, located in China). The lessons learned in these markets can play a critical role in effectively addressing global climate change and other pressing environmental issues. The author argues that market-based trading systems are a far more effective means of reducing pollutants than “command-and-control”. Environmental markets may ultimately help to find solutions to issues such as rainforest destruction, water problems and biodiversity threats.

Written in an engaging, narrative style, Good Derivatives will be of interest to both practitioners and general readers who want to better understand the creative process of financial innovation. In the middle of so much distrust of markets, it is also a recipe of how transparent, well-regulated markets can be a force for good in the environmental, health, and social areas.

The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the applications of symmetry analysis to ordinary and partial differential equations. The theoretical background of physics is illustrated by modem methods of computer algebra. The presentation of the material in the book is based on Mathematica 3.0 note books. The entire printed version of this book is available on the accompanying CD. The text is presented in such a way that the reader can interact with the calculations and experiment with the models and methods. Also contained on the CD is a package called MathLie-in honor of Sophus Lie---carrying out the calculations automatically. The application of symmetry analysis to problems from physics, mathematics, and en gineering is demonstrated by many examples. The study of symmetries of differential equations is an old subject. Thanks to Sophus Lie we today have available to us important information on the behavior of differential equations. Symmetries can be used to find exact solutions. Symmetries can be applied to verify and to develop numerical schemes. They can provide conservation laws for differential equations. The theory presented here is based on Lie, containing improve ments and generalizations made by later mathematicians who rediscovered and used Lie's work. The presentation of Lie's theory in connection with Mathematica is novel and vitalizes an old theory. The extensive symbolic calculations necessary under Lie's theory are supported by MathLie, a package written in Mathematica.
Plant biotechnology is a most interesting branch for academicians and researchers in recent past. Now days, it becomes a very useful tool in agriculture and medicine and is regarded as a popular area of research especially in biological sciences because it makes an integral use of biochemistry, molecular biology and engineering sciences in order to achieve technological application of cultured tissues, cell and microbes.Plant tissue culture (PTC) refers to a technique of cultivation of plant cells and other parts on artificial nutrient medium in controlled environment under aseptic conditions. PTC requires various nutrients, pH, carbon source, gelling agent, temperature, photoperiod, humidity etc. and most importantly the judicious use of plant growth regulators. Various natural, adenine and phenyl urea derivatives are employed for the induction and proliferation of different types of explants. Several phenyl urea derivatives were evaluated and it was observed that thidiazuron (n-phenyl-N”-1,2,3- thidiazol-5-ulurea) was found to be the most active among the plant growth regulators. Thidiazuron (TDZ) was initially developed as a cotton defoliant and showed high cytokinin like activity. In some examples, its activity was 100 times more than BA in tobacco callus assay and produces more number of shoots in cultures than Zeatin and 2iP. TDZ also showed major breakthrough in tissue culture of various recalcitrant legumes and woody species. For the last two decades, number of laboratories has been working on TDZ with different aspect and number of publications has come out. To the best of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive edited volume on this particular topic. Hence th,e edited volume is a deed to consolidate the scattered information on role of TDZ in plant tissue culture and genetic manipulations that would hopefully prove informative to various researches.

Thidiazuron: From Urea Derivative to Plant Growth Regulator compiles various aspects of TDZ in Plant Tissue Culture with profitable implications. The book will provides basic material for academicians and researchers who want to initiate work in this fascinating area of research.

The book will contain 26 chapters compiled by International dignitaries and thus giving a holistic view to the edited volume.

The market for financial derivatives is far and away the largest and most powerful market in the world, and it is growing exponentially. In 1970 the yearly valuation of financial derivatives was only a few million dollars. By 1980 the sum had swollen to nearly one hundred million dollars. By 1990 it had climbed to almost one hundred billion dollars, and in 2000 it approached one hundred trillion. Created and sustained by a small number of European and American banks, corporations, and hedge funds, the derivatives market has an enormous impact on the economies of nations—particularly poorer nations—because it controls the price of money. Derivatives bought and sold by means of computer keystrokes in London and New York affect the price of food, clothing, and housing in Johannesburg, Kuala Lumpur, and Buenos Aires. Arguing that social theorists concerned with globalization must familiarize themselves with the mechanisms of a world economy based on the rapid circulation of capital, Edward LiPuma and Benjamin Lee offer a concise introduction to financial derivatives.

LiPuma and Lee explain how derivatives are essentially wagers—often on the fluctuations of national currencies—based on models that aggregate and price risk. They describe how these financial instruments are changing the face of capitalism, undermining the power of nations and perpetrating a new and less visible form of domination on postcolonial societies. As they ask: How does one know about, let alone demonstrate against, an unlisted, virtual, offshore corporation that operates in an unregulated electronic space using a secret proprietary trading strategy to buy and sell arcane financial instruments? LiPuma and Lee provide a necessary look at the obscure but consequential role of financial derivatives in the global economy.

Objectives and Audience In the past three decades, we have witnessed the phenomenal growth in the trading of ?nancial derivatives and structured products in the ?nancial markets around the globe and the surge in research on derivative pricing theory. Leading ?nancial ins- tutions are hiring graduates with a science background who can use advanced a- lytical and numerical techniques to price ?nancial derivatives and manage portfolio risks, a phenomenon coined as Rocket Science on Wall Street. There are now more than a hundred Master level degreed programs in Financial Engineering/Quantitative Finance/Computational Finance in different continents. This book is written as an - troductory textbook on derivative pricing theory for students enrolled in these degree programs. Another audience of the book may include practitioners in quantitative teams in ?nancial institutions who would like to acquire the knowledge of option pricing techniques and explore the new development in pricing models of exotic structured derivatives. The level of mathematics in this book is tailored to readers with preparation at the advanced undergraduate level of science and engineering - jors, in particular, basic pro?ciencies in probability and statistics, differential eq- tions, numerical methods, and mathematical analysis. Advance knowledge in s- chastic processes that are relevant to the martingale pricing theory, like stochastic differential calculus and theory of martingale, are introduced in this book. The cornerstones of derivative pricing theory are the Black–Scholes–Merton pricing model and the martingale pricing theory of ?nancial derivatives.
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